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Article
Publication date: 2 September 2019

Faezeh Nejati and S.A. Edalatpanah

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of steel and carbon fibers on the mechanical properties of light concrete in terms of tension strength, compressive…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of steel and carbon fibers on the mechanical properties of light concrete in terms of tension strength, compressive strength and elastic modulus under completely dry and wet conditions.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, the lightweight concrete made of Light Expanded Clay Aggregate (LECA) as coarse aggregate and sand as fine aggregate was used. To achieve a compressive strength of at least 20 MPa, microsilica was used 10 percent by weight of cement. In order to compensate for the reduction of tension strength of concrete, steel and carbon fibers were used with three volume ratio of 0.5, 1 and 1.5 percent in concrete. The results of concrete specimens were studied at the age of 7, 28, 42 and 90 days under controlled dry and wet conditions.

Findings

The results showed that the addition of steel and carbon fibers to the concrete mixture would reduce the drop in slump. Also, the use of steel and carbon fibers plays a significant role in increasing the tension strength of the specimens. Furthermore, the highest increase in tension strength of steel and carbon fiber samples was 83.3 and 50 percent, respectively, than the non-fibrous specimen when evaluated at 90 days of age. Moreover, the steel and carbon fiber increased the water absorption of the samples. Adding steel and carbon fibers to a lightweight concretes mixture containing LECA aggregates plays a significant role in increasing the modulus of elasticity of the samples. The highest increase in the elastic modulus of steel and carbon fibers was 18.9 and 35.4 percent, respectively, than the non-fibrous specimen at 28 days of age.

Originality/value

In this paper, the authors investigated the mechanical properties of steel fiber and carbon reinforced concrete. Also, according to the conditions of storage of samples and the age of concrete (day), the experiments were carried out on samples.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

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Article
Publication date: 3 January 2017

Xiaochao Xian, Chenglong Nai, Lixin Li and Shuo Zhao

Immersion is one of the key steps during the preparation of silane-based hybrid films, which has important effects on the performance of films after curing. In this paper…

Abstract

Purpose

Immersion is one of the key steps during the preparation of silane-based hybrid films, which has important effects on the performance of films after curing. In this paper, the formation process of Zr-doped silane film (i.e. the adsorption of silane and deposition of zirconium compounds) on carbon steel immersed in Zr(NO3)4/silane mixed solutions was investigated.

Design/methodology/approach

The method of in situ monitoring the open circuit potential of a two-electrode system, consisting of carbon steel and saturated calomel electrode, was used. The effects of immersion conditions (i.e. the concentration of Zr(NO3)4 and pH of Zr(NO3)4/silane mixed solution) on the open circuit potential were investigated in detail. Furthermore, the surface coverage rate of different cured films (i.e. Zr cured film, silane cured film and Zr/silane composite cured film) after curing on carbon steel was calculated according to the results of polarization curves. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to study the self-healing property of Zr-doped silane cured film.

Findings

The results indicate that in Zr(NO3)4/silane mixed solutions, most zirconium compounds deposit on the surface of carbon steel at the initial immersing stage, then the adsorption of silane on the residual surface of carbon steel dominates the following immersing stage. EIS results show that the Zr-doped cured film has improved self-healing property.

Originality/value

First, the method of in situ monitoring the open-circuit potential of two-electrode system was applied to investigate the deposition of Zr and the adsorption of silane on carbon steel immersed in Zr(NO3)4/silane mixed solutions. Second, the formation process of Zr-doped silane film was proposed.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 64 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 29 April 2014

Jiayuan Hu, Shun-an Cao, Li Yin and Yang Gao

The purpose of this study was to investigate the corrosion of rusted carbon steel in dilute NaCl solution, with the purpose of exploring the effect of the rust layer on…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to investigate the corrosion of rusted carbon steel in dilute NaCl solution, with the purpose of exploring the effect of the rust layer on metal corrosion and establishing a corrosion model for rusted iron.

Design/methodology/approach

The corrosion behavior of rusted carbon steel in dilute NaCl solution was studied by means of weight-loss determinations, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectrometry and electrochemical techniques.

Findings

The results indicated that carbon steel had a similar corrosion behavior in all three NaCl solutions. The iron rust, which consisted of a thin γ-FeOOH layer and a thick Fe3O4 layer, can facilitate the corrosion process of carbon steel via reduction of γ-FeOOH and the large area cathode of Fe3O4. Hence, the corrosion rate of carbon steel was accelerated significantly and finally was determined by the limiting diffusion rate of oxygen.

Originality/value

A corrosion model of rusted carbon steel was established, suggesting that iron rust formed in all slightly acidic waters with low alkalinity probably promotes the corrosion of carbon steel. Anti-corrosion measures for iron in this type of solution, such as desalination water, should be aimed to reduce the promotional effect of the rust layer on metal corrosion.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 61 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 15 March 2013

Jiayuan Hu, Shun‐an Cao and Jianli Xie

The purpose of this paper is to explore the long‐term corrosion behavior of carbon steel in 3% NaCl solution and evaluate the effect of rust layer on the corrosion process.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the long‐term corrosion behavior of carbon steel in 3% NaCl solution and evaluate the effect of rust layer on the corrosion process.

Design/methodology/approach

The corrosion behavior of rusted carbon steel in 3% NaCl solution was studied by means of infrared spectroscopy (IR) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS).

Findings

The results indicated that the corrosion of carbon steel was affected by chloride ion in initial immersion and then controlled by the rust layer. The rust layer consisted of a thin outer layer (γ‐FeOOH layer) and a thick inner layer (Fe3O4 layer). The outer rust layer facilitated the cathodic process via reduction of γ‐FeOOH, while the inner rust layer provided a large cathode area and oxygen could be reduced on its surface. As a result, the corrosion rate of carbon steel was determined by the limiting diffusion rate of oxygen and stabilized at a high value.

Originality/value

The corrosion model of rusted carbon steel in 3% NaCl solution was established. It is probable that the iron rust in all slightly acidic water with low alkalinity can promote the corrosion process via reduction of γ‐FeOOH. Anti‐corrosion measures for iron in this type of solutions should be aimed to reduce the promoting effect of rust layer on the metal corrosion. The NaCl solution prepared from tap water is more suitable for the substitution of artificial water than that prepared from deionized water.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 60 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 22 May 2009

Sadaf Khan, M.Z.A. Rafiquee, Nidhi Saxena and M.A. Quraishi

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the inhibitive effect of azathiones, namely cyclopentyl‐tetrahydro‐azathione, cyclohexyl‐tetrahydro‐azathione and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the inhibitive effect of azathiones, namely cyclopentyl‐tetrahydro‐azathione, cyclohexyl‐tetrahydro‐azathione and isobutyl‐methyl‐tetrahydro‐azathione on the corrosion of carbon steel in formic and acetic acid solution. The effect of inhibitor concentration, immersion time, acid concentration, and solution temperature on the inhibition efficiencies of the selected azathiones were studied systematically.

Design/methodology/approach

The synthesis of inhibitor was confirmed by methods such as Fourier transform infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance studies. All inhibition experiments were conducted on carbon steel in 20 percent formic acid and 20 percent acetic acid solution. Weight loss experiments were carried out according to the American Society for Testing and Materials standard procedure. Polarization studies were carried out in a three electrode cell assembly connected to an EG&G Princeton Applied Research potentiostat/galvanostat (model 173). The electrochemical impedance technique was carried out using Zahner IM‐6 electrochemical workstation at a frequency range of 5‐100 Hz. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study was carried out using a VP LEO model no. 435 microscope for the surface characterization of inhibited and uninhibited metal surfaces.

Findings

Various thermodynamic parameters were calculated using weight loss data in order to elaborate the mechanism of corrosion inhibition. Polarization measurements revealed that the studied azathiones acted predominantly as mixed inhibitors. Electrochemical impedance measurements revealed that the compounds were adsorbed onto the carbon steel surface and the adsorption obeyed the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The SEM study showed that the inhibited metal surfaces were smoother than were uninhibited metal surfaces.

Research limitations/implications

The presence of high efficiency and low cost inhibitors is essential for protection of carbon steel. In comparison with conventional carbon steel corrosion inhibitors, these findings would be considered as a step forward in development of new corrosion inhibitor.

Originality/value

This paper reveals that azathiones can be used successfully for the protection of carbon steel surfaces exposed in acid solution.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 56 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 30 May 2019

Pramod Kumar and Amar Nath Sinha

The present research work aims to study the effect of average beam power (laser process parameters) on the overlapping factor, depth of penetration (DOP), weld bead width…

Abstract

Purpose

The present research work aims to study the effect of average beam power (laser process parameters) on the overlapping factor, depth of penetration (DOP), weld bead width, fusion zone and heat affected zone (HAZ) in laser welding of 304L and st37 steel. Back side and top surface morphology of the welded joints have also been studied for varying average beam power.

Design/methodology/approach

Laser welding of austenitic stainless steel (304L) and carbon steel (st37) was carried out using Nd:YAG laser integrated with ABB IRB 1410 robot in pulse mode. The selection of laser process parameters was based on the specification of available laser welding machine. Dissimilar laser welding of 304L and st37 carbon steel for full depth of penetration have been performed, with varying average beam power (225-510W) and constant welding speed (5mm/s) and pulse width (5ms).

Findings

Recrystallized coarse grains were observed adjacent to the fusion zone and nucleated grains were seen away from the fusion zone towards carbon steel. Overlapping factor and HAZ width st37 side increases with increase in average beam power whereas top weld bead width increases first, attains maximum value and then subsequently decreases. Bottom weld bead width increases with increase in average beam power. The mechanical properties namely microhardness and tensile strength of the welded joints have been investigated with varying average beam power.

Originality/value

In the recent development of the automobile, power generation and petrochemical industries the application of dissimilar laser welding of austenitic stainless steel (304L) and carbon steel (st37) are gaining importance. Very limited work have been reported in pulsed Nd:YAG dissimilar laser welding of austenitic stainless steel (304L) and carbon steel (st37) for investigating the effect of laser process parameters on weld bead geometry, microstructural characterization and mechanical properties of the welded joint.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1979

Joseph J. Wojtkowiak and Howard S. Bender

The phosphatability of a steel surface and, hence, the corrosion protection achieved is related to the quality of that steel surface. It is the intent of this paper to…

Abstract

The phosphatability of a steel surface and, hence, the corrosion protection achieved is related to the quality of that steel surface. It is the intent of this paper to determine what parameters of the steel surface influence phosphatability. This was done by examining the influence of steel surface roughness and contamination on zinc phosphate coating quality, and by determining the relationship of phosphate coating weight and density to the corrosion resistance of painted steel. A high correlation was found between the amount of corrosion creepback of phosphatized and painted steel substrates and the amount of organic carbon present on the surface of the steel. The carbon, analyzed by Auger Electron Spectroscopy, average approximately 50A in depth and is not removed by phosphate precleaning operations. The carbon inhibits the formation and development of phosphate coatings which are required to provide satisfactory corrosion resistance.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2006

Furen Xiao, Bo Liao, Guiying Qiao, Chunling Zhang, Yiyin Shan, Yong Zhong and Ke Yang

As an optimal microstructure of pipeline steels, acicular ferrite is widely found in steels used in oil and gas pipeline transportation because it possesses both high…

Abstract

As an optimal microstructure of pipeline steels, acicular ferrite is widely found in steels used in oil and gas pipeline transportation because it possesses both high strength and good toughness. In this paper, the microstructure of acicular ferrite and its continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagrams of six steels with different carbon and alloy additions have been studied by using dilatometry, optical metallography. And the effects of different hot deformation processes on the CCT diagrams and microstructures have also been studied. Furthermore, the effects of microalloyed elements and hot deformation on continuous cooling transformation have been discussed. The results show that lower carbon content and alloy additions such as Mn, Nb, Ti, Mo, Ni and/or Cu in steels will promote the formation of acicular ferrite. The hot deformation promotes the acicular ferrite transformation and refines the microstructures of final products.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 2 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2005

M.N. Boucherit and D. Tebib

Aims to study the behaviour of four polycrystalline carbon steels in basic pitting solutions.

Abstract

Purpose

Aims to study the behaviour of four polycrystalline carbon steels in basic pitting solutions.

Design/methodology/approach

Electrochemical investigations were carried out on four steels: Fe.06C, Fe.18C, Fe.22C and Fe.43C. The analysis was made using an X‐ray fluorescence apparatus. The performance indicator was the pitting potential, which was obtained through potentiodynamic sweeping. Emphasis was placed on the influence of the pH, chlorine concentration, phase proportions in the steel and the initial electrode surface state.

Findings

The results showed that in a solution with a low chlorine concentration, the performance of the steels according to pitting corrosion resistance decreased with the increase in carbon content. By raising the chlorine concentration, the order of performance was inverted gradually, while at a high chlorine concentration, the behaviour of the steels tended to be similar. The interpretation of the results is based on the consideration of cathodic reactions on the level of the cementite phase and the difference in the local chemical properties of the solution. In neutral solutions, pitting potentials were shifted cathodically, but the main observations developed for basic solutions remained valid.

Originality/value

Provides further research on pitting corrosion.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 52 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1969

R. Drewett

THE METHODS available for the application of chromium coatings are listed in Table 2. Until recently most chromium coatings have been applied either by electrodeposition…

Abstract

THE METHODS available for the application of chromium coatings are listed in Table 2. Until recently most chromium coatings have been applied either by electrodeposition or chemical vapour deposition. Vacuum and powder‐coating techniques are breaking through in strip‐coating, and electrodeposition has also been investigated extensively since steel, having a thin ‘flash‐coating’ of chromium, can compete successfully with tin‐plate.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 16 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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