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Article
Publication date: 14 June 2013

Ming Zhang, Xiaobo Wang and Weimin Liu

The purpose of this paper is to study the influences of test conditions to the tribological behavior of LaF3 nanoparticles as an additive to a polyalphaolefin (PAO).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the influences of test conditions to the tribological behavior of LaF3 nanoparticles as an additive to a polyalphaolefin (PAO).

Design/methodology/approach

An Optimol‐SRV4 oscillating friction and wear tester (SRV) were used to investigate the tribological properties of LaF3 nanoparticles as an additive in a polyalphaolefin (PAO). The 3‐D morphologies and wear loss volume of the worn scar were measured using a surface profilometer. The chemical state and the intensity of La and F elements on worn surface after friction test was investigated with X‐ray photoelectron spectroscopy to interpret the possible mechanisms of friction‐reduction and anti‐wear with LaF3 nanoparticles.

Findings

The experimental results show that LaF3 nanoparticles added to PAO exhibit excellent load‐carrying capacity, anti‐wear and friction‐reduction properties. LaF3 nanoparticles deposited on the worn surface under lower test temperature during the friction test, and higher applied load, higher test frequency and longer test duration are propitious to the deposition of LaF3 nanoparticles accumulated on the rubbing surface. Under higher temperature, a complicated tribo‐chemical reaction occurred during the friction process, the tribo‐chemical reaction product of La2O3 deposit on worn surface, which also exhibits good lubricating performance.

Originality/value

This paper investigates the tribological properties of LaF3 nanoparticles as green oil additive in poly‐alpha‐olefin (PAO) under variable temperature, applied load, sliding speed and sliding duration. The results could be very helpful for the further applications of LaF3 nanoparticles additives in industry.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 65 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 13 April 2015

Yujuan Zhang, Yaohua Xu, Yuangbin Yang, Shengmao Zhang, Pingyu Zhang and Zhijun Zhang

The purpose of this paper is to synthesize oil-soluble copper (Cu) nanoparticles modified with free phosphorus and sulfur modifier and investigate its tribological…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to synthesize oil-soluble copper (Cu) nanoparticles modified with free phosphorus and sulfur modifier and investigate its tribological properties as environment-friendly lubricating oil additives.

Design/methodology/approach

To improve the anti-oxidation properties of these nanoparticles, two kinds of surface modifiers, oleic acid and oleylamine were used simultaneously. The morphology, composition, structure and thermal properties of as-synthesized Cu nanoparticles were investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and differential thermal and thermogravimetric analysis. The tribological properties of as-synthesized Cu nanoparticles as an additive in liquid paraffin were evaluated with a four-ball friction and wear tester.

Findings

It has been found that an as-synthesized Cu nanoparticle has a size of 2-5 nm and can be well dispersed in organic solvents. Tribological properties evaluation results show that as-synthesized Cu nanoparticles possess excellent anti-wear properties as an additive in liquid paraffin. The reason lies in that as-synthesized surface-capped Cu nanoparticles are able to deposit on sliding steel surface and form a low-shearing-strength protective layer thereon, showing promising application as an environmentally acceptable lubricating oil additive, owing to its free phosphorus and sulfur elements characteristics.

Originality/value

Oil-soluble surface-modified Cu nanoparticles without phosphorus and sulfur were synthesized and its tribological properties as lubricating oil additives were also investigated in this paper. These results could be very helpful for application of Cu nanoparticles as environment-friendly lubricating oil additives.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 67 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2012

Juozas Padgurskas, Igoris Prosyčevas, Raimundas Rukuiža, Raimondas Kreivaitis and Artūras Kupčinskas

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the possibility of using the iron nanoparticles and iron nanoparticles coated with copper layer as additives to base oils.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the possibility of using the iron nanoparticles and iron nanoparticles coated with copper layer as additives to base oils.

Design/methodology/approach

Fe and Fe+Cu nanoparticles were synthesized by a reduction modification method and added to mineral oil. The size and structure of prepared nanoparticles were characterized by SEM, TEM, XRF, AAS and XRD analysis. Tribological properties of modified lubricants were evaluated on a four‐ball machine in a model of sliding friction pairs.

Findings

Spectral and microscopy analysis evidently displayed the formation of Fe and Fe+Cu nanoparticles in suspensions of colloidal solutions and oil. The size of formed nanoparticles was in 15‐50 nm range. Tribological experiments show good lubricating properties of oils modified with Fe and Fe+Cu nanoparticles: higher wear resistance (55 per cent and 46 per cent accordingly) and lower friction coefficient (30 per cent and 26 per cent accordingly). The tests show that nanoparticles provide decreasing tendency of friction torque during the operation of friction pair.

Originality/value

The paper demonstrates that iron nanoparticles and iron nanoparticles coated with copper layer, not only reduce the wear and friction decrease of friction pairs, but possibly also can create layer in oil which separates two friction surfaces and have some self‐organisation properties.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 64 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 2 September 2014

De-Xing Peng and Yuan Kang

The purpose of this work is to study tribological properties of liquid paraffin with SiO2 nanoparticles as an additive, which are made by surface-modification method…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this work is to study tribological properties of liquid paraffin with SiO2 nanoparticles as an additive, which are made by surface-modification method. Taguchi robust designs for optimization in synthesizing SiO2 nanoparticles by sol-gel method.

Design/methodology/approach

The tribological properties of the SiO2 nanoparticles as additive in liquid paraffin are studied by ball-on-ring wear tester to find out optimal concentration, and the mechanism of the reduction of wear and friction will be investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) and atomic force microscope (AFM).

Findings

Under optimal conditions identified by Taguchi robust designs method, SiO2 nanoparticles with a narrow particle size distribution can be obtained and optimal concentrations of SiO2 nanoparticles as additives in liquid paraffin have better properties than the pure paraffin oil.

Originality/value

It is shown in the paper that by reducing friction and AW, the lubricant prepared by the methods described can prolong operating hours of machinery.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 66 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 24 August 2010

A.J. Cobley, D.J. Comeskey, L. Paniwnyk and T.J. Mason

The purpose of this paper is to investigate if copper nanoparticles could be utilized for two types of through hole plating in printed circuit boards, namely: as a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate if copper nanoparticles could be utilized for two types of through hole plating in printed circuit boards, namely: as a catalytic material to initiate the electroless copper deposition process; and as a “conductive” layer which is coherent and conductive enough to allow “direct” electroplating of the through hole. The employment of nanoparticles means that an effective method of dispersion is required and this paper studies the use of mechanical agitation and ultrasound for this purpose.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper utilized drilled, copper clad FR4 laminate. The through holes were functionalized using a commercially available “conditioner” before being immersed in a solution of copper nanoparticles which were dispersed using either a magnetic stirrer or ultrasound (40 kHz). When the copper nanoparticles were utilized as a catalytic material for electroless copper plating, the efficacy of the technique was assessed using a standard “backlight” test which allowed the plating coverage of the through holes to be determined. As a control, a standard palladium catalysed electroless copper process was employed. The morphology of the electroless copper deposits was also analysed using scanning electron microscopy. In the “direct plate” approach, after immersion in the copper nanoparticle dispersion, the through holes were electroplated at 3 Adm−2 for 15 min, sectioned and examined using an optical microscope. The distance that the copper electroplate had penetrated down the through hole was then determined.

Findings

The paper has shown that copper nanoparticles can be used as a catalytic material for electroless copper plating. The coverage of the electroless copper in the through hole improves as the copper nanoparticle concentration increases and, at the highest copper nanoparticle concentrations employed, good, but not complete, electroless copper coverage is obtained. Dispersion of the copper nanoparticles using ultrasound is critical to the process. Ultrasonically dispersed copper nanoparticles achieve some limited success as a conductive layer for “direct” electroplating with some penetration of the electroplated deposit into the through hole. However, if mechanical agitation is employed to mix the nanoparticles, no through hole plating obtaines.

Originality/value

The paper has demonstrated the “proof of concept” that copper nanoparticles can be utilized to catalyse the electroless copper process, as well as their potential to replace costly palladium‐based activators. The paper also illustrates the potential for copper nanoparticles to be used as a “direct plate process” and the necessity for using ultrasound for their dispersion in either process.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 36 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

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Article
Publication date: 19 June 2009

De‐Xing Peng, Yuan Kang, Cheng‐Hsien Chen and Shih‐Kang Chen Fu‐chun Shu

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the dispersion capacity and tribological behavior of liquid paraffin added by diamond nanoparticles.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the dispersion capacity and tribological behavior of liquid paraffin added by diamond nanoparticles.

Design/methodology/approach

The structure of the modified diamond nanoparticles which are prepared by oleic acid (OA) is observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and infrared spectroscopy (IR). The dispersivity of these nanoparticles in liquid paraffin is measured by nanoparticle analyzer. The tribological behavior of adding diamond nanoparticles in liquid paraffin is evaluated by using a ball‐on‐ring wear tester.

Findings

The measurement results reveal the dispersion capability of OA modified diamond nanoparticles and indicate the dispersing stability in liquid paraffin of the OA which is bonded to the surface of diamond nanoparticles through esterification. It is found from wear testing results that the diamond nanoparticle as additive in liquid paraffin at proper concentration shows better tribological properties for anti‐wear (AW) and antifriction than the pure paraffin oil and different AW ability depending on the particle size.

Originality/value

It is shown in the paper that by reducing friction and AW, the lubricant prepared by the methods described can prolong operating hours of machinery.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 61 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 9 March 2010

De‐Xing Peng, Cheng‐Hsien Chen, Yuan Kang, Yeon‐Pun Chang and Shi‐Yan Chang

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the tribological properties of liquid paraffin with SiO2 nanoparticles additive made by a sol‐gel method.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the tribological properties of liquid paraffin with SiO2 nanoparticles additive made by a sol‐gel method.

Design/methodology/approach

The tribological properties of the SiO2 nanoparticles as an additive in liquid paraffin are measured using a ball‐on‐ring wear tester to determine the optimal additive concentration. The mechanism that wear and friction are reduced is studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), and atomic force microscope (AFM).

Findings

Experimental results indicate that the sizes of the synthesized SiO2 nanoparticles are distributed uniformly and that the optimal concentrations of SiO2 nanoparticles in liquid paraffin is associated with better tribological properties than pure paraffin oil, and an anti‐wear (AW) ability that depends on the particle size.

Originality/value

It is shown in the paper that by reducing friction and AW, the lubricant prepared by the methods described can prolong operating hours of machinery.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 62 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 4 March 2014

Manu V. Thottackkad, P.K. Rajendrakumar and K. Prabhakaran Nair

– This manuscript aims to deal with the tribological property variations of engine oil (SAE15W40) by the addition of copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles on weight percentage basis.

Abstract

Purpose

This manuscript aims to deal with the tribological property variations of engine oil (SAE15W40) by the addition of copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles on weight percentage basis.

Design/methodology/approach

Experimental studies on the influence of CuO nanoparticles utilised as an additive in lubricating oil (SAE15W40) under boundary lubrication conditions have been carried out using a pin-on-disc machine in accordance with ASTM G-99 standard. The variation of viscosity, coefficient of friction, wear and settling of nanoparticles has been studied as a function of particle concentration in the lubricant.

Findings

Results show that the frictional force and specific wear rate decrease with an increase in concentration of nanoparticles comes to a minimum at a specific concentration and then increases, showing the presence of an optimum concentration. With the increase in concentration of nanoparticles, the kinematic and dynamic viscosities, and the flash and fire points are found to increase.

Originality/value

The use of CuO nanoparticles as additives to a moderate level is a very efficient means of improving the tribological properties of lubricating oils.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 66 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 28 September 2010

De‐Xing Peng, Yuan Kang, Shih‐Kang Chen, Fu‐Chun Shu and Yeon‐Pun Chang

The purpose of this paper is to study the dispersion and tribological properties of liquid paraffin with aluminum nanoparticles as additive, which are prepared by the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the dispersion and tribological properties of liquid paraffin with aluminum nanoparticles as additive, which are prepared by the surface‐modification method using oleic acid (OA).

Design/methodology/approach

The dispersion stability of aluminum nanoparticles in liquid paraffin is measured by spectrophotometry, which can be optimization by Taguchi method. The tribological properties are evaluated by using a ball‐on‐ring wear tester.

Findings

The results show that few concentrations of aluminum nanoparticles as additives in liquid paraffin have better antiwear and antifriction properties than the pure paraffin oil. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometer analyses can show that the thin films on the rubbing surfaces can be formed by these aluminum nanoparticles, which not only bear the load but also separate the both interfaces, thus the wear and friction can be reduced.

Originality/value

Machine components and mechanism pairs rely on high‐quality lubricants to withstand high temperature and extreme pressure. Extreme pressure and antiwear additives are typically adopted to improve the tribological performance of a fluid lubricant in reducing friction and surface damage under severe conditions.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 62 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 17 August 2010

Jianhua Wang, Jinlong Li, Xiaobo Wang and Weimin Liu

The purpose of this paper is to prepare water‐soluble TiO2 nanoparticles and evaluate the tribological properties as additives in water.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to prepare water‐soluble TiO2 nanoparticles and evaluate the tribological properties as additives in water.

Design/methodology/approach

Nanoparticles present excellent friction‐reducing and antiwear properties as additives in base oils. However, there are seldom literatures about the nanoparticles as additives in water as yet. In this work, water‐soluble TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared by sol‐gel method and characterized with transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction. The tribological properties as additives in water were investigated by SRV and the surface analysis by scanning electron microscope and X‐ray photon electron spectroscope.

Findings

TiO2 nanoparticles modified with polyethylene glycol have uniform size about 10 nm and easily dissolve in water. The tribological experiments showed TiO2 nanoparticles exhibit excellent friction‐reducing and antiwear properties.

Research limitations/implications

The paper is restricted to only TiO2 nanoparticles. Some other water‐soluble nanoparticles also should be prepared and their tribological properties investigated.

Practical implications

Water‐soluble TiO2 nanoparticles could be used as water additives and improve the tribological properties.

Originality/value

This paper emphasises that the water‐soluble nanoparticles are prepared and could be used as water additives.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 62 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

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