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Article

Massimo Dragan, Talar Sahsuvaroglu, Ioannis Gitas and Enrico Feoli

To investigate whether the desertification risk index (DRI) which was originally developed for the coastal area of Turkey in a previous work, could be used as an effective…

Abstract

Purpose

To investigate whether the desertification risk index (DRI) which was originally developed for the coastal area of Turkey in a previous work, could be used as an effective desertification indicator in other Mediterranean areas such as the Lebanon.

Design/methodology/approach

The calculation of the DRI is based on the use of climatic factors and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). As a result, climatic data were obtained and spatial interpolation techniques were applied to derive temperature and precipitation maps within a GIS environment while the NDVI was derived from satellite imagery. Spatial models were employed in order to produce the DRI map of Lebanon. Geographical analysis and standard statistical techniques were employed to investigate the relationships between: desertification risk and two topographic factors, namely, elevation and distance from the sea and desertification risk and the type of land cover. The accuracy of the index was assessed by comparison with recently published official maps and documents.

Findings

The paper demonstrates the efficiency of a desertification index to identify areas at risk. The DRI map proved to be accurate when compared to the map of desertification prone areas recently produced by the Lebanese Ministry of Agriculture. The areas with the highest degree of desertification risk are located in the North‐Eastern part of the country, in the area of the Bekaa Valley. This is in agreement with the reports of the United Nations Convention for combating desertification. A strong correlation was found between desertification risk and distance from the sea (the larger the distance the higher the risk) while shrubland appears to be the land cover type with the highest risk of desertification.

Originality/value

This research work demonstrates how satellite imagery and modern spatial analysis techniques could provide an essential alternative to traditional methods.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

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Article

Idris Nasiru Medugu, M. Rafee Majid and I.D. Choji

The main purpose of this paper is to evaluate current government policies in combating desertification and mitigating the effects of drought. This paper discusses the…

Abstract

Purpose

The main purpose of this paper is to evaluate current government policies in combating desertification and mitigating the effects of drought. This paper discusses the menace of desertification, the extent and the impact of drought in Nigeria.

Design/methodology/approach

The research reported in this paper was undertaken through review of existing literature, personal observations and interview with some of the residents in the affected areas as well as government officials in charge of programs in combating desertification.

Findings

The paper observes that the failure of current government policies include among others the top‐down approach, inconsistencies of government policies, neglect of indigenous knowledge, use of inappropriate technology, sectoral approach, inadequate funding, and inadequate awareness. Having identified the causes of the problem, this paper proposes that the national policy for drought and desertification should ensure sustainable development based on proper management of human‐environment interactions in the affected areas.

Practical implications

The evaluation method performed in this paper allows us to analyze the factors responsible for the failure of government policies in combating desertification in Nigeria. This paper suggests that a number of complementary policies, strategies and management approaches be put in place and such must take cognizance of the existing institutional settings and professional groupings as well as the complex historical, social, cultural, and legal considerations.

Originality/value

The paper provides a rational, holistic, practicable and comprehensive approach for finding solutions to the problems of drought and desertification in Nigeria.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 19 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

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Article

Nasiru Idris Medugu, M. Rafee Majid and Foziah Johar

This paper seeks to review the state of desertification in Nigeria, historical trends and past national efforts as well as ongoing programs for combating the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to review the state of desertification in Nigeria, historical trends and past national efforts as well as ongoing programs for combating the fast-spreading desert conditions in the arid zones of the country.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach has been carried out through a comprehensive review analysis and detailed assessment on several methods of approach which includes archival materials as well as published government documents, field observation and learned background information of the working and funding dynamics of the program to combat desertification.

Findings

The findings of this paper reveal that the failure of the past government effort in combating desertification in Nigeria is a result of the policies and the programs not having been designed to adequately tackle the problem of drought and desertification and of the phenomena being treated as sectoral issues rather than an integrated whole.

Practical implications

This paper has practical implication for anyone interested in sustainable management of drought and desertification in the arid and semi arid zones of the world.

Originality/value

The paper has articulated success and failure of the government programs in combating the twin environmental problems of drought and desertification in Nigeria and also shows that government could significantly combat desertification through sustainable management of its projects/programs if adequate resources are employed.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 22 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

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Article

Njidda Mamadu Gadzama and Haruna Kuje Ayuba

The purpose of this paper is to show the extent of desertification and land degradation as threat to sustainable environmental, agricultural and land development in the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to show the extent of desertification and land degradation as threat to sustainable environmental, agricultural and land development in the Sahel of Nigeria with its consequences; with also some efforts to control desertification.

Design/methodology/approach

Several desertification attenuation projects in Nigeria are employing different methods for maximum benefits obtainable from the objectives) of the particular project. Specific methods will be cited for particular projects mentioned as appropriate. It is noted however that environmental impact assessment, community reconnaissance or needs assessments were initial part of pre-project activities.

Findings

Desertification has reached an alarming state in Nigeria. The frontline desert threatened States of Nigeria constitute 40 per cent of the land mass of the country. With increased pressure of desertification, exacerbated by a period of prolonged drought of about 20 years, climate change and human activities, it is becoming increasingly difficult to obtain sustainability in the management of the fragile lands and the region’s ecosystem. Strategic interventions in combating the problem of desertification in Nigeria have attenuated some of the detrimental social, economic and environmental impacts on the affected communities of the Sahel of the country. Programmes and projects are designed to strengthen the resilience of the people in the affected region with sound ecosystems’ management; support the efforts of the communities resulting in increased agricultural yields. Programmes and projects have strengthened the resilience of the people, participating in sand dune stabilization, the Great Green Wall Sahara Sahel Initiative and other shelterbelt development. Government has sustained inputs in environmentally friendly agriculture and also encouraged synergetic collaborative activities with national agencies, international agencies and local institutions.

Originality/value

These results/activities give evidence of the increased public awareness of environmental degradation due to desertification in Nigeria; the realization in environmental stabilization needs with ready participation of the communities for improved livelihoods in arid agriculture; resulting in internalization of these problems for Nigeria.

Details

World Journal of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5945

Keywords

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Article

Meng‐Lung Lin, Cheng‐Wu Chen, Qiu‐Bing Wang, Yu Cao, Jyh‐Yi Shih, Yung‐Tan Lee, Chen‐Yuan Chen and Shin Wang

The growing rate of desertification in Northwestern China and Mongolia that is occurring as a result of the conflict between economic development and natural conservation…

Abstract

Purpose

The growing rate of desertification in Northwestern China and Mongolia that is occurring as a result of the conflict between economic development and natural conservation has been demonstrated in many studies. There have, for example, been some large studies using variations in bi‐weekly normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) satellite images as a parameter for evaluating the vegetation dynamics in these areas. The purpose of this paper is to identify multi‐temporal variation in vegetated and non‐vegetated areas in remotely sensed satellite images to assess the status of desertification in East Asia.

Design/methodology/approach

Spatial data derived from these satellite images are applied to evaluate vegetation dynamics on a regional level, to identify the areas most vulnerable to desertification.

Findings

Analytical results indicate that the desert areas in East Asia are primarily distributed over Southern Mongolia, Central and Western Inner Mongolia, and Western China (the Taklimakan Desert). These desert areas expanded from 2000 to 2002, shrunk in 2003, then expanded again from 2003 to 2005. The areas most at risk for desertification are principally distributed in Southeastern Mongolia, and Eastern Inner Mongolia.

Originality/value

Simulation results based on data for deserts distributed throughout Northwestern China and Mongolia indicate that the proposed fuzzy model‐based method would be helpful for assessing and monitoring desertification. These analytical results will help administrators refine planning processes, define the boundaries of protected areas, and facilitate decisions for prioritizing areas for desertification protection.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 26 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

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Article

Njidda Mamadu Gadzama

The purpose of this paper is to develop the Great Green Wall (GGW) Project initially financed by the United Nation’s Global Environment Facility Trust Fund, is a Pan…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop the Great Green Wall (GGW) Project initially financed by the United Nation’s Global Environment Facility Trust Fund, is a Pan African proposal in greening the Sahel of Africa from West (Dakar) to the East (Djibouti). It aims at reducing poverty and soil degradation in this region, taking into account the effects of desertification and climate change on sustainability of livelihoods.

Design/methodology/approach

Several desertification attenuation projects in Nigeria are employing different methods for maximum benefits obtainable from the objectives of the particular projects. As noted above, however, the approach of GGW is to improve the alternative livelihoods of the people by their active participating in the implementation of the project. It is also noted that environmental impact assessment, community reconnaissance or needs assessments might be initial part of pre-project activities, thereby making the communities more aware and educated of the impending environmental problems.

Findings

Desertification has reached an alarming state in Nigeria. The frontline desert threatened States of Nigeria constitute 43 percent of the land mass of the country. With increased pressure of desertification, exacerbated by a period of prolonged drought of more than 20 years, climate change and human activities, it is becoming increasingly difficult to obtain sustainability in the management of the fragile lands and the region’s ecosystem. Strategic interventions in combating the problem of desertification in Nigeria have attenuated some of the detrimental social, economic and environmental impacts on the affected communities. Programmes and projects have strengthened the resilience of the people, participating in sand dune stabilization, the Great Green Wall Sahara Sahel Initiative, including shelterbelt developments. Government has sustained inputs in environmentally friendly agriculture and also encouraged synergetic collaborative activities with international and national NGOs, international agencies and local institutions.

Originality/value

These results/activities give evidence of the increased public awareness of environmental degradation due to desertification and climate change in Nigeria; the realization in environmental stabilization needs with ready participation of the communities for improved livelihoods in environmental activities and arid agriculture as supported by the National Great Green Wall (NAGGW) program of the country; resulting in internalization of these projects supporting livelihoods for sustainability in the Sahel of Nigeria.

Details

World Journal of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5945

Keywords

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Book part

Timothy W. Luke

This survey of Las Vegas, Nevada, as a benchmark for the transformations of the Anthropocene, is a provisional exercise in applied social theory. Like multiple processes…

Abstract

This survey of Las Vegas, Nevada, as a benchmark for the transformations of the Anthropocene, is a provisional exercise in applied social theory. Like multiple processes of desertification that are accelerating in and around Las Vegas, this study is provisional, as it follows Las Vegas as a discrete place whose desertifying qualities are spreading far beyond Nevada, regionally, nationally, globally, and virulently so. Las Vegas, Las Vegas Valley, Mohave Desert, and Colorado River Basin are biopolitical spaces and geophysical places that iteratively replicate the psycho-social contradictions of people in search of sustainable lifestyles in global spaces rocked by ecological catastrophe, and which is open to critical scrutiny. The study more closely examines how systems of organized growth tied to commercial degradation, urban demography, military development, and nuclear devastation drive desertification in this region as well as elsewhere. Like the planet’s other sprawling cities, Las Vegas is an integral component in the globalizing neoliberal omnipolitanization of the Earth’s surface. The neoliberal logic of “winner takes all” also is reflected in the metrometabolic exchanges of these extraordinary urban formations. The rampant overdevelopment of a vast urban simulation, featuring multiple ruinations of its own built and natural landscapes, may give many Las Vegans, and probably most Vegas visitors, their most fundamental sense of place.

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Article

Nasiru Idris Medugu, M. Rafee Majid, Foziah Johar and I.D. Choji

The purpose of this paper is to determine the extent to which an afforestation programme as spelt out in the Forestry II programme has checked the encroachment of desert…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine the extent to which an afforestation programme as spelt out in the Forestry II programme has checked the encroachment of desert in the arid and semi‐arid zone of northern Nigeria.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is carried out in the afforestation project states aimed at evaluating the success/failure of the program. Field observation and a site visit are conducted on some communities as well as policies relevant to forestry sector are reviewed.

Findings

The preliminary findings of this paper indicate that the afforestation projects had a positive impact on both biophysical and socioeconomic environment and contributed to the sustainability of the afforestation programme.

Research limitations/implications

This paper is primarily focused on the various components of the Forestry II programme and the extent they have helped in combating desertification.

Originality/value

The paper addresses the need for sustainable afforestation projects and discusses on how the community effort and participation of women plays an important role during the afforestation programs.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

Keywords

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Book part

Umma Habiba, Aki Kogachi, Nguyen Huy and Rajib Shaw

Arid ecosystem covers one third of the Earth's surface and is the home town of majority of the population of the world. This ecosystem is also important because it has…

Abstract

Arid ecosystem covers one third of the Earth's surface and is the home town of majority of the population of the world. This ecosystem is also important because it has significant roles in land and water resources management. However, due to anthropogenic land use activities or shifting climate conditions, the features of the ecosystem change and cause diminished vegetative cover, reduced productivity, increased soil erosion, invasion of exotics, and loss of native species. Moreover, in the recent years, earth's vegetative cover may exceed the ecosystem's capacity to adapt, which happens through the consequence of rapid land degradation along with desertification. Therefore, this chapter provides how different regions endeavor with this arid ecosystem by performing various adaptation practices.

Details

Ecosystem-Based Adaptation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-691-1

Keywords

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Article

Shiva Kumar Shrestha

Temporary and permanent decline in the productive capacity of the land due to natural and human-induced activities such as soil erosion, changing cropping practices and…

Abstract

Purpose

Temporary and permanent decline in the productive capacity of the land due to natural and human-induced activities such as soil erosion, changing cropping practices and less use of organic matter (OM) has been the greatest challenge faced by mankind in recent years, particularly in the hills and mountains of Nepal. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to examine the effectiveness of sustainable soil management practices to mitigate desertification process in the hills of Nepal.

Design/methodology/approach

Promotion of sustainable soil management (SSM) practices through a decentralised agriculture extension approach by involving all the stakeholders in a participatory way.

Findings

SSM practices mainly: OM management, fodder and forage promotion, increased biomass production systems, integrated plant nutrition systems, and bioengineering for soil and water conservation are identified as the most appropriate and relevant technologies in mitigating the desertification process without deteriorating land quality, particularly conserving the top-soils effectively and efficiently in the hills and mountains of the country.

Research limitations/implications

This research is focus on the overall effect of SSM practices due to time and budget constraints. There is scope for doing research on the different aspects of SSM practices and the extent of their effect on different soil parameters (chemical, biological and physical).

Practical implications

SSM interventions clearly indicated that there is significant impact in increasing soil fertility, conserving fertile top-soils and mitigating physical, chemical and biologic desertification processes. These are possible through maintaining and improving the soil organic matter, which is the most important indicator for soil health. SSM practices have resulted in an increase of up to 30 per cent in crop yield compared to yields without SSM practices. This might be due to the improvement in SOC which improves soil texture, increases nutrient supply from organic source and conserves water quality, thus, improving soil quality.

Social implications

This has created awareness among farmers. Hence, farmers are mitigating pH through increased use of organic manures, where there is less availability of agriculture lime and they are far from road access.

Originality/value

SSM practices significantly contributes to combat soil desertification in the hills of Nepal.

Details

World Journal of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5945

Keywords

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