Search results

1 – 10 of over 22000
Article
Publication date: 11 January 2011

Guo Cheng Lv, Zi Se Wang, Li Mei Wu and Chunchun Xu

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the microstructures, slag inclusions, morphology and composition of ancient Chinese iron coins exhumed from Emei Mountain and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the microstructures, slag inclusions, morphology and composition of ancient Chinese iron coins exhumed from Emei Mountain and Baoji after 818‐966 years of being imbedded underground.

Design/methodology/approach

Metallography, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometry, X‐ray photoelectron spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were employed.

Findings

The results showed that archaeological coins exhibited characteristics of a typical hypoeutectic white cast iron, with slag inclusions of FeS strips and phosphate. Porous or hexagonal platey corrosion products were discovered on the archaeological iron coin, which were mainly identified as Fe2O3, FeOOH, Fex(OH)1−xCO3 and Fex(OH)1−xSO4. The possible corrosion mechanisms for the iron coins were discussed based on the corrosion products.

Originality/value

This study revealed the characterization of corrosion products on archaeological iron coins and may provide guidance for the preservation of archaeological iron.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 58 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1971

John A. Millar

Although iron is one of the most abundant elements in nature, anaemia due to iron deficiency is probably the world's most common nutritional disorder. It has been…

Abstract

Although iron is one of the most abundant elements in nature, anaemia due to iron deficiency is probably the world's most common nutritional disorder. It has been estimated that 20–30% of the earth's population are affected by the disease. Since an adequate supply of iron is essential for many crucial bodily functions, this paradox of “famine in the midst of plenty” is a serious national and international health problem. In this article we shall look at the various causes of iron deficiency and its consequences, at methods of treatment, and at other nutritional aspects of iron metabolism.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 71 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Article
Publication date: 1 April 2005

P. Akhter, D. Mohammad, S.D. Orfi, N. Ahmad and K. Rehman

Iron deficiency is the number one nutritional disorder in the world and is quite common in Pakistan. Iron deficiency anaemia may result from a low dietary intake…

1452

Abstract

Purpose

Iron deficiency is the number one nutritional disorder in the world and is quite common in Pakistan. Iron deficiency anaemia may result from a low dietary intake, inadequate intestinal absorption, excessive blood loss, and/or increased needs. While iron overload is also responsible of number of diseases. The normal iron status of our body is usually maintained by controlling amount of iron absorbed from food. The recommended daily allowance (RDA) for adult male and female in the age from 19 to 50 years is 8 and 18mg, respectively. While RDA above 50 years is it for both genders i.e. 8mg (NIH, 2002). Nutritional status of dietary iron was estimated to combat the iron related diseases in Pakistani population.

Design/methodology/approach

Food samples were collected from major cities/districts of the country using market basket method. Daily diets were prepared and analyzed for iron contents using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS).

Findings

An average value of iron concentration was measured to be 52±15μg/g, which leads to an average daily dietary intake of 31±9.5mg/d, with a variation of 12 to 52mg/d. The estimated values of our daily iron intake are about 2 times higher than the recommended daily allowance set by international committee of radiological protection (ICRP) and US food and nutrition board (FNB). Apparently our diet seems enriched in iron contents. But its bioavailability may be low due to dietary composition. Major portion of our diet is based on plant food (71 per cent), followed by milk products (17 per cent) and other miscellaneous items, whereas consumption of animal food is only 5 per cent. This dietary composition and our food intake habits in the presence of iron inhibiters (i.e. phytate in plant food, tannin and polyphenols in tea and calcium) could be the leading cause of iron deficiency anemia among the Pakistani population.

Originality/value

Iron deficiency anemia is quiet common and cause of concern in Pakistan. The findings of the study indicate that bioavailability of iron to Pakistani population can be enhanced/improved with slight alterations/adjustments in dietary habits.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 35 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2005

Ugur Sen, Saduman Sen and Fevzi Yilmaz

Wear behavior of boronized GGG‐80 ductile cast iron were studied against WC‐Co ball for determining the effect of boronizing time and temperature.

Abstract

Purpose

Wear behavior of boronized GGG‐80 ductile cast iron were studied against WC‐Co ball for determining the effect of boronizing time and temperature.

Design/methodology/approach

Ball on disk arrangement was used for determination of tribological properties of boronized ductile cast iron depending on process time and temperature. Boronizing treatment was performed on GGG‐80 ductile cast iron using salt bath immersion boronizing technique at 850 and 950°C for 2‐8 h. Friction and wear tests were carried out at dry test conditions under 2, 5 and 10 N loads with 2.5 m/min sliding speed.

Findings

The result showed that the friction coefficient values ranged from 0.12 to 0.2 depending on the process parameters. The higher the treatment temperature and the longer the treatment time, the thicker the boride layer, the more the FeB phase and the higher the specific wear rate became. The specific wear rate of boronized ductile cast irons depending on process time, temperature and applied load against WC‐Co ball ranged from 1.25 × 10−5 to 42.45 × 10−5 mm3/Nm. Values of coefficient of boronized ductile cast irons increases with increase in load in the wear test and increase in boronizing time and temperature.

Research limitations/implications

The study deals with only ductile cast irons and their tribological properties.

Practical implications

The results are very useful for practical applications and academic study. There is a little number of studies on the boronizing of cast irons. This study will be helpful for the researcher studied on boronizing of cast irons.

Originality/value

The properties of the tribological properties of ductile cast irons have not explained detail in the earlier study. There are new results in this study on the tribological properties of boronized ductile cast irons. Because of this, the paper is original.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 57 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1984

Iron deficiency anaemia is a relatively common problem, even in the well‐fed countries of the western world. It is not only due to a low dietary intake of iron; even when…

Abstract

Iron deficiency anaemia is a relatively common problem, even in the well‐fed countries of the western world. It is not only due to a low dietary intake of iron; even when the food appears to provide an adequate amount, absorption may be hampered by other dietary components.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 84 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2004

Tadashi Takemoto, Takashi Uetani and Morio Yamazaki

The dissolution rates of iron and alloyed steels in molten lead‐free solders were investigated in order to clarify the effect of erosion of iron plating on soldering iron

Abstract

The dissolution rates of iron and alloyed steels in molten lead‐free solders were investigated in order to clarify the effect of erosion of iron plating on soldering iron tips. The dissolution rates of iron‐based alloys in lead‐free solders were found to be about three times greater than in conventional Sn‐Pb eutectics, indicating that the iron plating of a soldering iron tip is subjected to heavier damage when used with lead‐free rather than eutectic Sn‐Pb. Several steel alloys showed dissolution rates similar to that of pure iron, suggesting that compositional changes in the iron plating may have little influence on the erosion depth. Decreases in the reaction temperature and time, and a small addition of iron into the solder was found to be effective in suppressing both dissolution of iron wire and erosion of iron plating.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 July 2010

S. Jelassi, R. Romary and J.F. Brudny

The aim of this paper is to estimate the iron losses for an induction machine in the healthy case taking the slotting effect into account and to study the effect of an…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to estimate the iron losses for an induction machine in the healthy case taking the slotting effect into account and to study the effect of an inter‐turn short‐circuit on these losses. Theoretical results are then compared with experimental ones.

Design/methodology/approach

A simple analytical model of iron losses allows one to calculate and to appreciate the contribution of the slotting effect on induction machine iron losses without and with an inter‐turn stator short‐circuit. This semi‐analytical approach is based on the iron stator and rotor flux density repartition which is deduced from the air‐gap flux density.

Findings

The iron losses are not only due to the fundamental air‐gap flux density, but also to the slotting harmonics. In fact, the slotting effect generates harmonic flux density waves with very low magnitudes but with high‐angular velocities, leading to non‐negligible harmonic iron dynamic losses which have similar values on both the stator and the rotor. The inter‐turn short‐circuit generates an iron losses and a slotting harmonic contribution increase.

Research limitations/implications

Experimental measurements give the total iron losses. They do not allow separating the fundamental and the slotting harmonics contribution.

Practical implications

The knowledge of the iron losses behaviour in the healthy machine taking into account the slotting effect is important to optimize the design. The fault contribution on these losses allows one to estimate the damage which can be engendered by the fault.

Originality/value

Generally, iron losses studies and calculations are performed numerically using finite element software. The analytical approach can be interesting because it allows one to make faster calculations and to analyze the influence of the machine geometric parameters.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 29 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 2006

Heon Lee, Heegon Moon, Semyung Wang and Kyungbae Park

Aims to discuss iron loss analysis and experimenting with linear oscillating actuator for linear compressor.

Abstract

Purpose

Aims to discuss iron loss analysis and experimenting with linear oscillating actuator for linear compressor.

Design/methodology/approach

The iron loss analysis of the linear oscillating actuator is performed by using ANSYS and iron loss curves, which is obtained by an Epstein test apparatus.

Findings

The way to calculate the iron loss of the linear oscillating actuator for the linear compressor and the method to experiment the iron loss of that can be studied.

Research limitations/implications

Iron loss analysis of the linear compressor considering the motor part and the structure part is needed.

Originality/value

Each iron loss analysis method examined here can be used to analyze the iron loss of the linear motor.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 25 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 July 2008

Rahul M. Shinde and Raymond R. Mahoney

The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of whey and whey components on the production of dialyzable non‐heme iron – an in vitro indicator of bioavailable forms of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of whey and whey components on the production of dialyzable non‐heme iron – an in vitro indicator of bioavailable forms of the mineral.

Design/methodology/approach

Whey, processed whey and whey components were mixed with ferric iron and digested in vitro with pepsin and pancreatin/bile using a dialysis bag containing bicarbonate for pH adjustment. Total and ferrous dialyzable iron were measured and compared to values from protein and non‐protein controls.

Findings

Whey produced much more dialyzable iron than egg albumin but less than deproteinized whey. Most of the iron was ferric. Whey protein concentrate was as effective as egg abumin but whey protein isolate, α‐lactalbumin and β‐lactoglobulin slightly reduced dialyzable iron formation. Milk salts produced more dialyzable iron than whey and about as much as deproteinized whey. The major component of whey producing dialyzable iron was citrate, which competes for iron chelation with the whey protein.

Originality/value

This study demonstrates that whey generates a large amount of dialyzable iron from ferric iron sources and that the iron is primarily due to chelation with citrate rather than to digestion of whey proteins. However, the effect of citrate is reduced by whey proteins.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 38 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 September 2010

Sedef Nehir El, Sibel Karakaya and Şebnem Şimşek

Iron deficiency is an important nutritional problem that affects approximately 20 percent of world's population and especially infants. The aim of this paper is to…

Abstract

Purpose

Iron deficiency is an important nutritional problem that affects approximately 20 percent of world's population and especially infants. The aim of this paper is to determine the iron bioavailability by using in vitro method in commercial infant cereals.

Design/methodology/approach

The ferrous iron dialyzability relative to total iron and phytic acid contents of six commercial infant cereals commonly consumed in Turkey were analyzed.

Findings

Dialyzable ferrous iron was determined in samples 4, 5, and 6 as 2.51 ± 0.38, 4.12 ± 1.52, and 0.50 ± 0.08 percent, respectively (p < 0.05). Phytic acid contents of the samples ranged from 118 to 161 mg/100 g. For all the samples calculated phytate:iron molar ratios were equal to or higher than 1 (ranged from 1.0 to 9.89).

Originality/value

The phytate:iron molar ratio was not found as the major inhibitory factor on iron bioavailability. Other possible factors such as type of iron fortificant and possible interactions of iron with other ingredients in the formula can affect iron bioavailability. Therefore, at the formulation step amounts of all ingredients and their proportions to each other should be considered to reach optimum iron bioavailability.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 40 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 22000