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Article

R.V. Balendran

Discusses the results of a study of the moduli of elasticity ofconcretes made with artificially manufactured lightweight aggregatessubjected to uniaxial compression and…

Abstract

Discusses the results of a study of the moduli of elasticity of concretes made with artificially manufactured lightweight aggregates subjected to uniaxial compression and uniaxial tension. Two artificially manufactured lightweight aggregates and one normal weight aggregate (for comparison) were used in the investigation. Concrete mixes designed to have compressive strengths varying from 20 MPa to 60 MPa were used in this study. Presents the results of static and dynamic moduli of elasticity, Poisson′s ratio, ultrasonic pulse velocity, compressive strength and tensile strength tests. Observes that the static modulus of elasticity in tension is nearly equal to the static modulus of elasticity in compression at a stress level of one‐third the ultimate stress. Compressive modulus values are shown to be dependent on the stress level and type of modulus, i.e. either secant or tangent. On the other hand, the tensile modulus is not affected by the stress level. The modulus of elasticity of lightweight aggregate concrete is about 60‐70 per cent of that of normal weight concrete. Compares the test results obtained in this study with research work carried out on other lightweight aggregate concretes by other investigators. Also presents the relationships between static modulus of elasticity, dynamic modulus of elasticity, compressive strength, and Poisson′s ratio, and equations for estimating elastic modulus and Poisson′s ratio.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

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Article

Nour El-houda Daoudi, El-haddi Harkati, Djamel Boutagouga and Messaoud Louafi

The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of the relative density and geometric parameters on the homogenised in-plane elasticity modulus of a cellular honeycomb…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of the relative density and geometric parameters on the homogenised in-plane elasticity modulus of a cellular honeycomb structure using analytical and numerical approaches.

Design/methodology/approach

In this work, the mechanical behaviour of a new design of the honeycomb is analysed through a refined analytical model that is developed based on the energy theorems by considering the shearing and stretching effects in addition to bending.

Findings

By taking into account the various deformation mechanisms (MNT), the obtained results show that the values of elasticity modulus are the same for low relative densities, but the difference becomes remarkable for higher densities. Moreover, it is difficult to judge the effect of the relative density and anisotropy of the cellular structure on the values of the homogenised elasticity modulus without considering all the three deformation mechanisms in the analytical model. It is shown that conventional models overestimate the elasticity modulus, especially for high relative densities.

Originality/value

In this paper, a refined model that takes into account the three deformation mechanisms (MNT) is developed to predict the in-plane elasticity modulus of a honeycomb cellular material. It is shown that analytical models that describe the anisotropic behaviour of honeycomb cells can be improved by considering the three deformation mechanisms, which are bending, stretching, and shearing deformations.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

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Article

Alwyn Varghese, Anand N., Diana Andrushia and Prince Arulraj

Aim of this research work is to examine the stress–strain behavior and modulus of elasticity of fiber-reinforced concrete (FRC) exposed to elevated temperature. The…

Abstract

Purpose

Aim of this research work is to examine the stress–strain behavior and modulus of elasticity of fiber-reinforced concrete (FRC) exposed to elevated temperature. The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of standard fire exposure on the mechanical and microstructure characteristics of concrete specimens with different strength grade.

Design/methodology/approach

An electrical bogie hearth furnace was developed to simulate the ISO 834 standard fire curve. Specimens were exposed to high temperatures of 821°C, 925°C and 986°C for the duration of 30, 60 and 90 min, respectively, as per standard fire curve. Peak stress, peak strain, modulus of elasticity and damage level of heated concrete specimens were evaluated by experimental investigation. SEM-based microstructure investigation has been carried out to analyze the microstructure characteristics of heated concrete specimens.

Findings

The results revealed that carbon fiber reinforced concrete was found to be better than the FRC made with other fibers on improving the modulus of elasticity of concrete. An empirical relationship has been established to predict the modulus of elasticity of temperature exposed specimens with different type of fiber and grade of concrete. In comparison with low melting point fibers, high melting point fibers exhibited higher modulus of elasticity under all tested conditions. Surface damage and porosity level of concrete with carbon and basalt fibers were found to be lower than other FRC.

Originality/value

Empirical relationship was developed to determine the modulus of elasticity of concrete exposed to elevate temperature, and this will be useful for concrete design applications. This research work may be useful for finding the residual compressive strength of concrete exposed to elevate temperature. So that it will be helpful to identify the suitable repair/retrofitting technique for reinforced concrete elements.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

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Article

Tianbiao Yu, Yu Zhao, Xiaoxi Bi, Boxue Song and Ying Chen

The purpose of this paper is to study the influence of the porous structure on the maximum stress and modulus of elasticity of the specimens which are fabricated by rapid…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the influence of the porous structure on the maximum stress and modulus of elasticity of the specimens which are fabricated by rapid prototypes. According to the experimental results, modify the theoretical formula of elastic modulus.

Design/methodology/approach

The Objet Eden 250 was used to prepare the Vero White photosensitive resin samples with different porosity (ranges from 25 to 65 per cent) and different pore structures. The mechanical properties of different samples were numerically simulated and the formulas of the modulus of elasticity were established. Through the compression test, the performance of the specimen is compared and analyzed, and the theoretical elastic modulus formula is optimized.

Findings

With the increase of porosity, the maximum stress of honeycomb structure specimens decreases. The maximum stress of the honeycomb structure specimen with circular pore shape is higher than the hexagon cross-section while the hexahedron and octahedron structure are the arms (wall thickness between pores) with a square cross-section. The error comparison between the modulus of elasticity before and after the structure models regression analysis shows that after the regression analysis, the error of theoretical value and the actual value is between 0 and 14 per cent which is lower than the value before the regression analysis which was between 5 and 27 per cent.

Originality/value

The paper obtains rules of the influence of different porous structures which were fabricated by the Vero White photosensitive resin material on mechanical properties and higher prediction accuracy formula of elastic modulus. The conclusions provide a theoretical basis for Northeastern University, China, to reduce mass and mechanical properties prediction of load-bearing parts.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 26 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article

S. Ghanbarpour, H. Mazaheripour, S.H. Mirmoradi and A. Barari

Self‐compacting concrete (SCC) offers several economic and technical benefits; the use of steel fibers extends its possibilities. Steel fibers bridge cracks, retard their…

Abstract

Purpose

Self‐compacting concrete (SCC) offers several economic and technical benefits; the use of steel fibers extends its possibilities. Steel fibers bridge cracks, retard their propagation, and improve several characteristics and properties of the SCC. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of type and volume fraction of steel fiber on the compressive strength, split tensile strength, flexural strength and modulus of elasticity of steel fiber reinforced self‐compacting concrete (SFRSCC).

Design/methodology/approach

For this purpose, Micro wire and Wave type steel fibers with l/d ratios of 50 were used. Three different fiber volumes were added to concrete mixes at 0.5, 0.75 and 1 per cent by volume of SCC. Six different SFRSCC mixes were prepared. After 28 days of curing, compressive, split and flexural strength and modulus of elasticity were determined.

Findings

It was found that, inclusion of steel fibers significantly affect the split tensile and flexural strength of SCC accordance with type and vf. Besides, mathematical expressions were developed to estimate the flexural, modulus of elasticity and split tensile strength of SFRSCCs regarding of compressive strength.

Originality/value

It was found that inclusion of steel fibers significantly affected the split tensile and flexural strength of SCC accordance with type and f v.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

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Article

Hamid Roham, Siamak Najarian, Seyed Mohsen Hosseini and Javad Dargahi

The paper aims to discuss the design, fabrication, communication, testing, and simulation of a new tactile probe called Elastirob used to measure the modulus of elasticity

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to discuss the design, fabrication, communication, testing, and simulation of a new tactile probe called Elastirob used to measure the modulus of elasticity of biological soft tissues and soft materials.

Design/methodology/approach

Both finite element modeling and experimental approaches were used in this analysis. Elastirob, with the ability to apply different rates of strain on testing specimens, is accompanied by a tactile display called TacPlay. This display is a custom‐designed user‐friendly interface and is able to evaluate the elasticity in each part of the stress‐strain curve.

Findings

A new device is being constructed that can measure the modulus of elasticity of a sensed object. The results of Elastirob applied on two specimens are reported and compared by the results of experiments obtained by an industrial testing machine. Acceptable validations of Elastirob were achieved from the comparisons.

Research limitations/implications

The designed system can be miniaturized to be used in minimally invasive surgeries in the future.

Practical implications

Elastirob determines the elasticity by drawing the stress‐strain curve and then calculating its slope. The combination of the force sensing resistor, microcontroller and stepper motor provides Elastirob with the ability to apply different rates of strain on testing specimens.

Originality/value

It can be employed in both in vivo and in vitro tests for measuring stiffness of touch objects. For the first time, a device has been designed and tested which is a few orders of magnitude smaller than its industrial counterparts and has considerably lower weight.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

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Article

Wenjuan Yao and Jiankang Liu

– The purpose of this paper is to solve temperature stress for bending beam with different moduli under different constraints subject to nonlinear temperature.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to solve temperature stress for bending beam with different moduli under different constraints subject to nonlinear temperature.

Design/methodology/approach

The equations of neutral axis position, normal stress, and displacement of bending beam with different moduli subjected to nonlinear temperature were derived based on different moduli elasticity theory. Meanwhile, iterative procedure was programmed to solve the nonlinear equations. The analytical solution can return back into the result of the same modulus theory, and the analytical solution was compared with finite element numerical solution. It shows that the analytical model proposed in this paper is reliable to use. Furthermore, the influence of different moduli characteristics on the temperature stress and deformation is discussed.

Findings

The mechanical behavior of the bending beam with different moduli subject to nonlinear temperature is quite different from the one that is subjected to force. The bending beam maybe exist two neutral axis, and the reasonable selection of tension modulus and compression modulus can improve the distribution of the normal stress and reduce the maximum tensile stress or the maximum compressive stress.

Originality/value

The crack produced by temperature stress will affect the integrity and the durability of the structure. The solution for temperature problem with different moduli theory is rarely reported at home and board. In view of this, this paper will do some exploratory research-temperature stress for bending beam with different moduli.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

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Article

H.L. Cox and Mrs M.J. Windle

IN the present note a comparison is made between normal aluminium alloys and alloys with increased values of the modulus of elasticity for covering the upper surfaces of

Abstract

IN the present note a comparison is made between normal aluminium alloys and alloys with increased values of the modulus of elasticity for covering the upper surfaces of wings of moderately thick sections, particularly of the smooth wing type. This comparison is intended to form the basis for the design of test panels for experimental verification of the theoretical conclusions.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 21 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

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Article

Zihao Shen, Yang Li, Kuizhou Liu, Jin Zhang and Yu Su

The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) and modulus of elasticity (ME) values of mortar and stone from room temperature to cryogenic temperatures provide an…

Abstract

Purpose

The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) and modulus of elasticity (ME) values of mortar and stone from room temperature to cryogenic temperatures provide an experimental basis for the design of liquefied natural gas (LNG) storage tanks.

Design/methodology/approach

The CTE and ME of mortar and limestone were measured by resistance strain gauge testing technology at cryogenic temperatures.

Findings

The test results showed that CTE values of mortar and stone decreased with the decrease of temperature and CTE values of mortar was greater than that of stone from 0 °C to −165 °C. The ME values of mortar increased significantly at cryogenic temperatures, and less change in stone.

Originality/value

The material at cryogenic temperatures may continue to work in the elastic phase due to the continuous increase of elastic modulus. Therefore, the study of material in the elastic stage may be more important than in the ultimate bearing capacity stage, and it is necessary to carry out further study surrounding the deformation properties of materials at cryogenic temperatures. The CTE and ME values of mortar and stone from room temperature to cryogenic temperatures provide an experimental basis for the design of LNG storage tanks.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 16 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

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Article

Mahmoud Elsayed, Mootaz Ghazy, Yehia Youssef and Khamis Essa

Ti6Al4V alloy has received a great deal of attention in medical applications due to its biomechanical compatibility. However, the human bone stiffness is between 10 and 30…

Abstract

Purpose

Ti6Al4V alloy has received a great deal of attention in medical applications due to its biomechanical compatibility. However, the human bone stiffness is between 10 and 30 GPa while solid Ti6Al4V is several times stiffer, which would cause stress shielding with the surrounding bone, which can lead to implant and/or the surrounding bone’s failure.

Design/methodology/approach

In this work, the effect of selective laser melting (SLM) process parameters on the characteristics of Ti6Al4V samples, such as porosity level, surface roughness, elastic modulus and compressive strength (UCS), has been investigated using response surface method. The examined ranges of process parameters were 35-50 W for laser power, 100-400 mm/s for scan speed and 35-120 µm for hatch spacing. The process parameters have been optimized to obtain structures with properties very close to that in human bones.

Findings

The results showed that the porosity percentage of a SLM component could be increased by reducing the laser power and/or increasing the scan speed and hatch spacing. It was also shown that there was a reverse relationship between the porosity level and both the modulus of elasticity and UCS of the SLM part. In addition, the increased laser power was resulted into a substantial decrease of the surface roughness of SLM parts. Results from the optimization study revealed that the interaction between laser process parameters (i.e. laser power, laser speed, and the laser spacing) have the most significant influence on the mechanical properties of fabricated samples. The optimized values for the manufacturing of medical implants were 49 W, 400 mm/s and 99 µm for the laser power, laser speed and laser spacing, respectively. The corresponding porosity, surface roughness, modulus of elasticity and UCS were 23.62 per cent, 8.68 µm, 30 GPa and 522 MPa, respectively.

Originality/value

Previous investigations related to additive manufacturing of Ti alloys have focused on producing fully dense and high-integrity structures. There is a clear gap in literature regarding the simultaneous enhancement and adjustment of pore fraction, surface and mechanical properties of Ti6Al4V SLM components toward biomedical implants. This was the objective of the current study.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 25 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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