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Article
Publication date: 22 October 2018

Sharmilla Ashokhan, Sujatha Ramasamy, Saiful Anuar Karsani, Rashidi Othman and Jamilah Syafawati Yaacob

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the content of bioactive pigments in coloured callus of Azadirachta indica and to understand the correlation between the callus…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the content of bioactive pigments in coloured callus of Azadirachta indica and to understand the correlation between the callus colours with their bioactive constituents, antioxidant properties and cytotoxicity. These assessments will yield valuable insight into the use of in vitro-derived pigments for possible use as functional natural colourants.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, the authors have successfully developed a protocol to produce leaf-derived callus of various colours with enhanced content of bioactive pigments in A. indica through plant tissue culture. Comparative analysis of the pigments content (chlorophyll, carotenoid, phenolics and anthocyanins) in the coloured callus was conducted, followed by evaluation of its bioactive properties. The antioxidant properties against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radicals, ferric reducing antioxidant power and cytotox activities of the coloured callus extracts were also reported.

Findings

Callus of various colours were successfully produced in A. indica through plant tissue culture, and their valuable pigment content and bioactivity were evaluated. The green callus contained the highest amount of anthocyanin, followed by brown and cream callus. The total anthocyanin contents in both the green and brown callus was more than two-fold higher than that in cream callus. Contrasting observation was obtained for total phenolic content (TPC), where the TPC of cream callus was significantly higher than that in brown callus. Nevertheless, the green callus also exhibited the highest TPC. Green callus also contained the highest amount of total chlorophyll and carotenoid, as well as exhibited the highest antioxidant potential, and was found to be the only extract with active cytotox activity against SKOV-3 cells. Correlation analysis revealed that the excellent bioactivity exhibited by the coloured extracts was strongly correlated with the bioactive pigments present in the callus.

Research limitations/implications

The major bioactive compounds identified in the methanolic extracts of A. indica coloured callus are anthocyanins, phenolics, chlorophylls and carotenoids. Future research work should include improvements in the extraction and identification methods, which may lead to detection and determination of other compounds that could attribute to its bioactivity, to complement the findings of the current study.

Practical implications

This analysis provides valuable information on the application of plant tissue culture as an alternative source for sustainable production of major pigments with medicinal benefits in A. indica for possible use as functional natural colourants.

Originality/value

A comparative study on bioactive pigment production in coloured callus from A. indica leaves and its antioxidant potential and cytotoxicity is original. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report detailing a comparative evaluation on the production of coloured callus in A. indica and its relative biochemical composition and bioactive properties.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 48 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2021

Seyedeh Maryam Mousavi, Bita Archangi, Hosein Zolgharnein and Isaac Zamani

The purpose of this paper was to identify Serratia marcescens to extract and purify prodigiosin pigment to evaluate the antibacterial potential of the pigment.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper was to identify Serratia marcescens to extract and purify prodigiosin pigment to evaluate the antibacterial potential of the pigment.

Design/methodology/approach

Samples were collected from shrimp aquaculture ponds. Species identification was conducted using morphological, biochemical and molecular tests. Pigment extraction and purification were carried out using column chromatography. The antibacterial effect of crude and purified prodigiosin pigment was evaluated on Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus as biofouling bacteria. In addition, the interaction between prodigiosin and proteins involved in biofilm formation was evaluated using molecular docking.

Findings

The results of prodigiosin extraction with solvents showed the highest percentage of pigment presence with methanol solvent in the second day of culture. The chemical structure of pure prodigiosin obtained from the column chromatography was confirmed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Both crude and purified pigments exhibited antibacterial effects against selected bacterial strains. The antibacterial effect of the purified pigment was higher, and the highest antibacterial effect was observed on B. subtilis. Prodigiosin docking was carried out with all target proteins, and the docked energy in all of them was at an acceptable level.

Originality/value

Prodigiosin extracted from S. marcescens can be used as a bioactive compound to design and manufacture of anti-biofouling and anti-biofilm formation products to use extensively for industrial applications as a natural color in marine industries, food industry, cosmetics and textile productions.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2018

Hanisah Ali, Saiful Anuar Karsani, Rashidi Othman and Jamilah Syafawati Yaacob

The purpose of the present study is to understand the role of auxin and cytokinin in stimulating the production of pigmented callus in Orthosiphon stamineus and to gain…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the present study is to understand the role of auxin and cytokinin in stimulating the production of pigmented callus in Orthosiphon stamineus and to gain correlation between the callus colours with their antioxidant capacity and bioactive constituents.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, plant tissue culture was used to induce production of callus of various colours from leaf explants of O. stamineus, via manipulation of plant hormones (0-2.0 mg L−1 indole-3-acetic acid [IAA] and Kinetin [Kin]). The coloured callus was subjected to solvent extraction and used for quantification of its carotenoid, chlorophyll, anthocyanin and phenolic contents. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity of the extracts was also evaluated, before and after four weeks of storage at −20°C.

Findings

The highest mean (per cent) explants that produced roots (93.33 ± 0.05 per cent) were observed when the cultures were supplemented with 2.0 mg L−1 IAA. The colour of the callus changed with time, from green to cream to brown after two and four months of culture, respectively. Optimum production of green callus was achieved with addition of 2.0 mg L−1 Kin plus 1.0-2.0 mg L−1 IAA to the media, while cream callus in 0.5 mg L−1 Kin plus 2.0 mg L−1 IAA and brown callus in 0.5 mg L−1 Kin plus 1.5 mg L−1 IAA. Green callus was found to contain the highest amount of chlorophylls, carotenoid and anthocyanin, while cream callus contained the highest amount of phenolic compounds. The amount of pigments and secondary metabolites in the callus extracts decreased after four weeks of storage, except anthocyanin. The antioxidant potential of the extracts also increased after storage.

Research limitations/implications

The major compounds identified in the methanolic extracts of O. stamineus-coloured callus are chlorophylls, carotenoids, flavonoids and phenolic acids. Future research work should include improvements in the extraction and identification methods which may lead to detection of other compounds that could attribute to the antioxidant capacity, to complement the findings of the current study.

Practical implications

This analysis provides valuable information on the application of IAA and Kinetin (Kin) to manipulate the content of major pigments with medicinal benefits in O. stamineus by using the plant tissue culture system.

Originality/value

A comparative study on antioxidant capacity and bioactive constituents of pigmented callus from O. stamineus leaves is original. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first attempt of comparative evaluation on antioxidant potential of O. stamineus-coloured callus produced using IAA and Kin.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 47 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 12 January 2018

M. Janarthanan and M. Senthil Kumar

Medical textiles is a vibrant emerging field in the area of technical textiles and its category is based on its performance and biofunctional properties for hygienic and…

Abstract

Purpose

Medical textiles is a vibrant emerging field in the area of technical textiles and its category is based on its performance and biofunctional properties for hygienic and health care products. Biodegradable fabrics are widely used for medical textiles in recent years. Seaweeds provide a wide range of therapeutic possibilities for human beings both internally and externally due to the presence of bioactive compounds. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

This present study investigates the development of bioactive gauze fabric from Chaetomorpha linum seaweed/cotton blended fibres and also analysed the characteristics of Chaetomorpha linum seaweed/cotton blended gauze fabric and 100 per cent cotton gauze fabric. The effect of fibres on physical properties of fabric such as tensile strength, air permeability, wickability, water drop test and colour fastness properties were analysed. The antibacterial properties and antioxidant activity were assessed by DPPH radical scavenging, AATCC 100 and EN ISO 20645 test methods.

Findings

The experimental results indicate that the maximum antioxidant activity of 103.28±1.23 per cent inhibition was achieved at minimum concentration (500 µg/ml) of the blended fabric extract, and maximum antibacterial reduction of 95 per cent and zone of inhibition of about 26 mm were achieved in a blended fabric. The tensile strength, percentage of elongation and air permeability were more or less the same in both gauze fabrics. It is also found that Chaetomorpha linum seaweed/cotton blended gauze fabric exhibit better wickability and water absorbency properties than 100 per cent cotton gauze fabric. The colour fastness properties to washing and rubbing showed excellent results in the blended gauze fabric, and it is used for making wound dressing materials.

Originality/value

This bioactive gauze fabric was used for non-implantable materials such as wound healing, face mask, surgical gowns and hygienic textiles in recent years.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article
Publication date: 15 November 2018

Huawei Zeng, Qiao Jie, Zeng Xin, Xu Dayong, Xiong Minghua, Li Feng, Sun Jianfan, Jiang Xuan and Dai Chuanyun

Monascus pigment was widely applied in food processing industry as functional additive, so more attention was paid to the fermentation optimization of pigment production…

Abstract

Purpose

Monascus pigment was widely applied in food processing industry as functional additive, so more attention was paid to the fermentation optimization of pigment production. Therefore, this paper aims to evaluate the best possible fermentative conditions for maximum production of biopigment using submerged fermentation (SFM) and solid state fermentation (SSF) by Monascus purpureus HBSD 08.

Design/methodology/approach

The biopigment was produced by using an SMF and an SSF with optimized substrate to achieve higher yield. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH radical scavenging ability, superoxide anion radical scavenging ability and hydroxyl radical scavenging ability. The pigment composition was analyzed by thin layer chromatography.

Findings

Maximum Monascus pigment production (79.6 U/ml and 1,102 U/g) were obtained under an SFM and an SFF. The antioxidant activity of the pigment in an SFM was significantly higher than that in an SFM. The composition of pigment was not different in an SFM and an SFF.

Originality/value

The study developed new conditions, and Monascus strain was a candidate for producing pigment in an SFM and an SFF. To the authors’ best knowledge, this is a first attempt toward comparative evaluation on antioxidant capacity and composition between pigment in an SSF and an SFM. This result will serve for Monascus pigment production.

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Article
Publication date: 9 December 2020

Anshu Sharma, Anju Kumari Dhiman and Surekha Attri

This study aims to encapsulate the crude carotene pigment isolated from waste portion of Cucurbita maxima with the help of different encapsulating agents through…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to encapsulate the crude carotene pigment isolated from waste portion of Cucurbita maxima with the help of different encapsulating agents through lyophilization to transform crude pigment into stable form for further utilization.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper opted for encapsulation of extracted carotene pigment by lyophilization using various carrier materials such as maltodextrin 20 dextrose equivalent (DE), maltodextrin 10 DE and tapioca starch along with emulsifier polysorbate-80. After encapsulation of crude carotene pigment, prepared encapsulated powder was subjected to chemical analysis. The data was analysed statistically by a complete randomized design.

Findings

Maximum encapsulation efficiency, carotene content, antioxidant activity and water solubility index were achieved when 0.06% of crude carotene pigment was emulsified with same quantity of polysorbate-80, followed by encapsulation with 20% of maltodextrin 20 DE during lyophilization.

Originality/value

Even though few researchers have worked on the encapsulation of colour pigments, no researcher has reported encapsulation of carotene pigment extracted from waste of C. maxima.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 26 October 2018

Satakshi Aggarwal and Tanu Jain

Modern thermal and non-thermal pretreatment techniques, namely, enzymatic treatment, gas phase plasma treatment and ohmic heating have become more pronounced over…

Abstract

Purpose

Modern thermal and non-thermal pretreatment techniques, namely, enzymatic treatment, gas phase plasma treatment and ohmic heating have become more pronounced over conventional techniques for enhanced coloured phytochemicals (pigments) extraction. Presently, numbers of pretreatment techniques are available with some unique feature. It is difficult to choose best pretreatment method to be employed for phytochemicals extraction from different sources. Therefore, this paper aims to discuss different modern pretreatment techniques for extraction with their potential results over conventional techniques.

Design/methodology/approach

Research and review articles targeting to the thermal and non-thermal pretreatment techniques were collected from Google Scholar. The required information has been tabulated and discussed which included qualities of modern pretreatment techniques over conventional techniques, phytochemical extraction and best pretreatment methods for optimized results.

Findings

Every pre-treatment has its own advantages and disadvantages for a particular phytochemical and its extraction from various sources. Enzymes can be used in combinations to enhance final yield like extraction of carotenoids (pectinase, cellulase and hemicellulase) from chillies and lycopene (pectinase and cellulase) from tomato. Utilization of each method depends upon many factors such as source of pigment, cost and energy consumption. CO2 pretreatment gives good results for carotenoid extraction from algae sources. Ohmic heating can yield high anthocyanin content. Modifications in conventional blanching has reduced final waste and improvised the properties of pigment.

Originality/value

This study comprises collective information regarding modern pre-treatment for extraction over conventional pre-treatments. The study also covers future trends and certain new hybrid approaches which are still less flourished.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 49 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 8 November 2018

Jamilah Syafawati Yaacob, Nur Asniyati Abdul Halim, Sharmilla Ashokhan, Hanisah Ali and Rashidi Othman

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the pattern of carotenoids distribution in three underutilized Malaysian ‘ulam’ or traditional vegetables in Malaysia (Averrhoa

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the pattern of carotenoids distribution in three underutilized Malaysian ‘ulam’ or traditional vegetables in Malaysia (Averrhoa carambola, Manihot esculenta and Ipomoea batatas) and their valuable pro-vitamin A activities. These assessments will yield valuable knowledge and insight into the importance of these underutilized traditional vegetables and highlight their potential for applications in medicinal and functional colorant industries.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, the authors have evaluated the distribution of carotenoid compounds in aerial organs of three underutilized traditional vegetables (Averrhoa carambola, Manihot esculenta and Ipomoea batatas). The content of the individual carotenoids were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the organ with the highest accumulation of these compounds were identified. Their valuable pro-vitamin A activities were also reported to indicate their medicinal potential which can further be exploited as pharmacologically active natural colorants and in other applications.

Findings

In total, three major chromatographic peaks corresponding to lutein, violaxanthin and β-carotene were observed through HPLC. Among the compounds detected, lutein and β-carotene were the most abundant carotenoids found in both shoots and petioles of all three species. Violaxanthin was only detected in I. batatas shoots. Overall, carotenoid content was observed to be higher in the shoots than in the petioles, where I. batatas contained the highest amount of total carotenoid, followed by M. esculenta and A. carambola. The opposite trend was observed in the petioles, where A. carambola petioles had the highest carotenoid content, while I. batatas contained the least.

Research limitations/implications

The distribution and abundance of these individual carotenoids suggested that the petioles contained the highest amount of carotenoid, contributing to its high pro-vitamin A activity, and could be potentially useful for medicinal application, as it can act as storage site that is not as prone to natural drying or degradation during harvest and sample storage. Future research work should include improvements in the extraction and purification procedures as well as robust identification methods which may lead to better detection and identification of other compounds that could attribute to its bioactivity, to complement the findings of the current study.

Practical implications

This analysis provides valuable information on the importance of underutilized traditional vegetables as important biofactories for sustainable production of valuable pigments (such as carotenoids) with medicinal benefits and can further be exploited in various industries, such as in formulation of functional natural colorants. This study also highlights the importance of petiole as a storage site of pharmacologically active compounds that is not as prone to natural drying or degradation during harvest and sample storage.

Originality/value

To date, there is no previous report found on comparative analysis of carotenoid content and quantification of individual carotenoid concentration in the edible aerial parts of Averrhoa carambola, Manihot esculenta and Ipomoea batatas, although they have been traditionally consumed as “ulam” in Malaysia. Therefore, the results reported in this study provide new insights on carotenoid accumulation in the selected ‘ulam’ species.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 48 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 28 August 2019

Julia Fernanda Urbano Marinho, Marcella Chalella Mazzocato, Fabricio Luiz Tulini, Marluci Palazzolli Silva, Elaine Cristina Pereira de Martinis and Carmen Sílvia Fávaro-Trindade

The purpose of this study was the development and the nutritional, physical-chemical and sensorial characterization of probiotic and synbiotic sorbets elaborated with…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was the development and the nutritional, physical-chemical and sensorial characterization of probiotic and synbiotic sorbets elaborated with jussara pulp (Euterpe edulis), Lactobacillus spp. and polydextrose.

Design/methodology/approach

Five formulations of jussara sorbets (one control, two probiotics and two synbiotics) were produced and evaluated according to their centesimal composition, pH, soluble solids, instrumental color, overrun, apparent density, sensory acceptability and purchase intent.

Findings

All sorbets exhibited low calorific value, with no difference between them (p =0.96). The synbiotic samples (S3 and S5) showed the higher carbohydrate (30.4 and 30.2 per cent) and crude fiber content (0.4 and 0.5 per cent). Regarding to sensory acceptance, the probiotic samples (S2 and S4) presented greater global acceptability (averages acceptance 6.4 and 6.6, respectively) while the polydextrose samples (S3 and S5) showed low values (5.9 for both samples), although this prebiotic was able to increase the overrun to values above 40 per cent.

Practical implications

The functional jussara sorbets are a promising possibility for diversification of the probiotic foods already offered. The combination of its probiotic, prebiotic and bioactive properties can provide technological improvement and superior nutritional quality, with good sensorial acceptance. Likewise, jussara pulp showed nutritional properties favorable to its application in the food industry, which can help preserve its endangered palm tree.

Originality/value

The probiotics and synbiotics jussara sorbets showed to be adequate as a lactose-free and low-calorie functional product, with high nutritional, commercial and ecological value. Also, it was possible to notice that while the addition of probiotics improved the sensorial acceptance of jussara sorbets, polydextrose raised the technological quality by increasing its overrun.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 50 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 9 May 2019

Sawinder Kaur, Paramjit S. Panesar, Sushma Gurumayum, Prasad Rasane and Vikas Kumar

The extraction of bioactive compounds such as pigments from natural sources, using different solvents, is a vital downstream process. The present study aims to investigate…

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Abstract

Purpose

The extraction of bioactive compounds such as pigments from natural sources, using different solvents, is a vital downstream process. The present study aims to investigate the effect of different variables, namely, extraction temperature, mass of fermented rice and time on the extraction process of orevactaene and flavanoid pigment from Epicoccum nigrum fermented broken rice.

Design/methodology/approach

Central composite rotatable design under response surface methodology was used for deducing optimized conditions. The pigments were extracted under conditions of extraction temperature (40-70°C), mass of fermented rice (0.5-1.5 g) and time (30-90 min), using water as the extraction media. The experimental data obtained were studied by analysis of variance. Data were fitted to a second-order polynomial equation using multiple regression analysis.

Findings

The optimum conditions generated by the software for aqueous extraction process, i.e. extraction temperature of 55.7°C, 0.79 g of fermented matter and extraction time of 56.6 min, resulted in a pigment yield of 52.7AU/g orevactaene and 77.2 AU/g flavanoid.

Research limitations/implications

The developed polynomial empirical model for the optimal recovery of the orevactaene and flavanoid pigments could be used for further studies in prediction of yield under specified variable conditions.

Practical implications

The response surface methodology helped in optimizng the conditions for the eco-friendly low-cost aqueous extarction process for orevactaene and flavanoid pigments, produced by Epicoccum nigrum during solid state fermentation of broken rice. This optimization can provide the basis for scaling up for industrial extraction process.

Originality/value

This paper focuses on optimizing the extraction conditions to get the maximum yield of orevactaene and flavanoid pigments, using water as the extracting media. No literature is available on the optimization of the extraction process of Epicoccum nigrum pigments, to the best of the authors’ knowledge.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 48 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

1 – 10 of 143