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Article
Publication date: 27 April 2022

Nadia Talbi, Aghiles Nekmouche, Mohand Ould Ouali, Naceur-Eddine Hannachi and Mohammed Naboussi Farsi

This paper aims to model the performances of frames structures by comparing the predictions of ordinary control concrete (CC) and concretes reinforced by fibers. Two types…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to model the performances of frames structures by comparing the predictions of ordinary control concrete (CC) and concretes reinforced by fibers. Two types of steel fibers were used in this work, industrial steel fibers (ISF) and tire-reclaimed fibers obtained by cutting virgin steel tire-cord to 50 mm, noticed virgin steel fibers (VSF). In total, 3% of VSF are used. The results obtained in this paper clearly show the contribution of fibers in improving the global and local behavior of the frames structures. VSF gives the same or better overall behavior as the use of industrial fibers for the same percentage of fibers, with the advantage that VSF contributes to the protection of the environment and limit the wastage of steel.

Design/methodology/approach

This work was carried out using the commercial finite element code Abaqus/Explicit. The behavior of the different concretes used in this study was modeled by the concrete damage plasticity (CDP) constitutive law. The methodology adopted to complete this work consisted in identifying, by calibration of the available experimental results with the numerical predictions, the parameters of the corresponding CDP model for each of the concretes used in this work. To this end, the authors have successively identified the CDP parameters for the CC-V (control concrete used by Vecchio and Emara, 1992) used in frame structure (R + 1). Subsequently, the CDP parameters of the CC-T (control concrete used by Tlemat, 2004), the CVSF (concrete with virgin steel fibers) and the CISF-1 (concrete with industrial steel fibers type 1, ISF-1) are identified using the experimental results of beams under bending tests. Once the model parameters were determined for each concrete, the authors conducted a series of simulations to show the benefit of introducing claimed and industrial fibers in frame structure (R + 1) and (R + 2). This approach recommends the use of concrete reinforced with steel fibers, mainly 6% by mass of VSF and ISF-1, in place of ordinary concrete in new construction to increase the resistance of structures and contribute, if applicable, to the protection of the environment.

Findings

The main findings of this study can be summarized by: the strength and ductility of the frames structures made of concrete fiber are significantly increased. The use of tire-reclaimed steel fibers (VSF) gives the same or better overall behavior as the use of industrial fibers. In addition to their good mechanical contribution, the tire-reclaimed fibers contribute to the protection of the environment and limit the wastage of steel. The use of fibers reduces the cracking zones in concrete fiber frames structures. The usefulness of distinguishing the interstory displacement limits set by codes, in particular, uniform building code (UBC-97), for ordinary concretes and concrete reinforced with fibers is addressed.

Originality/value

The contribution of tire-reclaimed and industrial fibers on the strength and ductility of reinforced concrete-frames structures is addressed. The use of tire-reclaimed steel fibers gives the same or better overall behavior as the use of industrial fibers, the tire-reclaimed fibers having the advantage of contributing to the protection of the environment and limiting the wastage of steel. The paper also points to the usefulness of distinguishing the interstory displacement limits set by codes, in particular UBC-97, for ordinary concrete and concrete reinforced with fibers, in accordance to the predictions of the capacity curves.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 September 2019

Faezeh Nejati and S.A. Edalatpanah

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of steel and carbon fibers on the mechanical properties of light concrete in terms of tension strength, compressive…

74

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of steel and carbon fibers on the mechanical properties of light concrete in terms of tension strength, compressive strength and elastic modulus under completely dry and wet conditions.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, the lightweight concrete made of Light Expanded Clay Aggregate (LECA) as coarse aggregate and sand as fine aggregate was used. To achieve a compressive strength of at least 20 MPa, microsilica was used 10 percent by weight of cement. In order to compensate for the reduction of tension strength of concrete, steel and carbon fibers were used with three volume ratio of 0.5, 1 and 1.5 percent in concrete. The results of concrete specimens were studied at the age of 7, 28, 42 and 90 days under controlled dry and wet conditions.

Findings

The results showed that the addition of steel and carbon fibers to the concrete mixture would reduce the drop in slump. Also, the use of steel and carbon fibers plays a significant role in increasing the tension strength of the specimens. Furthermore, the highest increase in tension strength of steel and carbon fiber samples was 83.3 and 50 percent, respectively, than the non-fibrous specimen when evaluated at 90 days of age. Moreover, the steel and carbon fiber increased the water absorption of the samples. Adding steel and carbon fibers to a lightweight concretes mixture containing LECA aggregates plays a significant role in increasing the modulus of elasticity of the samples. The highest increase in the elastic modulus of steel and carbon fibers was 18.9 and 35.4 percent, respectively, than the non-fibrous specimen at 28 days of age.

Originality/value

In this paper, the authors investigated the mechanical properties of steel fiber and carbon reinforced concrete. Also, according to the conditions of storage of samples and the age of concrete (day), the experiments were carried out on samples.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 October 2019

Wang Jiawei and Sun Quansheng

In order to reduce the impact of bridge construction on traffic under the bridge, the construction of bridges for some important traffic nodes usually adopts the swivel…

Abstract

Purpose

In order to reduce the impact of bridge construction on traffic under the bridge, the construction of bridges for some important traffic nodes usually adopts the swivel construction method. The spherical hinge is a rotating mechanism located between the bottom of the pier and the bridge cap, and is subjected to tremendous vertical pressure. According to the mechanical characteristics of the spherical hinges, this paper applies the ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) material to the spherical hinge. The spherical hinge is subjected to a compression test to test its mechanical behavior. This paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

In order to test the mechanical behavior of the UHPC spherical hinge, multiple sets of 100 mm UHPC spherical hinge specimens were prefabricated. Through the universal testing machine to measure the compressive strength of specimens, draw the force-displacement curve to analyze the failure mechanism and establish the stress calculation formula of the spherical hinge at each point along the radial direction.

Findings

Through the test, the compressive strength of UHPC spherical hinge is obtained, and the influencing factors of UHPC spherical hinge strength are found: reducing water–cement ratio, increasing steel fiber content and length and changing steel fiber arrangement direction can effectively improve the compression strength of UHPC spherical hinge.

Originality/value

For the first time, UHPC materials were applied to the spherical hinge structure, the UHPC spherical hinge diameter is 1/3 of the diameter of the reinforced concrete spherical hinge, which is equivalent to the diameter of the steel spherical hinge. By applying the UHPC spherical hinge, the manufacturing cost is reduced, the process is simple, and the construction difficulty is reduced.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 July 2012

M.F. Boseman, Y.W. Kwon, D.C. Loup and E.A. Rasmussen

In order to connect a fiberglass composite structure to a steel structure, a hybrid composite made of glass and steel fibers has been studied. The hybrid composite has one…

Abstract

Purpose

In order to connect a fiberglass composite structure to a steel structure, a hybrid composite made of glass and steel fibers has been studied. The hybrid composite has one end section with all glass fibers and the opposite end section with all steel fibers. As a result, it contains a transition section in the middle of the hybrid composite changing from glass fibers to steel fibers. The purpose of this paper is to examine interface strength at the glass to steel fiber transition section, in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the hybrid composite as a joining technique between a polymer composite structure and a metallic structure.

Design/methodology/approach

The present micromechanical study considers two types of glass to steel fiber joints: butt and overlap joints. For the butt joint, the end shape of the steel fiber is also modified to determine its effect on interface strength. The interface strength is predicted numerically based on the virtual crack closure technique to determine which joint is the strongest under various loading conditions such as tension, shear and bending. Numerical models include resin layers discretely. A virtual crack is considered inside the resin, at the resin/glass‐layer interface, and at the resin/steel‐layer interface. The crack is located at the critical regions of the joints.

Findings

Overall, the butt joint is stronger than the overlap joint regardless of loading types and directions. Furthermore, modification of an end shape of the middle fiber layers in the butt joint shifts the critical failure location.

Originality/value

The paper describes one of a few studies which investigated the interface strength of the hybrid joint made of fiberglass and steelfiber composites. This joint is important to connect a polymeric composite structure to a metallic structure without using conventional mechanical joints.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 29 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 May 2016

Shuang You, Hongguang Ji, Juanhong Liu, Chenglin Song and Wendi Tang

Macro synthetic steel fibers were incorporated into the concrete material as a toughening agent to improve the corrosion and cracking resistances of concrete in a…

1632

Abstract

Purpose

Macro synthetic steel fibers were incorporated into the concrete material as a toughening agent to improve the corrosion and cracking resistances of concrete in a sulfate-containing service environment.

Design/methodology/approach

To study the basic mechanical properties of this system, an accelerated concrete degradation test was designed to evaluate the influence of the sulfate ions on the concrete. A three-point bending test was carried out in the laboratory to evaluate the fracture toughness. The thickness of the damaged concrete layer and changes of microstructure of the degraded concrete were monitored by using ultrasound, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction detection methods.

Findings

The results showed that compared to the performance of ordinary concrete, in an exposure environment containing sulfate ions, the structure compactness of macro synthetic steel fiber concrete was improved, degradation resistance to the sulfate solution was enhanced and the fracture resistance performance was improved significantly.

Originality/value

The thickness of the degradation layer on the macro synthetic steel fiber concrete was less than a half of that of ordinary concrete in the sulfate environment, and was generally unchanged with increase in the sulfate concentration. Through micro-structural analysis, it was confirmed that macro synthetic steel fiber improved the compactness of the concrete structure, inhibiting access of sulfate ions to the interior of the concrete and thereby reducing the degree of sulfate degradation to the concrete.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 63 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 May 2019

George Bikakis, Nikolaos Tsigkros, Emilios Sideridis and Alexander Savaidis

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the ballistic impact response of square clamped fiber-metal laminates and monolithic plates consisting of different metal…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the ballistic impact response of square clamped fiber-metal laminates and monolithic plates consisting of different metal alloys using the ANSYS LS-DYNA explicit nonlinear analysis software. The panels are subjected to central normal high velocity ballistic impact by a cylindrical projectile.

Design/methodology/approach

Using validated finite element models, the influence of the constituent metal alloy on the ballistic resistance of the fiber-metal laminates and the monolithic plates is studied. Six steel alloys are examined, namely, 304 stainless steel, 1010, 1080, 4340, A36 steel and DP 590 dual phase steel. A comparison with the response of GLAss REinforced plates is also implemented.

Findings

It is found that the ballistic limits of the panels can be substantially affected by the constituent alloy. The stainless steel based panels offer the highest ballistic resistance followed by the A36 steel based panels which in turn have higher ballistic resistance than the 2024-T3 aluminum based panels. The A36 steel based panels have higher ballistic limit than the 1010 steel based panels which in turn have higher ballistic limit than the 1080 steel based panels. The behavior of characteristic impact variables such as the impact load, the absorbed impact energy and the projectile’s displacement during the ballistic impact phenomenon is analyzed.

Originality/value

The ballistic resistance of the aforementioned steel fiber-metal laminates has not been studied previously. This study contributes to the scientific knowledge concerning the impact response of steel-based fiber-metal laminates and to the construction of impact resistant structures.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 September 2021

Shoaib Ahmad and Ghulamul Hasnain

Steel fibers reinforced concrete (SFRC) is now widely accepted as a construction material for its added benefits. The proven increases in high shear capacity, toughness…

Abstract

Purpose

Steel fibers reinforced concrete (SFRC) is now widely accepted as a construction material for its added benefits. The proven increases in high shear capacity, toughness, bridging action of fibers and bond improvement from addition of steel fibers into mix design is a field yet to be explored, Therefore, Reinforced Cement Concrete (RCC) beam-column joint with steel fibers was modeled and analyzed for cyclic loading.

Design/methodology/approach

Beam-column joint is the most critical section of a structure under mixed loading such as that during a seismic episode. Therefore, in this research a reinforced SFRC beam column joint is modeled and analyzed for cyclic earthquake loading with the help of finite element analysis (FEA) software ABAQUS to compare the results with the experimental study.

Findings

Nonlinear static and nonlinear dynamic analysis are carried out on the SFRC joint for the comparison of simulated results with the experimental analysis.

Originality/value

In this paper, Initially, modeling of SFRC joint was done. Then, the finite element analysis of beam-column joint with steel fibers was carried out. After number of simulations, obtained FEA results were compared with the experimental work on the based on the load vs deflection curve, shear stresses, plastic strain region and plastic strain pattern. After the comparison, it was found that the performance of the numeric model for cyclic loading verified the experimental study, and the results obtained were quite promising.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 12 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 August 2014

S. Arivalagan

The present day world is witnessing the construction of very challenging and difficult civil engineering structures. Self-compacting concrete (SCC) offers several economic…

Abstract

The present day world is witnessing the construction of very challenging and difficult civil engineering structures. Self-compacting concrete (SCC) offers several economic and technical benefits; the use of steel fiber extends its possibilities. Steel fiber acts as a bridge to retard their cracks propagation, and improve several characteristics and properties of the concrete. Therefore, an attempt has been made in this investigation to study the Flexural Behaviour of Steel Fiber Reinforced self compacting concrete incorporating silica fume in the structural elements. The self compacting concrete mixtures have a coarse aggregate replacement of 25% and 35% by weight of silica fume. Totally eight mixers are investigated in which cement content, water content, dosage of superplasticers were all constant. Slump flow time and diameter, J-Ring, V-funnel, and L-Box were performed to assess the fresh properties of the concrete. The variable in this study was percentage of volume fraction (1.0, 1.5) of steel fiber. Finally, five beams were to be casted for study, out of which one was made with conventional concrete, one with SCC (25% silica fume) and other were with SCC (25% silica fume + 1% of steel fiber, 25% silica fume + 1.5% of steel fiber) one with SCC (35% silica fume), and other were SCC (35% Silica fume + 1% of steel fiber, 35% Silica fume + 1.5% of steel fiber). Compressive strength, flexural strength of the concrete was determined for hardened concrete for 7 and 28 days. This investigation is also done to determine the increase the compressive strength by addition of silica fume by varying the percentage.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 February 2019

Muhd Afiq Hizami Abdullah, Mohd Zulham Affandi Mohd Zahid, Afizah Ayob and Khairunnisa Muhamad

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect on flexural strength of fire-damaged concrete repaired with high-strength mortar (HSM).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect on flexural strength of fire-damaged concrete repaired with high-strength mortar (HSM).

Design/methodology/approach

Reinforced concrete beams with dimension of 100 mm × 100 mm × 500 mm were used in this study. Beams were then heated to 400°C and overlaid with either HSM or high-strength fiber reinforced mortar (HSFM) to measure the effectiveness of repair material. Repaired beams of different material were then tested for flexural strength. Another group of beams was also repaired and tested by the same procedure but was heated at higher temperature of 600°C.

Findings

Repair of 400°C fire-damaged samples using HSM regained 72 per cent of its original flexural strength, 100.8 per cent of its original toughness and 56.9 per cent of its original elastic stiffness. Repair of 400°C fire-damaged samples using HSFM regained 113.5 per cent of its original flexural strength, 113 per cent of its original toughness and 85.1 per cent of its original elastic stiffness. Repair of 600°C fire-damaged samples using HSM regained 18.7 per cent of its original flexural strength, 25.9 per cent of its original peak load capacity, 26.1 per cent of its original toughness and 22 per cent of its original elastic stiffness. Repair of 600°C fire-damaged samples using HSFM regained 68.4 per cent of its original flexural strength, 96.5 per cent of its original peak load capacity, 71.2 per cent of its original toughness and 52.2 per cent of its original elastic stiffness.

Research limitations/implications

This research is limited to the size of the furnace. The beam specimen is limited to 500 mm of length and overall dimensions. This dimension is not practical in actual structure, hence it may cause exaggeration of deteriorating effect of heating on reinforced concrete beam.

Practical implications

This study may promote more investigation of using HSM as repair material for fire-damaged concrete. This will lead to real-world application and practical solution for fire-damaged structure.

Social implications

The aim of this research in using HSM mostly due to the material’s high workability which will ease its application and promote quality in repair of damaged structure.

Originality/value

There is a dearth of research on using HSM as repair material for fire-damaged concrete. Some research has been carried out using mortar but at lower strength compared to this research.

Details

Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-2317

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 August 2006

A.E. Richardson and C. Fallow

To evaluate manufacturers' claims that structural polypropylene fibres provide satisfactory crack control reinforcement and compare the findings against steel fabric used…

Abstract

Purpose

To evaluate manufacturers' claims that structural polypropylene fibres provide satisfactory crack control reinforcement and compare the findings against steel fabric used as crack control in screeds where tensile forces are likely to occur.

Design/methodology/approach

The procedure used to provide load, deflection data, toughness indices and residual strength factors was compliant with ASTM C1018‐97 and in part ASTM C78‐02 to define first crack toughness and first crack strength.

Findings

A142 steel fabric reinforcement as used in screeds was more effective in producing toughness and residual strength when directly compared with the performance of structural polypropylene fibre reinforced concrete. Where polypropylene fibre reinforced concrete did have an advantage over the steel reinforced concrete was when I20 was exceeded and the deflection and crack width was excessive. Steel fabric tended to fail and/or the screed material failed either prior to or in excess of I20, whereas the fibre reinforced concrete held together albeit at a very much reduced load transfer when compared with steel fabric.

Practical implications

If the forces to be encountered through expansion or contraction are small, then, due to the small distances between the fibres redistributing the stress and minimising the cracks within the concrete matrix, polypropylene fibres may be suitable for crack control when directly compared with A142 fabric reinforcement. The use of fibres has benefits to the floor screed companies, using screed‐laying machines as the process avoids laying steel on which the screed machine will have to operate.

Originality/value

There is a general lack of research coverage examining crack control in screed floor finishing materials.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 24 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

Keywords

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