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Article

Weishan Huang, Jing-Li Luo, Hani Henein and Josiah Jordan

This paper aims to evaluate the sulfide stress cracking (SSC) resistance of L80 casing steels with different alloying chemistries (e.g. Ti-B and Mn-Cr-Mo) by correlating…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to evaluate the sulfide stress cracking (SSC) resistance of L80 casing steels with different alloying chemistries (e.g. Ti-B and Mn-Cr-Mo) by correlating the reduction in area ratio with the mechanical property, inclusion and carbide.

Design/methodology/approach

SSC tests were conducted in 5.0 Wt.% sodium chloride and 0.5 Wt.% acetic acid solution saturated with H2S using constant load tensile method. The microstructure and fracture morphology of the steel were observed using scanning electron microscope. The inclusion and carbide were identified by energy dispersive spectroscopy and auger electron microscope.

Findings

Among all the testing steels, electric resistance welding (ERW) L80-0.5Mo steel demonstrates the highest SSC resistance because of its appropriate mechanical properties, uniform microstructure and low inclusion content. The SSC resistance of L80 steels generally decreases with the rising yield strength. The fracture mode of steel with low SSC resistance is jointly dominated by transgranular and intergranular cracking, whereas that with high SSC resistance is mainly transgranular cracking. SSC is more sensitive to inclusions than carbides because the cracks are easier to be initiated from the elongated inclusions and oversized oxide inclusions, especially the inclusion clusters. Unlike the elongated carbide, globular carbide in the steel can reduce the negative effect on the SSC resistance. Especially, a uniform microstructure with fine globular carbides favors a significant improvement in SSC resistance through precluding the cracking propagation.

Originality/value

The paper provides the new insights into the improvement in SSC resistance of L80 casing steel for its application in H2S environment through optimizing its alloying compositions and microstructure.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 66 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 47 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

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Article

Luis Ricardo Jacobo, Rafael Garcia, Victor Hugo Lopez and Antonio Contreras

The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of heat treatment (HT) applied to an API X60 steel in corrosion resistance and stress corrosion cracking (SCC…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of heat treatment (HT) applied to an API X60 steel in corrosion resistance and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) susceptibility through slow strain rate tests (SSRT) in NS4 solution and congenital water (CW) to assess external and internal SCC, respectively.

Design/methodology/approach

API X60 steel was heat treated at a temperature of 1,200°C for 30 min followed by water quenching. Specimens from this steel were machined according to NACE TM 198. SSRT were performed in a constant extension rate tests (CERT) machine at room temperature at a strain rate of 1 × 10–6 s–1. For this purpose, a glass cell was used. Corrosion behavior was evaluated through polarization curves (PCs).

Findings

The SCC index obtained from SSRT indicates that the steel heat treated could be susceptible to SCC in CW and NS4 solution; the mechanism of SCC was hydrogen embrittlement. Thus, CW may promote the SCC phenomenon in pipelines. HT improves the steel corrosion resistance. Higher corrosion rate (CR) was observed when the steel is exposed to CW. The corrosion process in X60 steel shows that the oxidation reaction in the anodic branch corresponds to an activation process, and the cathode branches reveal a diffusion process.

Originality/value

The purpose of the heat treatment applied to X60 steel was to generate a microstructure of acicular ferrite to improve the corrosion resistance and SCC behavior.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 66 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

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Article

Robert S. Brown

Selecting the most suitable, cost‐efficient alloy for a given application should not be difficult if the methodology described in this paper is followed. The first step is…

Abstract

Selecting the most suitable, cost‐efficient alloy for a given application should not be difficult if the methodology described in this paper is followed. The first step is to identify those alloys with the desired corrosion resistance. Factors other than chemical composition have a bearing on an alloy’s corrosion resistance. Service environment and nature of the product application must also be considered. These conditions are discussed in the text. Consideration should be given to other key issues such as mechanical properties required as well as method of fabrication, design, condition and availability of the candidate alloy. To simplify selection, the author discusses severe corrodents and aggressive environments that are commonly encountered in the process industries, and describes the characteristics of alloys that might be considered for each type of corrosive service. Cross referenced charts position these alloys to show their relative resistance to each type of corrosion attack. While the paper is not designed to replace the technical expertise of a corrosion engineer, the author feels it can serve as a good starting point in the alloy selection process.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 46 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

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Article

Zhichao Qiu, Chunming Xiong, Zhengrong Ye, Ran Yi and Na Zhang

The purpose of this paper is to solve the tubing corrosion problem of B Block on the Right Bank of Amu Darya river sour gas field.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to solve the tubing corrosion problem of B Block on the Right Bank of Amu Darya river sour gas field.

Design/methodology/approach

By using four-point-bending method, the tubing’s ability to resist sulfide-stress cracking was tested. Simulating the wellbore corrosive environment, the corrosion inhibitor which was suitable for gas filed had been screened. According to the characteristic of Amu Darya river gas field, the corrosion monitor system had been designed.

Findings

From the feedback of wellbore corrosion monitor result, the corrosion rate was lower than 0.076 mm/a.

Originality/value

This anti-corrosion technique provides security for the development of gas field.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 66 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

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Article

M.R. Watts

The construction of the early platforms in the North Sea often stretched materials technology to its limits and sometimes beyond them. There are many instances where major…

Abstract

The construction of the early platforms in the North Sea often stretched materials technology to its limits and sometimes beyond them. There are many instances where major pumps or piping systems have had to be replaced either because the original materials were not sufficient for the duty or because the process fluids have become more corrosive during the life of the oilfield. The paper reviews the considerable work that has been carried out in recent years specially directed at developing stainless steels capable of withstanding a number of the harsh corrosion environments met on off‐shore platforms. The latest stainless steels are able to withstand all the standard seawater duties without suffering from localised pitting or crevice corrosion. Their resistance to hydrogen sulphide stress corrosion means they can cope with the most sour process fluids at present met in the North Sea.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 36 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article

H Taheri, A Dolati and Behrooz Beidokhti

This paper aims to clarify the corrosion behavior of two famous structural steels in sour environment. These steels have a vast application in oil and gas industries. The…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to clarify the corrosion behavior of two famous structural steels in sour environment. These steels have a vast application in oil and gas industries. The study aims to find the effect of different concentrations of sour solution on the origin of crack in these steels.

Design/methodology/approach

After preparation of specimens, different sour solutions were made using the synthetic brine (according to National Association of Corrosion Engineers [NACE], Technical Committee Report 1D182) and various amounts of Na2S.9H2O and CH3COOH. The polarization test was done by Potansiostat apparatus model Zahner-IM6 at two temperatures, 25°C and 50°C. The corrosion current densities were obtained from the polarization curves. Finally, the corrosion products and hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC) were investigated by Tescan Vega II XMU scanning electron microscope (SEM) linked to a Rontec energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) system.

Findings

API 5L-X70 steel showed smaller corrosion current values than A516-Gr70 steel. The HIC cracks propagated parallel to the surface of A516-Gr70 steel in three solutions and confirmed the inappropriateness of this steel for sour environment applications.

Originality/value

This paper studies the effect of sour environment on the behavior of two famous industrial steels at two temperatures by new method.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 62 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

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Article

P. O'Hara

Pre‐stressing. SURFACE EFFECTS Controlled Pre‐Stressing is the impingement on a surface of relatively small spherical particles of steel, glass or ceramic. These particles…

Abstract

Pre‐stressing. SURFACE EFFECTS Controlled Pre‐Stressing is the impingement on a surface of relatively small spherical particles of steel, glass or ceramic. These particles on impact, yield the skin and deform the surface plastically, leaving a residual compressive stress. The magnitude of that stress varies with the material being treated and the kinetic energy on impact.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 33 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article

Stuart Bond

TWI was established in 1946 as the BWRA, later The Welding Institute, and from its very outset was focused on the study of joining technology and its impact on the…

Abstract

TWI was established in 1946 as the BWRA, later The Welding Institute, and from its very outset was focused on the study of joining technology and its impact on the performance and structural integrity of components. With a staff of some 450, TWI represents a unique multidisciplinary resource, which provides expertise to over 3,000 companies worldwide. Welding can influence various factors in the performance of plant and equipment; naturally, therefore, corrosion behaviour has been a major technology for both research and consultancy at TWI for more than five decades. This article reviews some of the issues and areas of current research at TWI appropriate to pipelines.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 46 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

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Article

On November 26 and 27 last year, the Institute of Petroleum and the Society of Chemical Industry held a joint symposium in London at the Federation of British Industries…

Abstract

On November 26 and 27 last year, the Institute of Petroleum and the Society of Chemical Industry held a joint symposium in London at the Federation of British Industries. The subject of the symposium was ‘Corrosion Problems of the Petroleum Industry.’ However, the papers discussed had a much wider field of interest as is evident from the following summaries and abstracts.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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