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Article
Publication date: 22 October 2018

Sharmilla Ashokhan, Sujatha Ramasamy, Saiful Anuar Karsani, Rashidi Othman and Jamilah Syafawati Yaacob

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the content of bioactive pigments in coloured callus of Azadirachta indica and to understand the correlation between the callus…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the content of bioactive pigments in coloured callus of Azadirachta indica and to understand the correlation between the callus colours with their bioactive constituents, antioxidant properties and cytotoxicity. These assessments will yield valuable insight into the use of in vitro-derived pigments for possible use as functional natural colourants.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, the authors have successfully developed a protocol to produce leaf-derived callus of various colours with enhanced content of bioactive pigments in A. indica through plant tissue culture. Comparative analysis of the pigments content (chlorophyll, carotenoid, phenolics and anthocyanins) in the coloured callus was conducted, followed by evaluation of its bioactive properties. The antioxidant properties against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radicals, ferric reducing antioxidant power and cytotox activities of the coloured callus extracts were also reported.

Findings

Callus of various colours were successfully produced in A. indica through plant tissue culture, and their valuable pigment content and bioactivity were evaluated. The green callus contained the highest amount of anthocyanin, followed by brown and cream callus. The total anthocyanin contents in both the green and brown callus was more than two-fold higher than that in cream callus. Contrasting observation was obtained for total phenolic content (TPC), where the TPC of cream callus was significantly higher than that in brown callus. Nevertheless, the green callus also exhibited the highest TPC. Green callus also contained the highest amount of total chlorophyll and carotenoid, as well as exhibited the highest antioxidant potential, and was found to be the only extract with active cytotox activity against SKOV-3 cells. Correlation analysis revealed that the excellent bioactivity exhibited by the coloured extracts was strongly correlated with the bioactive pigments present in the callus.

Research limitations/implications

The major bioactive compounds identified in the methanolic extracts of A. indica coloured callus are anthocyanins, phenolics, chlorophylls and carotenoids. Future research work should include improvements in the extraction and identification methods, which may lead to detection and determination of other compounds that could attribute to its bioactivity, to complement the findings of the current study.

Practical implications

This analysis provides valuable information on the application of plant tissue culture as an alternative source for sustainable production of major pigments with medicinal benefits in A. indica for possible use as functional natural colourants.

Originality/value

A comparative study on bioactive pigment production in coloured callus from A. indica leaves and its antioxidant potential and cytotoxicity is original. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report detailing a comparative evaluation on the production of coloured callus in A. indica and its relative biochemical composition and bioactive properties.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 48 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 15 February 2021

Amruta Joglekar-Athavale and Ganapti S. Shankarling

The review glances upon the colorants used for printing on ceramic substrates by ink jet technology and techniques, chemistry involved during the selection of the colorants.

Abstract

Purpose

The review glances upon the colorants used for printing on ceramic substrates by ink jet technology and techniques, chemistry involved during the selection of the colorants.

Design/methodology/approach

The ink jet technology is an easy and a convenient technique, specially designed colorants are used for such applications with tailor made properties and features.

Findings

New developments in technology and chemistry of colorants to achieve successes in application studies of ceramic substrates.

Research limitations/implications

N/A.

Practical implications

This review glances upon the history, development and practical approach of the current techniques with available dyes and pigments and the techniques involved during the synthesis and application.

Originality/value

The review paper provides information about the development of the inkjet technique on ceramics and available colorants with methods.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 8 November 2018

Jamilah Syafawati Yaacob, Nur Asniyati Abdul Halim, Sharmilla Ashokhan, Hanisah Ali and Rashidi Othman

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the pattern of carotenoids distribution in three underutilized Malaysian ‘ulam’ or traditional vegetables in Malaysia (Averrhoa

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the pattern of carotenoids distribution in three underutilized Malaysian ‘ulam’ or traditional vegetables in Malaysia (Averrhoa carambola, Manihot esculenta and Ipomoea batatas) and their valuable pro-vitamin A activities. These assessments will yield valuable knowledge and insight into the importance of these underutilized traditional vegetables and highlight their potential for applications in medicinal and functional colorant industries.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, the authors have evaluated the distribution of carotenoid compounds in aerial organs of three underutilized traditional vegetables (Averrhoa carambola, Manihot esculenta and Ipomoea batatas). The content of the individual carotenoids were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the organ with the highest accumulation of these compounds were identified. Their valuable pro-vitamin A activities were also reported to indicate their medicinal potential which can further be exploited as pharmacologically active natural colorants and in other applications.

Findings

In total, three major chromatographic peaks corresponding to lutein, violaxanthin and β-carotene were observed through HPLC. Among the compounds detected, lutein and β-carotene were the most abundant carotenoids found in both shoots and petioles of all three species. Violaxanthin was only detected in I. batatas shoots. Overall, carotenoid content was observed to be higher in the shoots than in the petioles, where I. batatas contained the highest amount of total carotenoid, followed by M. esculenta and A. carambola. The opposite trend was observed in the petioles, where A. carambola petioles had the highest carotenoid content, while I. batatas contained the least.

Research limitations/implications

The distribution and abundance of these individual carotenoids suggested that the petioles contained the highest amount of carotenoid, contributing to its high pro-vitamin A activity, and could be potentially useful for medicinal application, as it can act as storage site that is not as prone to natural drying or degradation during harvest and sample storage. Future research work should include improvements in the extraction and purification procedures as well as robust identification methods which may lead to better detection and identification of other compounds that could attribute to its bioactivity, to complement the findings of the current study.

Practical implications

This analysis provides valuable information on the importance of underutilized traditional vegetables as important biofactories for sustainable production of valuable pigments (such as carotenoids) with medicinal benefits and can further be exploited in various industries, such as in formulation of functional natural colorants. This study also highlights the importance of petiole as a storage site of pharmacologically active compounds that is not as prone to natural drying or degradation during harvest and sample storage.

Originality/value

To date, there is no previous report found on comparative analysis of carotenoid content and quantification of individual carotenoid concentration in the edible aerial parts of Averrhoa carambola, Manihot esculenta and Ipomoea batatas, although they have been traditionally consumed as “ulam” in Malaysia. Therefore, the results reported in this study provide new insights on carotenoid accumulation in the selected ‘ulam’ species.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 48 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 2 September 2019

Amerah Al-Soliemy and Fatimah Al-Zahrani

This study aims to synthesize some new curcumin containing Aroyl derivatives dyestuffs and study their application in dyeing polyester fabrics, rendering to their…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to synthesize some new curcumin containing Aroyl derivatives dyestuffs and study their application in dyeing polyester fabrics, rendering to their antibacterial evaluation.

Design/methodology/approach

Modification of curcumin dye was carried out by introducing benzoyl rings through coupling with curcumin. All newly synthesized dyes were characterized by elemental analyses and spectral data (IR, 1 H-NMR and MS). Moreover, the optimal dyeing condition was assigned. Antibacterial activities of the dyed samples at different concentrations of both dyes were studied against gram positive (Staph aureus) and gram-negative (Salmonellatyphimurium) bacteria.

Findings

Synthesized curcumin containing benzoyl dyes were applied on polyester fabrics. Meanwhile, these synthesized dyes showed reasonable results towards fastness properties at optimal conditions matching the curcumin dye. In addition to their good fastness assets, synthesized dyes displayed antibacterial efficacy towards both gram positive and gram-negative bacteria. The dyed polyester fabrics showed higher antibacterial efficacy after multiple events of washing.

Research limitations/implications

The synthesized benzoyl containing curcumin moiety was not described before.

Practical implications

Disperse dyes derived from curcumin were prepared via coupling of various diazonium salts of p-aminobenzaldhyde, p-aminoacetopheneone, p-aminobenzoic acid and p-aminobenzoyl chloride with curcumin. The resulting disperse dyes were applied on polyester fabrics at optimal conditions, and antibacterial efficacy of dyed fabrics were evaluated.

Originality/value

Curcumin being was used in food colouration and was effective for dyeing and antimicrobial finishing on textile fabrics. Novel antibacterial dyestuff containing curcumin moieties with benzoyl amine coupling components showed interesting colourant for polyester fabrics. This work introduced innovative disperse dyes for medical textile applications.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 48 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 13 September 2021

Amrita Poonia and Surabhi Pandey

The purpose of this paper is to review the nutritional composition, phytochemicals and bioactive compounds of black rice such as flavonoids, phenolic compounds and their…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review the nutritional composition, phytochemicals and bioactive compounds of black rice such as flavonoids, phenolic compounds and their health benefits. Black rice has also been used in medicine and for curing diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Green technologies such as microwave-assisted extraction, supercritical fluid extraction and pulse electric field assisted extraction are very useful for the extraction of bioactive compounds as these reduce the use of energy and are environmental friendly. Black rice in different forms can be incorporated in various food products such as bakery, dairy and meat products.

Design/methodology/approach

Information and data were collected from different sources such as Google Scholar, Research Gate, online journals available at Banaras Hindu University library, Web of Science and Scopus. A database of more than 80 scientific sources from different sources was made as per the headings and subheadings of the paper.

Findings

Black rice is a type of rice species (Oryza sativa L.) and very good source of various nutrients and one of the nutritious varieties of rice. It is a good reservoir of essential amino acids such as lysine, tryptophan, minerals including iron, calcium, phosphorus, zinc and selenium; vitamins such as vitamin B1, vitamin B2 and folic acid. Various recent methods of extraction of bioactive compounds from black rice are suggested.

Originality/value

Researchers and scientists have considered black rice as a “Super Food” because of its nutritional profile. Black rice has antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory activity, anticancer activity, antihyperlipidemia and antihyperglycemia and anti-allergic activity. There is a need to create awareness among the consumers about its nutritional profile and therapeutic properties.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 27 September 2019

Remy Magnier-Watanabe and James Hoadley

Whereas the USA is still the largest investment destination for Japanese companies, Japan also accounts as the second largest source of investment in the country. The…

Abstract

Purpose

Whereas the USA is still the largest investment destination for Japanese companies, Japan also accounts as the second largest source of investment in the country. The purpose of this paper is to, empirically, examine the detailed motives of Japanese affiliates when investing in the Southeastern USA, adding to previous research at the national level.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses a qualitative approach based on the interviews of long-term Japanese investors in the manufacturing and wholesale trade industries in the Southeastern USA and applies text analysis to identify their motives.

Findings

The results show that Japanese firms engage in market- and efficiency-seeking foreign direct investment (FDI), and still apply a classic sequence of gradual and incremental market commitments. Market size and growth rate, reducing transaction or transportation costs, and integration within local value chains are the most important to them, whereas competition, creating an export base, lowering tax and accessing skilled labor are of little concern.

Practical implications

The goal of Japanese FDI in the USA is no longer to bypass tariffs but is still part of a complex industrial network of relations which drives further investment. This result can inform policy makers at the state level about the factors that can drive additional foreign investment, such as the establishment of industrial clusters.

Originality/value

This study offers current insights into the motives of Japanese FDI in two industries.

Details

Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Administration, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-4323

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Article
Publication date: 15 March 2013

Z.H.Z. Abidin, N.N. Naziron, K.M. Nasir, M.S. Rusli, S.V. Lee, M.Z. Kufian, S.R. Majid, B. Vengadaesvaran, A.K. Arof, R.M. Taha and R. Yahya

The purpose of this work is to investigate the influence of curcumin dye natural colorant on adhesion, mechanical, thermal and electrochemical properties of blend poly…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this work is to investigate the influence of curcumin dye natural colorant on adhesion, mechanical, thermal and electrochemical properties of blend poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) – acrylic polyol.

Design/methodology/approach

Extracted curcumin yellow dye colorant from Curcuma Demostica was mixed with PMMA‐acrylic polyol blended polymer in the volume ratios of 9:1, 8:2 and 7:3. The mixtures were applied on pre‐treated cold‐roll mild steel panels. All of the paint coating samples were subjected to potential time measurement (PTM), rapid impact deformation, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), cross hatch and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) tests.

Findings

The addition of curcumin dye colorant was able to improve the adhesion, flexibilities and resistance against electrolytes penetration of the blended poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) – acrylic polyol polymer paint system. Cross hatch test studies showed that high amount of curcumin dye colorant (AP30 paint system) had the lowest peel‐off coating area from the substrate. The FTIR test had confirmed the high concentration of hydroxyl group in the AP30 sample. The hydroxyl group was able to promote hydrogen bonding between coating substrate interface. The AP30 sample had the highest coating flexibilities when tested with rapid impact test. This was due to the lowest glass transition value Tg which indicated lowest cross linking density in the coating molecules structure. In the PTM test, AP30 paint system had shown the highest rate electrolytes penetration within the AP sample.

Research limitations/implications

The composition of curcumin dye colorant in the polymer blend is limited from 10 percent to 30 percent pigment volume concentration. Increasing the amount of lawsone pigment will result inhomogeneous mixtures.

Originality/value

The AP paint system is suitable for interior applications. This paint system has to be mixed with suitable additive materials to improve its performance for exterior purpose.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 42 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 5 January 2015

Jyoti Srivastava and Padma S. Vankar

This paper aims to study carotenoids as a natural food colorant from Canna flowers. There is a growing demand for eco-friendly and non-toxic colorants, specifically for…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to study carotenoids as a natural food colorant from Canna flowers. There is a growing demand for eco-friendly and non-toxic colorants, specifically for health-sensitive applications such as colours of food and textiles. Red Canna variety can be grown in normal garden situations and gives ample of flowers yielding good amount of natural colorant for both the purposes.

Design/methodology/approach

In the present work, ultrasound extraction of natural colorant from Canna indica flowers has been studied. The use of ultrasound is found to have a significant improvement in the extraction efficiency of colorants obtained from dry and fresh Canna flowers in different mediums. Ultrasonic cavitational processing has twofold advantages, it is an eco-friendly and cost-effective process.

Findings

The total carotenoid content in dry and fresh flower extract was found to be between 136.56 and 978.89 mg/kg. The assessment of antioxidant activity (AOA) in dry and fresh flower extract was found to be 5.78-78.33 per cent assayed by scavenging 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical and identified by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies.

Research implications/limitations

The use of ultrasonication for the extraction of colorant has been the main feature and a step towards technological advancement in the area of finding newer method of efficient extraction of the colorant.

Practical implications

The ease of extraction due to ultrasound waves has been the highlight.

Originality/value

It is for the first time that the phytochemical data of red Canna flower and has been studied, the total carotenoid content and antioxidant activities of different extracts of Canna were measured. The extraction of natural dye from C. indica flowers using ultrasound has been found to have significant improvement in the extraction efficiency of the colorant obtained from flowers.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 44 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 15 March 2013

Z.H.Z. Abidin, K.M. Nasir, S.K.M. Jamari, N. Saidon, S.V. Lee, N.A. Halim and R. Yahya

The purpose of this work is to investigate the correlation characteristics in mechanical, thermal and optical properties of PMMA‐acrylic polyol polymer blends mixed with…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this work is to investigate the correlation characteristics in mechanical, thermal and optical properties of PMMA‐acrylic polyol polymer blends mixed with lawsone natural dye for coating paint application.

Design/methodology/approach

Natural brownish dye colorant was extracted from Lawsonia Inermis leaves used as a dye colorant in this paint coating system by using ethanol as the solvent. Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), blended with acrylic polyol was used as the binder system. The ratio of PMMA to acrylic polyol was varied with PMMA dominance. The dye colorant was fixed at 10 wt percent.

Findings

The potential time measurement tests showed that the dye colorant paint system with 10 wt percent of acrylic polyol has the highest coating resistance against electrolyte penetration. The dye colorant paint system with 30 wt percent acrylic polyol performed better in mechanical tests such as cross‐hatch and impact resistance. The dye colorant paint system molecular crosslinks were analysed by using the fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X‐ray diffraction spectroscopy.

Research limitations/implications

The ratio of lawsone dye colorant in the polymer blends is found limited to 10 percent. Increasing in the percentage of lawsone dye colorant will cause inhomogeneity in coating paint sample.

Originality/value

A new formulation of natural dye colorant paint system with 10 percent wt dye volume concentration of lawsone as pigment was obtained.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 42 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 15 March 2013

S.V. Lee, N.A. Halim, A.K. Arof and Z.H.Z. Abidin

The purpose of this paper is to develop a new water‐based coating system composed of poly(vinyl alcohol) and anthocyanin colourant extracted from Hibiscus sabdariffa L…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a new water‐based coating system composed of poly(vinyl alcohol) and anthocyanin colourant extracted from Hibiscus sabdariffa L. and to characterise the system.

Design/methodology/approach

Anthocyanin from Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (roselle) calyxes was extracted by using distilled water and filtered to remove insoluble particle. Salts introduced into the extract were 5wt percent calcium nitrate, 5wt percent magnesium nitrate, and 5wt percent zinc nitrate. The solution was mixed with poly(vinyl alcohol) in ratio of 3:1. The mixtures were coated on glass substrate and allowed to cure for approximately one day. Colour of the extract systems was determined by CIELab colourimetry. FTIR spectroscopy was conducted on the samples to identify their functional groups and changes upon addition of salt. Thermal stability was assessed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was employed to measure the glass transition temperature Tg of the samples. XRD was employed to determine the amorphous properties of the coating samples.

Findings

From FTIR spectroscopy, shifting in the OH stretching and CH2 bending bands was attributed to hydrogen bonds formation between PVA and nitrate salt. Shifting in the main decomposition step in samples with addition of nitrate salts in TGA was due to interaction of PVA and nitrate. Increase in glass transition temperature of samples with salts was attributed to the formation of hydrogen bonding. From XRD study, increase in the amorphous properties was due to the incorporation of nitrate salts into PVA coating.

Research limitations/implications

Limitation of implementating poly(vinyl alcohol) as coating is caused by its weak water resistance and hydrophilic properties. This study could bring about research towards incorporation of different natural colourant with different binder materials to form coatings which are environmental‐friendly and low cost.

Practical implications

Mixture of PVA and anthocyanin colourant from roselle for use as coating has been developed. The coating can find usage in various applications such as coloured coating for furniture and wooden materials for decorative purposes, biodegradable design materials for interior purposes. It can be practically applied on a variety of substrates such as glass and wood.

Originality/value

Development of water‐based coating from PVA binder with anthocyanin colourant is introduced in this study.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 42 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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