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Book part
Publication date: 15 July 2017

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World Agricultural Resources and Food Security
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-515-3

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2006

E.E. Oguzie

To assess the protective effect and adsorption behaviour of Azadirachta indica extract in controlling mild steel corrosion in 1 M H2SO4 and 2 M HCl.

Abstract

Purpose

To assess the protective effect and adsorption behaviour of Azadirachta indica extract in controlling mild steel corrosion in 1 M H2SO4 and 2 M HCl.

Design/methodology/approach

The inhibitive effect of the plant extract was monitored using the gas‐volumetric technique. The inhibition mechanism was inferred by curve fitting of the experimental data to known adsorption isotherms and the trend of inhibition efficiency with temperature.

Findings

Azadirachta indica extract effectively inhibited steel corrosion in the acid media studied by virtue of adsorption. The inhibitor adsorption characteristics were approximated by Langmuir isotherm. The extract functioned as a mixed inhibitor, depending on its concentration. The prime effect at lower concentration was mitigation of the cathodic reaction by physical adsorption of protonated species in the extract and at higher concentration the anodic reaction was inhibited by chemisorption of molecular species.

Originality/value

This paper provides novel information on the effectiveness of Azadirachta indica extract as a green corrosion inhibitor for steel in highly acidic environments as well as possible mechanisms of the inhibitive action.

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Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 35 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 22 October 2018

Sharmilla Ashokhan, Sujatha Ramasamy, Saiful Anuar Karsani, Rashidi Othman and Jamilah Syafawati Yaacob

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the content of bioactive pigments in coloured callus of Azadirachta indica and to understand the correlation between the callus…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the content of bioactive pigments in coloured callus of Azadirachta indica and to understand the correlation between the callus colours with their bioactive constituents, antioxidant properties and cytotoxicity. These assessments will yield valuable insight into the use of in vitro-derived pigments for possible use as functional natural colourants.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, the authors have successfully developed a protocol to produce leaf-derived callus of various colours with enhanced content of bioactive pigments in A. indica through plant tissue culture. Comparative analysis of the pigments content (chlorophyll, carotenoid, phenolics and anthocyanins) in the coloured callus was conducted, followed by evaluation of its bioactive properties. The antioxidant properties against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radicals, ferric reducing antioxidant power and cytotox activities of the coloured callus extracts were also reported.

Findings

Callus of various colours were successfully produced in A. indica through plant tissue culture, and their valuable pigment content and bioactivity were evaluated. The green callus contained the highest amount of anthocyanin, followed by brown and cream callus. The total anthocyanin contents in both the green and brown callus was more than two-fold higher than that in cream callus. Contrasting observation was obtained for total phenolic content (TPC), where the TPC of cream callus was significantly higher than that in brown callus. Nevertheless, the green callus also exhibited the highest TPC. Green callus also contained the highest amount of total chlorophyll and carotenoid, as well as exhibited the highest antioxidant potential, and was found to be the only extract with active cytotox activity against SKOV-3 cells. Correlation analysis revealed that the excellent bioactivity exhibited by the coloured extracts was strongly correlated with the bioactive pigments present in the callus.

Research limitations/implications

The major bioactive compounds identified in the methanolic extracts of A. indica coloured callus are anthocyanins, phenolics, chlorophylls and carotenoids. Future research work should include improvements in the extraction and identification methods, which may lead to detection and determination of other compounds that could attribute to its bioactivity, to complement the findings of the current study.

Practical implications

This analysis provides valuable information on the application of plant tissue culture as an alternative source for sustainable production of major pigments with medicinal benefits in A. indica for possible use as functional natural colourants.

Originality/value

A comparative study on bioactive pigment production in coloured callus from A. indica leaves and its antioxidant potential and cytotoxicity is original. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report detailing a comparative evaluation on the production of coloured callus in A. indica and its relative biochemical composition and bioactive properties.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 48 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 10 June 2021

Shourav Dutta, Trapa Biswas, Md. Akhter Hossain, Md. Rayhanur Rahman, Saddam Hossen and Mohammed Kamal Hossain

This study/paper aims to evaluate the floral richness of the central part of Chattogram city, Bangladesh. Chattogram is recognized as the largest port city and the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study/paper aims to evaluate the floral richness of the central part of Chattogram city, Bangladesh. Chattogram is recognized as the largest port city and the commercial capital of Bangladesh, which confronts faster urbanization and swift infrastructure development. Green spaces in and around Chattogram city are shrinking sharply, which resulted in rapid loss of floral and faunal resources in this area. The present study was carried out from February 2018 to January 2019 to enumerate the vascular plant species of the Sulakbahar ward located in the central part of Chattogram City, Bangladesh.

Design/methodology/approach

The study area was categorized into 10 habitats to assess the variation of floral composition. The extensive whole area survey method was applied to record the flora from all sorts of plant habitats of the research area.

Findings

The study enumerated 418 vascular plant species under 315 genera and 120 families including natural, planted and cultivated from the study area. The habit form of the recorded plant composition indicated that herbs (35%) constitute the major plant category followed by trees (34%), shrubs (17%), climbers (12%), ferns (1%) and orchids (1%). The study also indicated that exotic species (50.3%) became dominant than native species (49.7%) in Chattogram city because of their scenic beauty, easy propagation and ornamental value to the city planners and inhabitants.

Originality/value

It appeared that floral resources of the Chattogram city area are in great threat due to aggressive and unplanned infrastructure development for housing, offices and institutions by replacing the green spaces. The study recommended that urgent protection measures should be taken to conserve and protect the existing floral resources for the well-being of the urban people.

Details

Ecofeminism and Climate Change, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2633-4062

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Article
Publication date: 2 September 2014

Idris Nasiru Medugu, M. Rafee Majid, Foziah Johar and Ibijoke Sinami Taiwo

The purpose of this paper is to assess the sustainability of a forestry management strategy in checkmating desert encroachment and it also examines the impacts of the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess the sustainability of a forestry management strategy in checkmating desert encroachment and it also examines the impacts of the Forestry II program on agricultural productivity in the rural communities.

Design/methodology/approach

The study adopted a quantitative approach in assessing the rural farmers’ level of participation in the Forestry II program in which 201 respondents were interviewed in the study area. Structured questionnaires’ were also administered to afforestation officials/extension workers in the two states regarding the different components of the projects and probable cause(s) of failures/successes as well as the level of involvement of the community in the project. Field observations of the project sites were also carried out with a view to examining the level of achievements on the physical components of the projects.

Findings

The findings of this study revealed that, involvement of the stakeholders and participation of the community was lacking at the early stage of the program and the negligence of indigenous knowledge as well as the influence of bottom up approach was not incorporated in the project. The study further revealed that, appreciable positive impacts have been recorded at various levels of its implementation. The improvement of livelihood of the rural people through increased forest products supply was noted, fuel-wood and poles supply were also increased and this had gone a long way in creating employment for the rural dwellers.

Research limitations/implications

The study involved the establishment of shelterbelts, windbreaks, woodlots, orchards and nurseries which were complimented by social forestry, and which raised public awareness through campaigns such as school forestry programs, forestry extension services and a fuel-wood conservation program.

Originality/value

The study articulated success and failure as well as a detailed assessment of the Forestry II project. The study showed that government could significantly combat desertification in the arid zones through sustainable afforestation if adequate resources were employed.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 25 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

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Article
Publication date: 27 May 2014

Ayssar Nahlé, Ibrahim Almaidoor and Ibrahim Abdel-Rahman

This study aims to study electrochemically and by weight-loss experiments the effect of UAE Rhazya Stricta Decne extract on the…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to study electrochemically and by weight-loss experiments the effect of UAE Rhazya Stricta Decne extract on the corrosion inhibition of mild steel in 1.0 M HCl solution, which will serve researchers in the field of corrosion.

Design/methodology/approach

Weight loss measurements were carried out on mild steel specimens in 1.0 M HCl and in 1.0 M HCl containing various concentrations (ranging from 2.0 to 0.002 g/L.) of the UAE Rhazya Stricta Decne extract at temperatures ranging from 303 to 343 K.

Findings

The aqueous Rhazya Stricta Decne leaves extract was found to be a highly efficient inhibitor for mild steel in 1.0 M HCl solution, reaching about 90 per cent at 2.0 g/L and 303 K, a concentration considered to be very moderate. Even with one-tenth of that concentration, 0.2 g/L, an inhibition of about 82 per cent was obtained at 303 K. The rate of corrosion of the mild steel in 1.0 M HCl is a function of the concentration of the Rhazya Stricta Decne extract. This rate increases as the concentration of the Rhazya Stricta Decne extract is increased. The percentage of inhibition in the presence of this inhibitor was decreased with temperature which indicates that physical adsorption was the predominant inhibition mechanism because the quantity of adsorbed inhibitor decreases with increasing temperature.

Practical implications

This inhibitor could have application in industries, where HCl solutions at elevated temperatures are used to remove scale and salts from steel surfaces, such as acid cleaning of tankage and pipeline, and may render dismantling unnecessary.

Originality/value

This paper is intended to be added to the family of green corrosion inhibitors which are highly efficient and can be used in the area of corrosion prevention and control.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 61 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Book part
Publication date: 15 July 2017

Andreas W. Ebert

Malnutrition is widespread and affects about one-third of humanity. Increasing production and consumption of vegetables is an obvious pathway to improve dietary diversity…

Abstract

Malnutrition is widespread and affects about one-third of humanity. Increasing production and consumption of vegetables is an obvious pathway to improve dietary diversity, nutrition and health. This chapter analyses how climate change is affecting vegetable production, with a special focus on the spread of insect pests and diseases. A thorough literature review was undertaken to assess current global vegetable production, the factors that affect the spread of diseases and insect pests, the implications caused by climate change, and how some of these constraints can be overcome. This study found that climate change combined with globalization, increased human mobility, and pathogen and vector evolution has increased the spread of invasive plant pathogens and other species with high fertility and dispersal. The ability to transfer genes from wild relatives into cultivated elite varieties accelerates the development of novel vegetable varieties. World Vegetable Center breeders have embarked on breeding for multiple disease resistance against a few important pathogens of global relevance and with large evolutionary potential, such as chili anthracnose and tomato bacterial wilt. The practical implications of this are that agronomic practices that enhance microbial diversity may suppress emerging plant pathogens through biological control. Grafting can effectively control soil-borne diseases and overcome abiotic stress. Biopesticides and natural enemies either alone or in combination can play a significant role in sustainable pathogen and insect pest management in vegetable production system. This chapter highlights the importance of integrated disease and pest management and the use of diverse production systems for enhanced resilience and sustainability of highly vulnerable, uniform cropping systems.

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Article
Publication date: 18 August 2020

Saroni Biswas, Anirban Biswas, Arabinda Das and Saon Banerjee

This study aims to assess the biodiversity of the study area and estimate the carbon stock of two dry deciduous forest ranges of Banka Forest Division, Bihar, India.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to assess the biodiversity of the study area and estimate the carbon stock of two dry deciduous forest ranges of Banka Forest Division, Bihar, India.

Design/methodology/approach

The phytosociological analysis was performed and C stock estimation based on volume determination through nondestructive methods was done.

Findings

Phytosociological analysis found total 18,888 [14,893 < 10 cm (diameter at breast height) dbh] and 2,855 (1,783 < 10 cm dbh) individuals at Banka and Bounsi range with basal area of 181,035.00 cm2 and 32,743.76 cm2, respectively. Importance value index was highest for Shorea robusta in both the ranges. Species diversity index and dominance index, 1.89 and 1.017 at Banka and 1.99 and 5.600 at Bounsi indicated the prevalence of biotic pressure. Decreased dbh and tree height resulted in a lowered growing stock volume as 59,140.40 cm3 ha−1 (Banka) and 71,306.37 cm3 ha−1 (Bounsi). Total C stock at Banka and Bounsi range was 51.8 t ha-1 and 12.56 t ha−1, respectively where the highest C stock is recorded for Shorea robusta in both the ranges (9.8 t ha−1 and 2.54 t ha-1, respectively). A positive correlation between volume, total biomass and basal area of tree species with C stock was observed. R2 value for Banka range was 0.9269 (volume-C stock), 1 (total biomass-C stock) and 0.647 (basal area-C stock). Strong positive correlation was also established at Bounsi range with R2 value of 1. Considering the total forest area enumerated, C sequestration potential was about 194.25 t CO2 (Banka) and 45.9 t CO2 (Bounsi). The valuation of C stock was therefore US$2,525.25 (Banka) and US$596.70 (Bounsi).

Practical implications

The research found the potentiality of the study area to sequester carbon. However, for future, the degraded areas would require intervention of management strategies for restoration of degraded lands and protection of planted trees to increase the carbon sequestration potential of the area.

Originality/value

Present study is the first attempt to assess the phytosociology and estimate the regulatory services of forest with respect to biomass and carbon stock estimation for the Banka forest division of Bihar.

Details

Ecofeminism and Climate Change, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2633-4062

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Article
Publication date: 21 June 2011

M. Abdullah Dar

The purpose of this paper is to make people aware of organic corrosion inhibitors.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to make people aware of organic corrosion inhibitors.

Design/methodology/approach

As it is a literature review paper, no specific method is used.

Findings

It has been found that plant extracts and oils show inhibition efficiency up to 98 percent, so it is certain that plant extracts and oils are effective corrosion inhibitors and can be successfully used at the industrial level.

Research limitations/implications

Plant extracts and oils are also found to be non‐toxic, highly efficient, renewable and cheap. But less effort has been given towards the identification of which compound is active in the extract.

Originality/value

The paper shows detailed account of the inhibitors obtained from plants, which are used as natural corrosion inhibitors.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 63 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 5 May 2020

Tintu Jose Manicketh and Mannancheril Sebastian Francis

The paper aims to investigate the feasibility of developing natural dyes from the barks of Araucaria columnaris and leaves of Macaranga peltata, Averrhoa bilimbi. The…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to investigate the feasibility of developing natural dyes from the barks of Araucaria columnaris and leaves of Macaranga peltata, Averrhoa bilimbi. The paper also deals with the application of natural dyes in textile coloration.

Design/methodology/approach

Dye extraction was carried out using the aqueous method. The dyeability of the aqueous extract was assessed on cotton, silk and polyester yarns using different mordants (alum, acetic acid, CuSO4, lemon juice) and without mordant. UV–Visible spectral analysis and pH of different natural dyes were determined. Percent absorption, K/S values, CIELab values and fastness properties of the selected dyed yarns were also assessed.

Findings

The percentage values for dye exhaustion differed with various mordants. The K/S values were found to be influenced by the addition of mordants. Different hues were obtained with the usage of different mordants. Fastness results exhibited good to very good grades.

Research limitations/implications

The effective application of aqueous method of dye extraction in the study avoids solvent toxicity. The current results proved that the dyeing could be achieved at room temperature for different yarns (cotton, silk, polyester). At present, no report exists in the literature of research work on the extraction of natural dyes from the leaves of M. peltata, A. bilimbi and their dyeing potential on cotton, silk and polyester.

Practical implications

The present work offers new environment-friendly dye as well as simple dyeing method. Barks and leaves are promising sources of dye. Enormous availability of barks and leaves avoids the exploitation of the plant parts for the extraction of natural dyes.

Originality/value

The important feature of this study was the effective dyeing of natural and synthetic fibers at room temperature. The novel sources of natural dyes would contribute significantly to the existing knowledge of dyeing, and the natural dyes reduce the environmental impact of synthetic dyes.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 32 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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