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Article
Publication date: 9 February 2010

Mohd Fadzelly Abu Bakar, Maryati Mohamed, Asmah Rahmat, Steven A. Burr and Jeffrey R. Fry

Research on cancer chemopreventive properties of fruits has increased in recent years. Polyphenols have been suggested to exert such effects. The purpose of this paper is…

Abstract

Purpose

Research on cancer chemopreventive properties of fruits has increased in recent years. Polyphenols have been suggested to exert such effects. The purpose of this paper is to determine the cytotoxic activity of Mangifera pajang (bambangan) and Artocarpus odoratissimus (tarap) crude extracts against selected cancer cell lines (i.e. ovarian, liver and colon cancer) and to compare the amount of selected polyphenols (phenolic acids, flavanones, flavonols and flavones) in the kernel, peel and flesh of M. pajang; and the seed and flesh of A. odoratissimus.

Design/methodology/approach

Cytotoxicity activity of the extracts are investigated using MTT (3‐(4,5‐dimethylthiazol‐2‐yl)‐2,5‐diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay while polyphenols are determined using high performance liquid chromatography.

Findings

The results show that only the kernel and peel extracts from M. pajang display cytotoxic activity in liver and ovarian cancer cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 34.5 to 92.0  μg/ml. The proliferation of colon cancer cell line is inhibited only by the kernel of M. pajang with IC50 value of 63.0  μg/ml. The kernel and peel from M. pajang contains a broad range of polyphenol phytochemicals which might be responsible for the cytotoxicity activity against selected cancer cell lines.

Originality/value

Previous reports have indicated that both M. pajang and A. odoratissimus contain high antioxidant properties. This study further determines the phytochemicals profiling in both fruits, which might contribute to the antioxidant activity. Besides that, the result from this study shows that the waste of the fruits (i.e. kernel and peel) contain superior phenolic phytochemicals and display better anticancer potential compared to the flesh; suggests the use of them in health‐industry application. Utilization of all parts of the fruits (i.e. flesh, seed, kernel and peel) for the development of nutraceutical and functional food application is suggested.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 40 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 28 January 2020

Yuan-Min Lin, Hsuan Chen, Chih-Hsin Lin, Pin-Ju Huang and Shyh-Yuan Lee

The purpose of this study is to develop resin composite materials composed of polycaprolactone (PCL) acrylates and hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles for ultraviolet…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to develop resin composite materials composed of polycaprolactone (PCL) acrylates and hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles for ultraviolet digital light projection (DLP) three-dimensional (3D) printing technique.

Design/methodology/approach

Two PCL-based triacrylates, namely, glycerol-3 caprolactone-triacrylate (Gly-3CL-TA) and glycerol-6 caprolactone-triacrylate (Gly-6CL-TA) were synthesized from ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolacton monomer in the presence of glycerol and then acrylation was performed using acryloyl chloride. 3D printing resins made of Gly-3CL-TA or Gly-6CL-TA, 5% HA and 3% of photoinitiator 2,4,6-Trimethylbenzoyl-diphenyl-phosphineoxide were then formulated. The surface topography, surface element composition, flexural strength, flexural modulus, cytotoxicity and degradation of the PCL-based scaffolds were then characterized.

Findings

Resin composite composed of Gly-3CL-TA or Gly-6CL-TA and 5% (w/w) of HA can be printed by 405 nm DLP 3D printers. The former has lower viscosity and thus can form a more uniform layer-by-layer structure, while the latter exhibited a higher flexural strength and modulus after being printed. Both composite materials are non-cytotoxic and degradable.

Originality/value

This study provides a direction of the formulation of environment-friendly resin composite for DLP 3D printing. Both resin composites have huge potential in tissue engineering applications.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 26 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 22 October 2018

Sharmilla Ashokhan, Sujatha Ramasamy, Saiful Anuar Karsani, Rashidi Othman and Jamilah Syafawati Yaacob

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the content of bioactive pigments in coloured callus of Azadirachta indica and to understand the correlation between the callus…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the content of bioactive pigments in coloured callus of Azadirachta indica and to understand the correlation between the callus colours with their bioactive constituents, antioxidant properties and cytotoxicity. These assessments will yield valuable insight into the use of in vitro-derived pigments for possible use as functional natural colourants.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, the authors have successfully developed a protocol to produce leaf-derived callus of various colours with enhanced content of bioactive pigments in A. indica through plant tissue culture. Comparative analysis of the pigments content (chlorophyll, carotenoid, phenolics and anthocyanins) in the coloured callus was conducted, followed by evaluation of its bioactive properties. The antioxidant properties against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radicals, ferric reducing antioxidant power and cytotox activities of the coloured callus extracts were also reported.

Findings

Callus of various colours were successfully produced in A. indica through plant tissue culture, and their valuable pigment content and bioactivity were evaluated. The green callus contained the highest amount of anthocyanin, followed by brown and cream callus. The total anthocyanin contents in both the green and brown callus was more than two-fold higher than that in cream callus. Contrasting observation was obtained for total phenolic content (TPC), where the TPC of cream callus was significantly higher than that in brown callus. Nevertheless, the green callus also exhibited the highest TPC. Green callus also contained the highest amount of total chlorophyll and carotenoid, as well as exhibited the highest antioxidant potential, and was found to be the only extract with active cytotox activity against SKOV-3 cells. Correlation analysis revealed that the excellent bioactivity exhibited by the coloured extracts was strongly correlated with the bioactive pigments present in the callus.

Research limitations/implications

The major bioactive compounds identified in the methanolic extracts of A. indica coloured callus are anthocyanins, phenolics, chlorophylls and carotenoids. Future research work should include improvements in the extraction and identification methods, which may lead to detection and determination of other compounds that could attribute to its bioactivity, to complement the findings of the current study.

Practical implications

This analysis provides valuable information on the application of plant tissue culture as an alternative source for sustainable production of major pigments with medicinal benefits in A. indica for possible use as functional natural colourants.

Originality/value

A comparative study on bioactive pigment production in coloured callus from A. indica leaves and its antioxidant potential and cytotoxicity is original. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report detailing a comparative evaluation on the production of coloured callus in A. indica and its relative biochemical composition and bioactive properties.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 48 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 13 July 2012

Ioannis Toliopoulos, Yannis Simos, Ioannis Verginadis, Dimitrios Papandreou, Stergios Oikonomidis and Angelos Evangelou

Kefir is a probiotic grown with milk, with a slightly sour flavor and has been consumed for thousands of years. Kefir grains contain bacteria and yeast. In the past, kefir…

Abstract

Purpose

Kefir is a probiotic grown with milk, with a slightly sour flavor and has been consumed for thousands of years. Kefir grains contain bacteria and yeast. In the past, kefir was administrated as a drug against tuberculosis, cancer and gastrointestinal disorders. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the potential anticancer properties of kefir and its ability to affect natural killer cells' (NKCs') activity.

Design/methodology/approach

The assay of cytotoxic activity of NKCs by cytometric analysis was used, which included four stages: isolation of natural killers; quantification of target cells; incubation of natural killers with target cells at ratios of 12.5:1, 25:1 and 50:1 in CO2 incubator; and measurement of cells with flow cytometer. The same procedures were repeated, but the third stage was modified with the addition and incubation of 50, 75, and 100 μL kefir (of 24 hour culture with 3.5 per cent fresh milk) with K562 and leiomyosarcoma cells lines, and kefir and NK cells with K562 or LMS cell lines.

Findings

The results showed that kefir's cytotoxic activity without the presence of NKCs reached an average of 85 per cent in both cell lines. With the addition of NK cells in kefir, the cytotoxic activity further increased by 10 per cent. Kefir alone did not cause any statistically significant death in NK cells. Kefir seems to have significant cytotoxic action by itself without stimulating NK cells in a significant manner. However, further studies are needed to establish the role of kefir in the prevention and treatment of neoplasmatic diseases.

Originality/value

The paper provides information and new data, for nutritionists and clinical dietitians, about the effects of kefir in the prevention of cancer.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 42 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2021

Rudranarayan Kandi, Pulak Mohan Pandey, Misba Majood and Sujata Mohanty

This paper aims to discuss the successful fabrication of customized tubular scaffolds for tracheal tissue engineering with a novel route using solvent-based extrusion 3D printing.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to discuss the successful fabrication of customized tubular scaffolds for tracheal tissue engineering with a novel route using solvent-based extrusion 3D printing.

Design/methodology/approach

The manufacturing approach involved extrusion of polymeric ink over a rotating predefined pattern to construct customized tubular structure of polycaprolactone (PCL) and polyurethane (PU). Dimensional deviation in thickness of scaffolds were calculated for various layer thicknesses of 3D printing. Physical and chemical properties of scaffolds were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM), contact angle measurement, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Mechanical characterizations were performed, and the results were compared to the reported properties of human native trachea from previous reports. Additionally, in vitro cytotoxicity of the fabricated scaffolds was studied in terms of cell proliferation, cell adhesion and hemagglutination assay.

Findings

The developed fabrication route was flexible and accurate by printing customized tubular scaffolds of various scales. Physiochemical results showed good miscibility of PCL/PU blend, and decrease in crystalline nature of blend with the addition of PU. Preliminary mechanical assessments illustrated comparable mechanical properties with the native human trachea. Longitudinal compression test reported outstanding strength and flexibility to maintain an unobstructed lumen, necessary for the patency. Furthermore, the scaffolds were found to be biocompatible to promote cell adhesion and proliferation from the in vitro cytotoxicity results.

Practical implications

The attempt can potentially meet the demand for flexible tubular scaffolds that ease the concerns such as availability of suitable organ donors.

Originality/value

3D printing over accurate predefined templates to fabricate customized grafts gives novelty to the present method. Various customized scaffolds were compared with conventional cylindrical scaffold in terms of flexibility.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 7 July 2020

Pei Ni Chuah, Dhalini Nyanasegaram, Ke-Xin Yu, Rasny Mohamed Razik, Samer Al-Dhalli, Chin Siang Kue, Khozirah Shaari and Chean Hui Ng

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the antioxidant activity and toxicity of Clinacanthus nutans leaves from three conventional extraction methods, i.e. maceration…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the antioxidant activity and toxicity of Clinacanthus nutans leaves from three conventional extraction methods, i.e. maceration, Soxhlet and magnetic stirring.

Design/methodology/approach

Total flavonoid content (TFC) and phenolic content (TPC) were determined using colorimetric method of aluminum chloride and Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) assay, respectively. Antioxidant property of C. nutans was evaluated using 2,2'-diphenyl-1-pierylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. Cytotoxic activity of C. nutans against brine shrimp was evaluated based on LC50 (lethality concentration) after 24 h exposure to the plant extract.

Findings

The highest TPC of C. nutans was observed with Soxhlet extraction method (98.87 ± 10.43 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE/g) followed by maceration (68.77 ± 2.45 mg of GAE/g) and magnetic stirring (46.75 ± 2.45 mg of GAE/g). Interestingly, remarkable highest TFC was observed with magnetic stirring (568.90 ± 4.85 mg of rutin equivalent (RE)/g) followed by maceration (249.60 ± 2.79 mg of RE/g) and Soxhlet (174.8 ± 1.74 mg of RE/g). On the other hands, the extract obtained using maceration method showed the highest antioxidant activity (IC50: 14.18 mg/mL compared to ascorbic acid 144.36 µg/mL). Cytotoxicity of C. nutans from all extraction methods showed similar LC50 values with maceration (3.81 mg/mL), Soxhlet (2.61 mg/mL) and magnetic stirring (4.56 mg/mL), respectively.

Originality/value

Both phenolic and flavonoids are responsible for the antioxidant activity, of C. nutans extracts. Based on Meyer's toxicity index, all extracts were nontoxic (LC50>1 mg/mL).

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 122 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 22 March 2013

Phornsinee Sakchareonkeat, Tzou‐Chi Huang, Prisana Suwannaporn, Yu Hsuan Chiang, Jue Liang Hsu and Yong Han Hong

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of alginate as a vehicle to protect coenzyme Q10 in liposomes.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of alginate as a vehicle to protect coenzyme Q10 in liposomes.

Design/methodology/approach

Encapsulation efficiency and stability were conducted at varying temperatures (20, 30, 40°C) for 5 d and at exposure to simulated gastric conditions (pH 2) for 2 h. The content of coenzyme Q10 was determined using HPLC (LC/MS). Cytotoxicity and phagocytosis of mouse macrophages (RAW264.7) was determined.

Findings

Results showed that thermostability was strongly improved by alginate complex formation with liposomes. Moreover, alginate could maintain coenzyme Q10 at a significantly higher level in simulated gastric pH for at least 2 h (p<0.00).

Practical implications

This allowed a higher amount of coenzyme Q10 remaining to be absorbed in the small intestine. Alginate not only showed no toxic effect on mouse macrophages but also activated their proliferation and phagocytosis ability.

Originality/value

As a consequence, alginate could be applied as an aid to encapsulation stability and immunostimulating potency.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 43 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2021

Samuel Furka, Daniel Furka, Nitin Chandra Teja Chandra Teja Dadi, Patrik Palacka, Dominika Hromníková, Julio Ariel Dueñas Santana, Javier Díaz Pineda, Saul Dueñas Casas and Juraj Bujdák

This study aims to describe the preparation of antimicrobial material usable in 3D printing of medical devices. Despite the wealth of technological progress at the time of…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to describe the preparation of antimicrobial material usable in 3D printing of medical devices. Despite the wealth of technological progress at the time of the crisis caused by SARS-CoV-2 virus: Virus that causes current Pandemic situation (COVID-19), the global population had long been exposed beforehand to an acute absence of essential medical devices. As a response, a new type of composite materials intended for rapid prototyping, based on layered silicate saponite (Sap), antimicrobial dye phloxine B (PhB) and thermoplastics, has been recently developed.

Design/methodology/approach

Sap was modified with a cationic surfactant and subsequently functionalized with PhB. The hybrid material in powder form was then grounded with polyethylene terephthalate-glycol (PETG) or polylactic acid (PLA) in a precisely defined weight ratio and extruded into printing filaments. The stability and level of cytotoxicity of these materials in various physiological environments simulating the human body have been studied. The applicability of these materials in bacteria and a yeast-infected environment was evaluated.

Findings

Ideal content of the hybrid material, with respect to thermoplastic, was 15 weight %. Optimal printing temperature and speed, with respect to maintaining antimicrobial activity of the prepared materials, were T = 215°C at 50 mm/s for PETG/SapPhB and T = 230°C at 40 mm/s for PLA/SapPhB. 3 D-printed air filters made of these materials could keep inner air flow at 63.5% and 76.8% of the original value for the PLA/SapPhB and PETG/SapPhB, respectively, whereas the same components made without PhB had a 100% reduction of airflow.

Practical implications

The designed materials can be used for rapid prototyping of medical devices.

Originality/value

The new materials have been immediately used in the construction of an emergency lung ventilator, Q-vent, which has been used in different countries during the COVID-19 crisis.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 11 March 2014

Thittikorn Phattanaphibul, Pisut Koomsap, Irwansyah Idram and Suchart Nachaisit

This paper aims to introduce selective vacuum manufacturing (SVM), a powder-based rapid prototyping (RP) technique, and the ongoing development to improve its capability…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to introduce selective vacuum manufacturing (SVM), a powder-based rapid prototyping (RP) technique, and the ongoing development to improve its capability to apply in temporary scaffold fabrication.

Design/methodology/approach

SVM employs a combination of sand casting and powder sintering process to construct a prototype layer by layer. A dense layer of support material is prepared and selectively removed to create a cavity where part material is filled and sintered to form a solid layer. In order for SVM to be considered for scaffold fabrication, besides preparing poly-lactic acid (PLA) for part material, support material preparation and process parameters identification have been studied. Redesigning of SVM machine to be more suitable for the real usage has also been presented.

Findings

Particle size of salt has been controlled, and its suitable composition with flour and water has been determined. Process parameters have been identified to scale down the size of scaffolds to meso-scale and to achieve mechanical requirement. Properties of fabricated scaffolds have been enhanced and can be used for soft tissue applications. A prototype of the medical SVM machine has been constructed and tested. An examination of scaffolds fabricated on this new machine also showed their qualification for soft tissue application.

Research limitations/implications

Further study will be on conducting a direct cytotoxicity test to provide the evidence for tissue growth before the clinical usage, on continuing to scaling down the scaffold size, and on improving SVM to meet the requirement of hard tissue.

Originality/value

This simple, inexpensive RP technique demonstrates its viability for scaffold fabrication.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 20 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 15 July 2020

Jose Manuel Sierra, Jose Ignacio Rodríguez, Marta María Villazon, Jose Luis Cortizo and Maria del Rocio Fernandez

This paper aims to describe the development of an internal waste-collection device for patients who have undergone a colostomy or ileostomy. Its design is based on devices…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to describe the development of an internal waste-collection device for patients who have undergone a colostomy or ileostomy. Its design is based on devices that have been produced by 3D printing with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene. The aim is to find an alternative to the external bags that these patients currently use and to evaluate the properties of the device produced by additive manufacturing.

Design/methodology/approach

Software for solid modelling has been used, and virtual models allow its visualization and animation, for evaluation, in a simple and fast way. Subsequently, functional prototypes have been developed by a multidisciplinary team, which includes surgeons and engineers, and have been tested to verify their mechanical properties and suitability for function.

Findings

The project has developed a functional design that has been patented and is in the clinical trials phase. This study demonstrates how 3D printing technologies are the perfect complement to accelerate the design process and build functional prototypes at low costs. The experimental tests regarding cytotoxicity, printing orientation, dynamic and static loads and temperature resistance have demonstrated the validity of the proposed device.

Originality/value

A device for internal pouch in colostomized patients has been designed, manufactured by fused deposition modelling and validated.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 26 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

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