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Article

Faezeh Nejati and S.A. Edalatpanah

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of steel and carbon fibers on the mechanical properties of light concrete in terms of tension strength, compressive…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of steel and carbon fibers on the mechanical properties of light concrete in terms of tension strength, compressive strength and elastic modulus under completely dry and wet conditions.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, the lightweight concrete made of Light Expanded Clay Aggregate (LECA) as coarse aggregate and sand as fine aggregate was used. To achieve a compressive strength of at least 20 MPa, microsilica was used 10 percent by weight of cement. In order to compensate for the reduction of tension strength of concrete, steel and carbon fibers were used with three volume ratio of 0.5, 1 and 1.5 percent in concrete. The results of concrete specimens were studied at the age of 7, 28, 42 and 90 days under controlled dry and wet conditions.

Findings

The results showed that the addition of steel and carbon fibers to the concrete mixture would reduce the drop in slump. Also, the use of steel and carbon fibers plays a significant role in increasing the tension strength of the specimens. Furthermore, the highest increase in tension strength of steel and carbon fiber samples was 83.3 and 50 percent, respectively, than the non-fibrous specimen when evaluated at 90 days of age. Moreover, the steel and carbon fiber increased the water absorption of the samples. Adding steel and carbon fibers to a lightweight concretes mixture containing LECA aggregates plays a significant role in increasing the modulus of elasticity of the samples. The highest increase in the elastic modulus of steel and carbon fibers was 18.9 and 35.4 percent, respectively, than the non-fibrous specimen at 28 days of age.

Originality/value

In this paper, the authors investigated the mechanical properties of steel fiber and carbon reinforced concrete. Also, according to the conditions of storage of samples and the age of concrete (day), the experiments were carried out on samples.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

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Article

Huijun Wu

The purpose of this paper is to research the hardened properties of non-dispersible concrete in seawater environment, especially in seawater environment.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to research the hardened properties of non-dispersible concrete in seawater environment, especially in seawater environment.

Design/methodology/approach

The main approach is according to the experiment.

Findings

The findings of this paper are: first, because of the washing effect of water, the strength of underwater non-dispersible concrete is lower than that of terrestrial concrete. Second, the strength of non-dispersible underwater concrete with silica fume increases remarkably at different ages. Third, underwater non-dispersible concrete does not produce new products when it is formed and cured in seawater.

Originality/value

In this paper, underwater non-dispersible concrete is formed and maintained on land, freshwater and seawater by underwater pouring method. The working performance, mechanical properties and durability of underwater non-dispersible concrete mixtures after hardening are tested.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 11 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

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Article

Xin Wang, Shaoze Luo and Qiang Yuan

A new roller compacted concrete dam of Fengman hydropower station was determined to be built in the toe of the old dam which had been identified as a dangerous dam. The…

Abstract

Purpose

A new roller compacted concrete dam of Fengman hydropower station was determined to be built in the toe of the old dam which had been identified as a dangerous dam. The new dam during construction would be impacted by the high‐speed flow discharged from the old dam. This is an important problem met for the first time in China, which would affect the whole project construction. The purpose of this paper is to describe a series of erosion experiments of the new dam material.

Design/methodology/approach

A kind of high‐speed flow erosion test apparatus was developed for erosion experiment of the new dam material. The maximum jet velocity was up to 40 m/s and the section area of the nozzle was 25 cm2. In the process of experiments, the equipment showed its good performance. Erosive wear tests of two types of materials used in the new dam, a roller compacted concrete and a distorted concrete with four kinds of ages were carried out with the flow velocity in the range of 30‐35 m/s.

Findings

Erosion parameters and erosion laws of the two types of concretes with different ages were obtained, and a general relationship had been found between erosion rate and flow velocity: with velocity exponent between 3.33 and 3.93. It was also concluded that the erosion resistance of the distorted concrete was better than that of the roller compacted concrete and the mechanics properties of the concretes of over 14 days age was influenced slightly by water impacted.

Originality/value

The test results would play a practical technique guide role for the safety of this project during construction in the flood season.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 59 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article

Daniel Paul Thanaraj, Anand N. and Prince Arulraj

This paper aims to explain the influence of Standard Fire as per ISO 834 on the strength and microstructure properties of concrete specimens with different strength grade.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explain the influence of Standard Fire as per ISO 834 on the strength and microstructure properties of concrete specimens with different strength grade.

Design/methodology/approach

The strength grades of concrete considered for the experimental investigation were Fck20, Fck30, Fck40 and Fck50. The specimens were heated up to 1, 2, 3 and 4 h as per standard fire curve. Effect of elevated temperature on compressive and flexural behavior of specimens with various strength grades was examined. Effects of age of concrete, weight loss, surface characteristics and thermal crack pattern were also investigated.

Findings

Experimental investigation shows that strength grade, duration of exposure and age of concrete are the key parameters affecting the residual strength of concrete. For the beams exposed to 3 and 4 h of heating, the residual flexural strength was found to be so insignificant that the specimens were not able to even sustain their own weight. The loss in compressive and flexural strength of Fck50 concrete specimens heated up to 1 h were found to be 26.41 and 86.03 per cent of the original unheated concrete, respectively. The weight loss was found to be more for higher grade concrete specimens, and it was about 8.38 per cent for Fck50 concrete. Regression analysis was carried out to establish the empirical relation between residual strength and grade of concrete. Scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis were carried out to examine the damage level of fire-affected concrete specimens.

Originality/value

Empirical relationship was developed to determine the residual strength of concrete exposed to elevate temperature, and this will be useful for design applications. This database may be useful for identifying member strength of reinforced beams subjected to various durations of heating so that suitable repair technique can be adopted from the available database. It will be useful to identify the proper grade of concrete with regard to fire endurance, in the case of concrete under compression or flexure.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. 17 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

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Article

Hakas Prayuda, Fanny Monika and Martyana Dwi Cahyati

This study aims to discuss the results of fresh properties and compressive strength of self-compacting concrete using ingredients added red brick powder as a fine…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to discuss the results of fresh properties and compressive strength of self-compacting concrete using ingredients added red brick powder as a fine aggregate substitute. The results of the study were compared with the properties of fresh properties and compressive strength with ingredients added by rice husk ash, which is also a fine aggregate substitute. In addition, the initial compressive strength of each of these variations was also examined to accelerate the completion time of construction projects using self-compacting concrete.

Design/methodology/approach

This research was conducted in a laboratory by testing the characteristics of fresh and hardened properties of self-compacting concrete.

Findings

Fresh properties testing is carried out in the form of V-funnel, flow table, J-ring and L-box where all specimens produce quite varied flow rates. Compressive strength was estimated at ages 3, 7, 14 and 28 days with cylindrical specimens with a diameter of 150 mm and a height of 300 mm. The variation of fine aggregate substitutes used is 20, 40 and 60 per cent.

Originality/value

From the results of the compressive strength, it can be concluded that the added material is categorized as self-compacting concrete with high initial compressive strength, while at 28 days, the compressive strength test results are categorized as high-strength self-compacting concrete.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

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Article

Shibli R.M. Khan, J. Noorzaei, M.R.A. Kadir, A.M.T. Waleed and M.S. Jaafar

This paper aims to present a research finding that establishes a regression model between ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) tests and actual strength of high performance…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present a research finding that establishes a regression model between ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) tests and actual strength of high performance concrete (HPC).

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, a total of 270 cube samples were made from six different mix proportions. The mixes were grouped in two series that consist of nominal maximum aggregate sizes of 10 mm (A10) and 19 mm (A19). Silica fume were used as mineral admixtures at 5 percent, 10 percent and 15 percent of cement in both series. UPV tests were conducted for each of the specimens, followed by destructive strength tests. The tests were carried out for concrete at different ages of between three to 56 days. The destructive test results were used as the true strength of the mixes and the UPV test results were used as strength estimation.

Findings

Concrete strength correlations between UPV and destructive tests were analysed for each mix proportions and in each series. These correlations are presented in the form of regression equations that displays standard error of between ±2.4 to ±5.7 MPa regardless of mix for the concrete in series A10. Similarly, in series A19 concrete, standard errors of between ±3.2 to ±6.7 MPa were found. Strength prediction models using UPV for high performance concrete are proposed. The models have overall correlation coefficients above 0.80 for all the mixes.

Originality/value

There are no standard relationships that had been established for high performance concrete strength with UPV test methods. The proposed relationship can be used for concrete strength estimation that is normally required in building or structural assessment, especially with the present trend of constructing modern structures using high performance concrete.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

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Article

Jiang Hu

The multi-scale numerical simulation method, able to represent the complexity of the random structures and capture phase degradation, is an effective way to investigate…

Abstract

Purpose

The multi-scale numerical simulation method, able to represent the complexity of the random structures and capture phase degradation, is an effective way to investigate the long-term behavior of concrete in service and bridges the gap between research on the material and on the structural level. However, the combined chemical-physical deterioration mechanisms of concrete remain a challenging task. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the degradation mechanism of concrete at the waterline in cold regions induced by combined calcium leaching and frost damage.

Design/methodology/approach

With the help of the NIST’s three-dimensional (3D) hydration model and the random aggregate model, realistic 3D representative volume elements (RVEs) of concrete at the micro-, the meso-, and the macro-scales can be reconstructed. The boundary problem method is introduced to compute the homogenized mechanical properties for both sound and damaged RVEs. According to the damage characteristics, the staggering method including a random dissolution model and a thermo-mechanical coupling model is developed to simulate the synergy deterioration effects of interacted calcium leaching and frost attacks. The coupled damage procedure for the frost damage process is based on the hydraulic pressure theory and the ice lens growth theory considering the relationship between the frozen temperature and the radius of the capillary pore. Finally, regarding calcium leaching as the leading role in actual engineering, the numerical methodology for combined leaching and frost damage on concrete property is proposed using a successive multi-scale method.

Findings

On the basis of available experimental data, this methodology is employed to explore the deterioration process. The results agree with the experimental ones to some extent, chemical leaching leads to the nucleation of some micro-cracks (i.e. damage), and consequently, to the decrease of the frost resistance.

Originality/value

It is demonstrated that the multi-scale numerical methodology can capture potential aging and deterioration evolution processes, and can give an insight into the macroscopic property degradation of concrete under long-term aggressive conditions.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

Keywords

Content available
Article

Hala Mohamed Elkady, Ahmed M. Yasien, Mohamed S. Elfeky and Mohamed E. Serag

This paper aims to inspect the effect of indirect elevated temperature on the mechanical performance of nano silica concrete (NSC). The effect on both compressive and bond…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to inspect the effect of indirect elevated temperature on the mechanical performance of nano silica concrete (NSC). The effect on both compressive and bond strengths is studied. Pre- and post-exposure to elevated temperature ranges of 200 to 600°C is examined. A range covered by three percentages of 1.5, 3 and 4.5 per cent nano silica (NS) in concrete mixes is tested.

Design/methodology/approach

Pre-exposure mechanical tests (normal conditions – room temperature), using 3 per cent NS in the concrete mix, led to the highest increase in both compressive and bond strengths (43 per cent and 38.5 per cent, respectively), compared to the control mix without NS (based on 28-day results). It is worth noticing that adding NS to the concrete mixes does not have a significant effect on improving early-age strength. Besides, permeability tests are performed on NSC with different NS ratios. NS improved the concrete permeability for all tested percentages of NS. The maximum reduction is accompanied by the maximum percentage used (4.5 per cent NS in the NSC mix), reducing permeability to half the value of the concrete mix without NS. As for post-exposure to elevated-temperature mechanical tests, NSC with 1.5 per cent NS exhibited the lowest loss in strength owing to indirect heat exposure of 600°C; the residual compressive and bond strengths are 73 per cent and 35 per cent, respectively.

Findings

The dispersion technique of NS has a key role in NSC-distinguished mechanical performance with NSC having lower NS percentages. NS significantly improved bond strength. NS has a remarkable effect on elevated temperature endurance. The bond strength of NSC exposed to elevated temperatures suffered faster deterioration than compressive strength of the exposed NSC.

Research limitations/implications

A special scale factor needs to be investigated for the NSC.

Originality/value

Although a lot of effort is placed in evaluating the benefits of using nano materials in structural concrete, this paper presents one of the first outcomes of the thermal effects on concrete mixes with NS as a partial cement replacement.

Details

Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-2317

Keywords

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Article

Eric Asa, Monisha Shrestha, Edmund Baffoe-Twum and Bright Awuku

Environmental issues caused by the production of Portland cement have led to it being replaced by waste materials such as fly ash, which is more economical and safer for…

Abstract

Purpose

Environmental issues caused by the production of Portland cement have led to it being replaced by waste materials such as fly ash, which is more economical and safer for the environment. Also, fly ash is a material with sustainable properties. Therefore, this paper aims to focus on the development of sustainable construction materials using 100% high-calcium fly ash and potassium hydroxide (KOH)-based alkaline solution and study the engineering properties of the resulting fly ash-based geopolymer concrete. Laboratory tests were conducted to determine the mechanical properties of the geopolymer concrete such as compressive strength, flexural strength, curing time and slump. In phase I of the study, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were added to determine their effect on the strength of the geopolymer mortar. The results derived from the experiments indicate that mortar and concrete made with 100% fly ash C require an alkaline solution to produce similar (comparable) strength characteristics as Portland cement concrete. However, it was determined that increasing the amount of KOH generates a considerable amount of heat causing the concrete to cure too quickly; therefore, it is notable to forming a proper bond was unable to form a stronger bond. This study also determined that the addition of CNTs to the mix makes the geopolymer concrete tougher than the traditional concrete without CNT.

Design/methodology/approach

Tests were conducted to determine properties of the geopolymer concrete such as compressive strength, flexural strength, curing time and slump. In Phase I of the study, CNTs were studied to determine their effect on the strength of the geopolymer mortar.

Findings

The results derived from the experiments indicate that mortar and concrete made with 100% fly ash C require an alkaline solution to produce the same strength characteristics as Portland cement concrete. However, it was determined that increasing the amount of KOH generates too much heat causing the concrete to cure too quickly; therefore, it is notable to forming a proper bond. This study also determined that the addition of CNTs to the mix makes the concrete tougher than concrete without CNT.

Originality/value

This study was conducted at the construction engineering and management concrete laboratory at North Dakota State University in Fargo, North Dakota. All the experiments were conducted and analyzed by the authors.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. 18 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

Keywords

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Article

Samuel Olufemi Folagbade and Moray David Newlands

This paper aims to assess the suitability of cement combination containing CEM I, fly ash, silica fume and metakaolin for durability design against carbonation-induced…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to assess the suitability of cement combination containing CEM I, fly ash, silica fume and metakaolin for durability design against carbonation-induced corrosion in concrete.

Design/methodology/approach

Cube compressive strengths at 28 days and accelerated carbonation depths at 28 days and at various exposure ages were determined at the water/cement ratios of 0.35, 0.50 and 0.65. To assess their suitability for carbonation-induced corrosion, the material costs and embodied carbon dioxide (eCO2) contents of the concretes at equivalent performance were compared.

Findings

Cement combination concretes achieved equal carbonation resistance with CEM I at higher compressive strengths, lower water/cement ratios and higher cement contents. The comparison of the concretes, at equivalent performance, based on the carbonation-induced corrosion exposure classes XC3 and XC4 (Table A.4 of BS 8500-1), shows that ternary and more binary cement concretes have lower costs and eCO2 contents than those recommended in Table A.6 of BS 8500-1.

Research limitations/implications

This analysis is limited to a working life of 50 years. Further research is needed to verify the suitability of the cement combinations for a working life of 100 years and for the other aspects of durability design covered in BS 8500.

Practical implications

Cement combination concretes have lower eCO2 content. Hence, when they are cheaper than CEM I concrete at equivalent performance, they would make concrete construction more economic and environmentally compatible.

Originality/value

This research suggests the inclusion of metakaolin and ternary cement combination concretes in BS 8500 for durability design against carbonation-induced corrosion.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

Keywords

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