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Article
Publication date: 20 February 2020

Daniel Paul Thanaraj, Anand N. and Prince Arulraj

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of standard fire on the strength and microstructure properties of concrete with different strength grades.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of standard fire on the strength and microstructure properties of concrete with different strength grades.

Design/methodology/approach

Different strength grades of concrete used for the investigation are M20, M30, M40 and M50. An electrical bogie hearth furnace was developed to simulate the International Standards Organization 834 standard fire curve.Concrete samples were subjected to high temperatures of 925, 1,029, 1,090 and 1,133°C for the duration of 1, 2, 3 and 4 h, respectively, as per standard fire curve. Compressive strength, tensile strength, thermal crack pattern and spalling of heated concrete specimens were evaluated by experimental investigation. Scanning electron microscopy and thermo-gravimetric analysis were performed to investigate the microstructure properties of heated concrete specimens.

Findings

Test results indicated reduction in the strength and changes in the microstructure properties of concrete exposed to elevated temperature. The degree of weight and the strength loss were found to be higher for concrete with higher grades. An empirical relation is proposed to determine the residual strength of concrete with different strength grade using regression analysis.

Social implications

Results of this research will be useful for the design engineers to understand the behavior of concrete exposed to elevated temperature as per standard fire.

Originality/value

When concrete is exposed to elevated temperature, its internal microstructure changes, thereby strength and durability of concrete deteriorates. The performance of concrete with different strength grade exposed to standard fire is well understood. This research’s findings will be useful for the designers to understand more about fire resistance of concrete. A simple relationship is proposed to determine the residual strength of concrete exposed to various durations of heating.

Details

Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-2317

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 May 2019

Daniel Paul Thanaraj, Anand N. and Prince Arulraj

This paper aims to explain the influence of Standard Fire as per ISO 834 on the strength and microstructure properties of concrete specimens with different strength grade.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explain the influence of Standard Fire as per ISO 834 on the strength and microstructure properties of concrete specimens with different strength grade.

Design/methodology/approach

The strength grades of concrete considered for the experimental investigation were Fck20, Fck30, Fck40 and Fck50. The specimens were heated up to 1, 2, 3 and 4 h as per standard fire curve. Effect of elevated temperature on compressive and flexural behavior of specimens with various strength grades was examined. Effects of age of concrete, weight loss, surface characteristics and thermal crack pattern were also investigated.

Findings

Experimental investigation shows that strength grade, duration of exposure and age of concrete are the key parameters affecting the residual strength of concrete. For the beams exposed to 3 and 4 h of heating, the residual flexural strength was found to be so insignificant that the specimens were not able to even sustain their own weight. The loss in compressive and flexural strength of Fck50 concrete specimens heated up to 1 h were found to be 26.41 and 86.03 per cent of the original unheated concrete, respectively. The weight loss was found to be more for higher grade concrete specimens, and it was about 8.38 per cent for Fck50 concrete. Regression analysis was carried out to establish the empirical relation between residual strength and grade of concrete. Scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis were carried out to examine the damage level of fire-affected concrete specimens.

Originality/value

Empirical relationship was developed to determine the residual strength of concrete exposed to elevate temperature, and this will be useful for design applications. This database may be useful for identifying member strength of reinforced beams subjected to various durations of heating so that suitable repair technique can be adopted from the available database. It will be useful to identify the proper grade of concrete with regard to fire endurance, in the case of concrete under compression or flexure.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. 17 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 November 2019

Saranya Ilango and Sunil Mahato

Concrete in-filled stainless steel square tubular column combines both the benefits of concrete and steel material, providing enhanced ductility and high compressive…

Abstract

Purpose

Concrete in-filled stainless steel square tubular column combines both the benefits of concrete and steel material, providing enhanced ductility and high compressive strength to the vertical structural members. Other advantages include high stiffness, better resistance to corrosion, increased pace of construction, enhanced bearing capacity, etc. The purpose of this paper is to understand the various behavioural aspects of concrete in-filled cold-formed duplex stainless steel (CI-CFDSS) square tubular column under axial compressive loads and to assess its structural performance.

Design/methodology/approach

In the current paper, the performance of CI-CFDSS square tubular column is numerically investigated under uniform static loading using finite element technique. The numerical study was based on an experimental investigation, which was carried out earlier, in order to study the effects of concrete strength and shape of stainless steel tube on the strength and behaviour of CI-CFDSS square tubular column. The experimental CI-CFDSS square tubular column has a length equal to 450 mm, breadth of 150 mm, width of 150 mm, thickness of 6 mm and a constant ratio of length to overall depth equal to 3. Numerical modelling of the experimental specimen was carried out using ABAQUS software by providing appropriate material properties. Non-linear finite element analysis was performed and the load vs axial deflection curve of the numerical CI-CFDSS square tubular column obtained was validated with the results of the experiment. In order to understand the behaviour of CI-CFDSS square tubular column under axial compressive loads, a parametric study was performed by varying the grade of concrete, type of stainless steel, thickness of stainless steel tube and shape of cross section. From the results, the performance of CI-CFDSS square tubular column was comparatively studied.

Findings

When the grade of concrete was increased the deformation capacity of the CI-CFDSS square tubular column reduced but showed better load carrying capacity. The steel tube made of duplex stainless steel exhibited enhanced performance in terms of load carrying capacity and axial deformation than the other forms, i.e. austenitic and ferritic stainless steel. The most suitable cross section for the CI-CFDSS square tubular column with respect to its performance is rectangular cross section and variation of the steel tube thickness led to the change of overall dimensions of the N-CI-CFDSS-SHS1C40 square tubular column showing marginal difference in performance.

Originality/value

The research work presented in this manuscript is authentic and could contribute to the understanding of the behavioural aspects of CI-CFDSS square tubular column under axial compressive loads.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 June 2021

Niragi Dave, Ramesh Guduru, Anil Kumar Misra and Anil Kumar Sharma

The consumption of supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) has increased enormously in the construction industry. These SCMs are often waste materials or industrial…

Abstract

Purpose

The consumption of supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) has increased enormously in the construction industry. These SCMs are often waste materials or industrial by-products. This study aims to investigate the bond strength using reinforcing bars in Normal Strength Concrete (M20 grade) and High Strength Concrete (M40 grade), developed using SCMs and data was compared with concrete prepared with ordinary portland cement (OPC). The findings of the study will help in reducing the dependency on OPC and promote the utilization of waste materials in Construction.

Design/methodology/approach

In the present study, the bond behavior between the steel bars and the concrete was investigated in controlled, binary and quaternary concretes of M20 and M40 grades. Following the conventional procedures, samples were prepared and mechanical tests conducted (as per IS:2770–1 code for M20 and M40 grade concrete structures), which showed an improvement in the bond strength depending on the extent of overall calcium and silica content in these composite mixtures, and thus reflected the importance of vigilant utilization of used industrial waste in the OPC as a replacement without exceeding silica content beyond certain percentages for enhanced structural properties.

Findings

Experimental evaluation of bond behavior results showed a brittle nature for the controlled (OPC) concrete mixtures. While binary and quaternary concrete was able to resist the load-carrying capacity under large deformations and prevented the split cracking and disintegration of the concretes. Among different variations in the chemistry, for both M20 and M40 grades, the maximum bond strengths were observed for 10% Metakaolin + 10% Silica Fume + 30% Fly Ash + 50% OPC composition and this could be attributed to the fineness of the additives, better packing and enhanced calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H).

Originality/value

Quaternary concrete may be a future option in place of OPC concrete. Very limited data is available related to the bond strength of quaternary concrete. Experimental analysis on quaternary concrete shows that its use in construction can reduce both construction cost and a burden on natural raw materials used to make OPC.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 February 2020

Utino Worabo Woju and A.S. Balu

The aim of this paper is mainly to handle the fuzzy uncertainties present in structures appropriately. In general, uncertainties of variables are classified as aleatory…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is mainly to handle the fuzzy uncertainties present in structures appropriately. In general, uncertainties of variables are classified as aleatory and epistemic. The different sources of uncertainties in reinforced concrete structures include the randomness, mathematical models, physical models, environmental factors and gross errors. The effects of imprecise data in reinforced concrete structures are studied here by using fuzzy concepts. The aim of this paper is mainly to handle the uncertainties of variables with unclear boundaries.

Design/methodology/approach

To achieve the intended objective, the reinforced concrete beam subjected to flexure and shear was designed as per Euro Code (EC2). Then, different design parameters such as corrosion parameters, material properties and empirical expressions of time-dependent material properties were identified through a thorough literature review.

Findings

The fuzziness of variables was identified, and their membership functions were generated by using the heuristic method and drawn by MATLAB R2018a software. In addition to the identification of fuzziness of variables, the study further extended to design optimization of reinforced concrete structure by using fuzzy relation and fuzzy composition.

Originality/value

In the design codes of the concrete structure, the concrete grades such as C16/20, C20/25, C25/30, C30/37 and so on are provided and being adopted for design in which the intermediate grades are not considered, but using fuzzy concepts the intermediate grades of concrete can be recognized by their respective degree of membership. In the design of reinforced concrete structure using fuzzy relation and composition methods, the optimum design is considered when the degree of membership tends to unity. In addition to design optimization, the level of structural performance evaluation can also be carried out by using fuzzy concepts.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. 18 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 July 2021

Mervin Ealiyas Mathews, Anand N, Diana Andrushia A, Tattukolla Kiran and Khalifa Al-Jabri

Building elements that are damaged by fire are often strengthened by fiber wrapping techniques. Self-compacting concrete (SCC) is an advanced building material that is…

Abstract

Purpose

Building elements that are damaged by fire are often strengthened by fiber wrapping techniques. Self-compacting concrete (SCC) is an advanced building material that is widely used in construction due to its ability to flow and pass through congested reinforcement and fill the required areas easily without compaction. The aim of the research work is to examine the flexural behavior of SCC subjected to elevated temperature. This research work examines the effect of natural air cooling (AC) and water cooling (WC) on flexural behavior of M20, M30, M40 and M50 grade fire-affected retro-fitted SCC. The results of the investigation will enable the designers to choose the appropriate repair technique for improving the service life of structures.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, an attempt has been made to evaluate the flexural behavior of fire exposed reinforced SCC beams retrofitted with laminates of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP), basalt fiber reinforced polymer (BFRP) and glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP). Beam specimens were cast with M20, M30, M40 and M50 grades of SCC and heated to 925ºC using an electrical furnace for 60 min duration following ISO 834 standard fire curve. The heated SCC beams were cooled by either natural air or water spraying.

Findings

The reduction in the ultimate load carrying capacity of heated beams was about 42% and 55% for M50 grade specimens that were cooled by air and water, respectively, in comparison with the reference specimens. The increase in the ultimate load was 54%, 38% and 27% for the specimens retrofitted with CFRP, BFRP and GFRP, respectively, compared with the fire-affected specimens cooled by natural air. Water-cooled specimens had shown higher level of damage than the air-cooled specimens. The specimens wrapped with carbon fiber could able to improve the flexural strength than basalt and glass fiber wrapping.

Originality/value

SCC, being a high performance concrete, is essential to evaluate the performance under fire conditions. This research work provides the flexural behavior and physical characteristics of SCC subjected to elevated temperature as per ISO rate of heating. In addition attempt has been made to enhance the flexural strength of fire-exposed SCC with wrapping using different fibers. The experimental data will enable the engineers to choose the appropriate material for retrofitting.

Details

Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-2317

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 February 2021

Alwyn Varghese, Anand N., Diana Andrushia and Prince Arulraj

Aim of this research work is to examine the stress–strain behavior and modulus of elasticity of fiber-reinforced concrete (FRC) exposed to elevated temperature. The…

Abstract

Purpose

Aim of this research work is to examine the stress–strain behavior and modulus of elasticity of fiber-reinforced concrete (FRC) exposed to elevated temperature. The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of standard fire exposure on the mechanical and microstructure characteristics of concrete specimens with different strength grade.

Design/methodology/approach

An electrical bogie hearth furnace was developed to simulate the ISO 834 standard fire curve. Specimens were exposed to high temperatures of 821°C, 925°C and 986°C for the duration of 30, 60 and 90 min, respectively, as per standard fire curve. Peak stress, peak strain, modulus of elasticity and damage level of heated concrete specimens were evaluated by experimental investigation. SEM-based microstructure investigation has been carried out to analyze the microstructure characteristics of heated concrete specimens.

Findings

The results revealed that carbon fiber reinforced concrete was found to be better than the FRC made with other fibers on improving the modulus of elasticity of concrete. An empirical relationship has been established to predict the modulus of elasticity of temperature exposed specimens with different type of fiber and grade of concrete. In comparison with low melting point fibers, high melting point fibers exhibited higher modulus of elasticity under all tested conditions. Surface damage and porosity level of concrete with carbon and basalt fibers were found to be lower than other FRC.

Originality/value

Empirical relationship was developed to determine the modulus of elasticity of concrete exposed to elevate temperature, and this will be useful for concrete design applications. This research work may be useful for finding the residual compressive strength of concrete exposed to elevate temperature. So that it will be helpful to identify the suitable repair/retrofitting technique for reinforced concrete elements.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 18 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1987

Peter Lindsell and Mike Mulheron

Introduction In a recent paper in this journal, Campbell outlined some of the techniques and problems associated with the demolition of existing structures and touched…

Abstract

Introduction In a recent paper in this journal, Campbell outlined some of the techniques and problems associated with the demolition of existing structures and touched upon the possibility of recycling the debris from this process. This reflects the growing awareness among the general public, local authorities and central Government that the recycling of waste materials, from all sources, is both necessary and desirable. Indeed, according to a recently published report from the Trade and Industry Committee of the House of Commons: ‘The benefits of recycling are obvious: rarely do environ‐mental and economic factors so unambiguously support the same goal’.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

Article
Publication date: 1 July 2020

Rachit Sharma

This paper presents the effects of replacing fine aggregate (FA) with waste foundry sand (WFS) in natural aggregate and construction waste aggregate concrete specimens…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper presents the effects of replacing fine aggregate (FA) with waste foundry sand (WFS) in natural aggregate and construction waste aggregate concrete specimens without and with superplasticizer (SP), silica fume (SF) and fiber (F) to solve the disposal problems of various wastes along with saving the environment. This study aims to investigate the effect of construction waste, WFS along with additives on the stress-strain behavior and development of compressive strength with age.

Design/methodology/approach

The various concrete specimen were prepared in mix proportion of 1: 2: 4 (cement (C): sand: coarse aggregate). The water-cement ratio of 0.5 (decreased by 10% for samples containing SP) to grading 1: 2: 4 under air-dry condition was adopted in the preparation of concrete specimens. The compressive strength of various concrete specimen were noticed for 3, 7 and 28 days by applying load through universal testing machine.

Findings

Upon adding construction and demolition waste aggregates, the compressive strength of concrete after 28 days was comparable to that of the control concrete specimen. An enhancement in the value of compressive strength is perceived when FA is replaced with WFS to the extent of 10%, 20% and 30%. If both construction and demolition waste aggregate and WFS replacing FA are used, the compressive strength increases. When FA is interchanged with WFS in natural aggregate or construction demolition waste aggregate concrete including usage of SF or F, the compressive strength improves significantly. Further, when construction and demolition waste aggregate and WFS replacing FA including SP are used, the compressive strength improves marginally compared to that of control specimen. The rate of strength development with age is observed to follow similar trend as in control concrete specimen. Therefore, construction and demolition waste and or WFS can be used effectively in concrete confirming an improvement in strength.

Originality/value

The utilization of these wastes in concrete will resolve the problem of their disposal and save the environment.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 August 2021

Oliver Bahr

This paper aims to answer two questions. First, are there any differences in the fire performance of columns made of normal and of high-strength concrete? Second, under…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to answer two questions. First, are there any differences in the fire performance of columns made of normal and of high-strength concrete? Second, under which circumstances does the fire design govern the cross-sectional dimensions of concrete columns? Is it feasible to replace columns out of normal strength concrete by more slender high-strength concrete columns?

Design/methodology/approach

The author conducted numerical studies using the finite element code “Infocad” of the German company “Infograph”. The studies included the effect of different parameters on the fire performance of columns out of normal and high-strength concrete, i.e. the load ratio and eccentricity, boundary conditions and times of fire exposure.

Findings

Results from the numerical investigations showed that high-strength concrete columns suffer much more from heating than normal strength concrete columns. This is the outcome of the unfavourable mechanical properties of high-strength concrete at elevated temperatures. Although the relative fire performance of columns out of high-strength concrete is worse than that of columns out of normal strength concrete, initial load reserves are beneficial to achieve even high fire ratings.

Originality/value

Many researchers addressed in experimental and numerical studies the fire performance of columns out of normal and high-strength concrete. A special emphasis was often laid on the spalling of fire-exposed high-strength concrete. However, there are no systematic investigations when the fire design governs the cross-sectional dimensions of high-strength concrete columns. Based on a previous comparison of the relative fire performance of columns out of normal and high-strength concrete, this paper, hence, addresses the question whether there is a reasonable lower limit for the use of these columns. This is an important aspect for designers since there is a tendency to replace columns out of normal strength concrete by columns out of high-strength concrete. Higher concrete strengths allow for smaller cross sections of the columns, and designers may, hence, increase the usable space of buildings.

Details

Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-2317

Keywords

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