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Article
Publication date: 28 January 2020

Yuan-Min Lin, Hsuan Chen, Chih-Hsin Lin, Pin-Ju Huang and Shyh-Yuan Lee

The purpose of this study is to develop resin composite materials composed of polycaprolactone (PCL) acrylates and hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles for ultraviolet…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to develop resin composite materials composed of polycaprolactone (PCL) acrylates and hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles for ultraviolet digital light projection (DLP) three-dimensional (3D) printing technique.

Design/methodology/approach

Two PCL-based triacrylates, namely, glycerol-3 caprolactone-triacrylate (Gly-3CL-TA) and glycerol-6 caprolactone-triacrylate (Gly-6CL-TA) were synthesized from ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolacton monomer in the presence of glycerol and then acrylation was performed using acryloyl chloride. 3D printing resins made of Gly-3CL-TA or Gly-6CL-TA, 5% HA and 3% of photoinitiator 2,4,6-Trimethylbenzoyl-diphenyl-phosphineoxide were then formulated. The surface topography, surface element composition, flexural strength, flexural modulus, cytotoxicity and degradation of the PCL-based scaffolds were then characterized.

Findings

Resin composite composed of Gly-3CL-TA or Gly-6CL-TA and 5% (w/w) of HA can be printed by 405 nm DLP 3D printers. The former has lower viscosity and thus can form a more uniform layer-by-layer structure, while the latter exhibited a higher flexural strength and modulus after being printed. Both composite materials are non-cytotoxic and degradable.

Originality/value

This study provides a direction of the formulation of environment-friendly resin composite for DLP 3D printing. Both resin composites have huge potential in tissue engineering applications.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 26 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 18 April 2017

Saahil V. Mehendale, Liliana F. Mellor, Michael A. Taylor, Elizabeth G. Loboa and Rohan A. Shirwaiker

This study aims to investigate the effect of three-dimensional (3D)- bioplotted polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffold geometry on the biological and mechanical characteristics…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the effect of three-dimensional (3D)- bioplotted polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffold geometry on the biological and mechanical characteristics of human adipose-derived stem cell (hASC) seeded constructs.

Design/methodology/approach

Four 3D-bioplotted scaffold disc designs (Ø14.5 × 2 mm) with two levels of strand–pore feature sizes and two strand laydown patterns (0°/90° or 0°/120°/240°) were evaluated for hASC viability, proliferation and construct compressive stiffness after 14 days of in vitro cell culture.

Findings

Scaffolds with the highest porosity (smaller strand–pore size in 0°/120°/240°) yielded the highest hASC proliferation and viability. Further testing of this design in a 6-mm thick configuration showed that cells were able to penetrate and proliferate throughout the scaffold thickness. The design with the lowest porosity (larger strand–pore size in 0°/90°) had the highest compression modulus after 14 days of culture, but resulted in the lowest hASC viability. The strand laydown pattern by itself did not influence the compression modulus of scaffolds. The 14-day cell culture also did not cause significant changes in compressive properties in any of the four designs.

Originality/value

hASC hold great potential for musculoskeletal tissue engineering applications because of their relative ease of harvest, abundance and differentiation abilities. This study reports on the effects of 3D-bioplotted scaffold geometry on mechanical and biological characteristics of hASC-seeded PCL constructs. The results provide the basis for future studies which will use this optimal scaffold design to develop constructs for hASC-based osteochondral tissue engineering applications.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 September 2019

Mohd Syahir Anwar Hamzah, Azhan Austad, Saiful Izwan Abd Razak and Nadirul Hasraf Mat Nayan

Over the years, electrical stimulation in drug delivery system holds particular interest in producing spatially and temporally controlled release mechanism. These systems…

Abstract

Purpose

Over the years, electrical stimulation in drug delivery system holds particular interest in producing spatially and temporally controlled release mechanism. These systems helped in localized doses drugs to be administrated and response efficiently at target site to achieve excellent healing effect in control microenvironment. Extensive research is needed in order to develop versatile electroactive biomaterials in the field of therapeutics applications. This paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

This work reports the development of polycaprolactone (PCL) electrospun coated with pectin/polyaniline (PANi) composite, which has been characterized and whose drug delivery application is ascertained. The composite has been characterized on its mechanical conductivity and wettability properties to evaluate best formulation. The analysis on morphological properties using scanning electron microscope (SEM) confirmed the formation of the dual-layer electro-responsive composite.

Findings

Among different formulations studied, the pectin/PANi composition (12 percent/3 percent) was found to be an optimized composition with ultimate tensile strength of 55.48±0.65 MPa and modulus strength of 63.30±0.43 MPa with 2.41×10–3 Scm−1 electrical percolation. The hydrophobic PCL electrospun reduced as coating material was introduced on top with optimum of 85.3 percent degree of swelling and water contact angle at 39.17±0.67°. SEM micrograph revealed strong interaction between dual-layer structures with interconnected porous of uniform fibers.

Originality/value

Overall, these data present a multiangle initial characterization of this novel dual-layer electro-responsive composite for applications in drug delivery. However, additional analysis should be performed in order to provide a clear verification as drug delivery scaffold.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 10 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 15 June 2015

Alida Mazzoli, C Ferretti, A Gigante, E Salvolini and M Mattioli-Belmonte

– The purpose of this study is to show how selective laser sintering (SLS) manufacturing of bioresorbable scaffolds is used for applications in bone tissue engineering.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to show how selective laser sintering (SLS) manufacturing of bioresorbable scaffolds is used for applications in bone tissue engineering.

Design/methodology/approach

Polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds were computationally designed and then fabricated via SLS for applications in bone and cartilage repair.

Findings

Preliminary biocompatibility data were acquired using human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) assuring a satisfactory scaffold colonization by hMSCs.

Originality/value

A promising procedure for producing porous scaffolds for the repair of skeletal defects, in tissue engineering applications, was developed.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 11 September 2019

Jiwoon Lee, Jesse Walker, Sanjay Natarajan and Sung Yi

Extrusion-based additive manufacturing (AM) has been considered as a promising technique to fabricate scaffolds for tissue engineering due to affordability, versatility…

Abstract

Purpose

Extrusion-based additive manufacturing (AM) has been considered as a promising technique to fabricate scaffolds for tissue engineering due to affordability, versatility and ability to print porous structures. The reliability and controllability of the printing process are necessary to produce 3D-printed scaffolds with desired properties and depend on the geometric characteristics such as porosity and pore diameter. The purpose of this study is to develop an analytical model and explore its effectiveness in the prediction of geometric characteristics of 3D-printed scaffolds.

Design/methodology/approach

An analytical model was developed to simulate the geometric characteristics of scaffolds produced by extrusion-based AM using fluid mechanics. Polycaprolactone (PCL) was chosen as a scaffold material and was assumed to be a non-Newtonian fluid for the model. The effectiveness of the model was verified through comparison with the experimental results.

Findings

A comparison study between simulation and experimental results shows that strut diameter, pore size and porosity of scaffolds can be predicted by using extrusion pressure, temperature, nozzle diameter, nozzle length and printing speed. Simulation results demonstrate that geometric characteristics have a strong relationship with processing parameters, and the model developed in this study can be used for predicting the scaffold properties for the extrusion-based 3D bioprinting process.

Originality/value

The present study provides a prediction model that can simulate the printing process by a simple input of processing parameters. The geometric characteristics can be predicted prior to the experimental verification, and such prediction will reduce the process time and effort when a new material or method is applied.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 January 2020

Paola Ginestra, Stefano Pandini and Elisabetta Ceretti

The purpose of this paper is to focus on the production of scaffolds with specific morphology and mechanical behavior to satisfy specific requirements regarding their…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to focus on the production of scaffolds with specific morphology and mechanical behavior to satisfy specific requirements regarding their stiffness, biological interactions and surface structure that can promote cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions though proper porosity, pore size and interconnectivity.

Design/methodology/approach

This case study was focused on the production of multi-layered hybrid scaffolds made of polycaprolactone and consisting in supporting grids obtained by Material Extrusion (ME) alternated with electrospun layers. An open source 3D printer was utilized, with a grain extrusion head that allows the production and distribution of strands on the plate according to the designed geometry. Square grid samples were observed under optical microscope showing a good interconnectivity and spatial distribution of the pores, while scanning electron microscope analysis was used to study the electrospun mats morphology.

Findings

A good adhesion between the ME and electrospinning layers was achieved by compression under specific thermomechanical conditions obtaining a hybrid three-dimensional scaffold. The mechanical performances of the scaffolds have been analyzed by compression tests, and the biological characterization was carried out by seeding two different cells phenotypes on each side of the substrates.

Originality/value

The structure of the multi-layered scaffolds demonstrated to play an important role in promoting cell attachment and proliferation in a 3D culture formation. It is expected that this design will improve the performances of osteochondral scaffolds with a strong influence on the required formation of an interface tissue and structure that need to be rebuilt.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 26 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 17 October 2017

Yang Wu, Jerry Fuh, Yoke San Wong and Jie Sun

Fabricating functionally graded scaffolds to mimic the complex spatial distributions of the composition, micro-structure and functionality of native tissues will be one of…

Abstract

Purpose

Fabricating functionally graded scaffolds to mimic the complex spatial distributions of the composition, micro-structure and functionality of native tissues will be one of the key objectives for future tissue engineering research. This study aims to create a scaffold to mimic functionally-graded tissue using a hybrid process, which incorporated electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) and electrosprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) in a simple pathway.

Design/methodology/approach

The PCL and HA were dispensed simultaneously from different positions to form a layer on a rotational mandrel, and a gradient construct was achieved by adjusting dispensing rates of both materials.

Findings

The morphology of scaffolds changed gradually from one layer to another layer with the change of the dispensing conditions of the two materials. The elemental distribution analysis revealed that C/Ca ratio linearly increased with certain dispensing rate ratio of PCL:HA. In addition, the thickness, mechanical properties (i.e. ultimate tensile stress and Young’s modulus), surface roughness and water contact angle of each layer changed accordingly with the variation of dispensing rate of PCL and HA, and the diameter distributions of PCL fibres and HA particles did not vary significantly.

Originality/value

This study showed the hybrid process has the potential to be used in fabrication of scaffold with functionally graded structure for tissue engineering applications, especially for mimicking the nature of the native 3D tendon–bone interface.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 23 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2021

Rudranarayan Kandi, Pulak Mohan Pandey, Misba Majood and Sujata Mohanty

This paper aims to discuss the successful fabrication of customized tubular scaffolds for tracheal tissue engineering with a novel route using solvent-based extrusion 3D printing.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to discuss the successful fabrication of customized tubular scaffolds for tracheal tissue engineering with a novel route using solvent-based extrusion 3D printing.

Design/methodology/approach

The manufacturing approach involved extrusion of polymeric ink over a rotating predefined pattern to construct customized tubular structure of polycaprolactone (PCL) and polyurethane (PU). Dimensional deviation in thickness of scaffolds were calculated for various layer thicknesses of 3D printing. Physical and chemical properties of scaffolds were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM), contact angle measurement, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Mechanical characterizations were performed, and the results were compared to the reported properties of human native trachea from previous reports. Additionally, in vitro cytotoxicity of the fabricated scaffolds was studied in terms of cell proliferation, cell adhesion and hemagglutination assay.

Findings

The developed fabrication route was flexible and accurate by printing customized tubular scaffolds of various scales. Physiochemical results showed good miscibility of PCL/PU blend, and decrease in crystalline nature of blend with the addition of PU. Preliminary mechanical assessments illustrated comparable mechanical properties with the native human trachea. Longitudinal compression test reported outstanding strength and flexibility to maintain an unobstructed lumen, necessary for the patency. Furthermore, the scaffolds were found to be biocompatible to promote cell adhesion and proliferation from the in vitro cytotoxicity results.

Practical implications

The attempt can potentially meet the demand for flexible tubular scaffolds that ease the concerns such as availability of suitable organ donors.

Originality/value

3D printing over accurate predefined templates to fabricate customized grafts gives novelty to the present method. Various customized scaffolds were compared with conventional cylindrical scaffold in terms of flexibility.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 17 August 2015

Gregory I. Peterson, Mete Yurtoglu, Michael B Larsen, Stephen L. Craig, Mark A. Ganter, Duane W. Storti and Andrew J. Boydston

This paper aims to explore and demonstrate the ability to integrate entry-level additive manufacturing (AM) techniques with responsive polymers capable of mechanical to…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore and demonstrate the ability to integrate entry-level additive manufacturing (AM) techniques with responsive polymers capable of mechanical to chemical energy transduction. This integration signifies the merger of AM and smart materials.

Design/methodology/approach

Custom filaments were synthesized comprising covalently incorporated spiropyran moieties. The mechanical activation and chemical response of the spiropyran-containing filaments were demonstrated in materials that were produced via fused filament fabrication techniques.

Findings

Custom filaments were successfully produced and printed with complete preservation of the mechanochemical reactivity of the spiropyran units. These smart materials were demonstrated in two key constructs: a center-cracked test specimen and a mechanochromic force sensor. The mechanochromic nature of the filament enables (semi)quantitative assessment of peak loads based on color change, without requiring any external analytical techniques.

Originality/value

This paper describes the first examples of three-dimensional-printed mechanophores, which may be of significant interest to the AM community. The ability to control the chemical response to external mechanical forces, in combination with AM to process the bulk materials, potentiates customizability at the molecular and macroscopic length scales.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 21 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 14 July 2020

Biwu Huang, Linlin Han, Baolin Wu, Wenbin Zhou and Zhenting Lu

The purpose of this study is to synthesize a new kind of a cationic-type UV-curing prepolymer diepoxycyclohexylethyl tetramethyldisiloxane, which is used to replace the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to synthesize a new kind of a cationic-type UV-curing prepolymer diepoxycyclohexylethyl tetramethyldisiloxane, which is used to replace the current prepolymers’ common cycloaliphatic epoxy resins to prepare a novel 3D printing stereolithography material.

Design/methodology/approach

Diepoxycyclohexylethyl tetramethyldisiloxane was characterized and analyzed by FT-IR and 1HMR. Diepoxycyclohexylethyl tetramethyldisiloxane was compounded with a polycaprolactone polyol, some acrylates and photoinitiators to prepare a novel 3D printing stereolithography resin (3DPSLR11). Optical properties of 3DPSLR11 were investigated by HRPL-150A stereolithography apparatus and INITELLI-RAY400 UV-curing system. Tensile mechanical properties of printed 3DPSLR11 specimens were tested by WDW-50-type universal testing machine, and the glass transition temperature (Tg) was determined by DMA. Rectangle plates and double-cantilever parts were fabricated by using the stereolithography apparatus with 3DPSLR11 as the printing material, and the dimension shrinkage factors and the curl factors of the parts were investigated.

Findings

The experimental results showed that the critical exposure (Ec) of the 3D printing 3DPSLR11 was 11.6 mJ/cm2, its penetration depth (Dp) was 0.18 mm, the tensile strength of the cured 3DPSLR11 was 40.1 MPa, the tensile modulus was 1,741.4 MPa, the elongation at break was 15.3%, Tg was 113°C, the dimension shrinkage factor was less than 0.85% and the curl factor was less than 8.00%.

Originality/value

In this work, a novel 3D printing 3DPSLR11 was prepared with diepoxycyclohexylethyl tetramethyldisiloxane as a main prepolymer. The novel 3DPSLR11 possessed excellent photosensitivity, and its cured products had good mechanical and thermal properties. The accuracy and resolution of the fabricated parts were high with 3DPSLR11 for stereolithography in 3D printing, which showed that 3DPSLR11 has potential application value as 3D printing material.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 26 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

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