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Article

Daniel Paul Thanaraj, Anand N. and Prince Arulraj

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of standard fire on the strength and microstructure properties of concrete with different strength grades.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of standard fire on the strength and microstructure properties of concrete with different strength grades.

Design/methodology/approach

Different strength grades of concrete used for the investigation are M20, M30, M40 and M50. An electrical bogie hearth furnace was developed to simulate the International Standards Organization 834 standard fire curve.Concrete samples were subjected to high temperatures of 925, 1,029, 1,090 and 1,133°C for the duration of 1, 2, 3 and 4 h, respectively, as per standard fire curve. Compressive strength, tensile strength, thermal crack pattern and spalling of heated concrete specimens were evaluated by experimental investigation. Scanning electron microscopy and thermo-gravimetric analysis were performed to investigate the microstructure properties of heated concrete specimens.

Findings

Test results indicated reduction in the strength and changes in the microstructure properties of concrete exposed to elevated temperature. The degree of weight and the strength loss were found to be higher for concrete with higher grades. An empirical relation is proposed to determine the residual strength of concrete with different strength grade using regression analysis.

Social implications

Results of this research will be useful for the design engineers to understand the behavior of concrete exposed to elevated temperature as per standard fire.

Originality/value

When concrete is exposed to elevated temperature, its internal microstructure changes, thereby strength and durability of concrete deteriorates. The performance of concrete with different strength grade exposed to standard fire is well understood. This research’s findings will be useful for the designers to understand more about fire resistance of concrete. A simple relationship is proposed to determine the residual strength of concrete exposed to various durations of heating.

Details

Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-2317

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Article

Daniel Paul Thanaraj, Anand N. and Prince Arulraj

This paper aims to explain the influence of Standard Fire as per ISO 834 on the strength and microstructure properties of concrete specimens with different strength grade.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explain the influence of Standard Fire as per ISO 834 on the strength and microstructure properties of concrete specimens with different strength grade.

Design/methodology/approach

The strength grades of concrete considered for the experimental investigation were Fck20, Fck30, Fck40 and Fck50. The specimens were heated up to 1, 2, 3 and 4 h as per standard fire curve. Effect of elevated temperature on compressive and flexural behavior of specimens with various strength grades was examined. Effects of age of concrete, weight loss, surface characteristics and thermal crack pattern were also investigated.

Findings

Experimental investigation shows that strength grade, duration of exposure and age of concrete are the key parameters affecting the residual strength of concrete. For the beams exposed to 3 and 4 h of heating, the residual flexural strength was found to be so insignificant that the specimens were not able to even sustain their own weight. The loss in compressive and flexural strength of Fck50 concrete specimens heated up to 1 h were found to be 26.41 and 86.03 per cent of the original unheated concrete, respectively. The weight loss was found to be more for higher grade concrete specimens, and it was about 8.38 per cent for Fck50 concrete. Regression analysis was carried out to establish the empirical relation between residual strength and grade of concrete. Scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis were carried out to examine the damage level of fire-affected concrete specimens.

Originality/value

Empirical relationship was developed to determine the residual strength of concrete exposed to elevate temperature, and this will be useful for design applications. This database may be useful for identifying member strength of reinforced beams subjected to various durations of heating so that suitable repair technique can be adopted from the available database. It will be useful to identify the proper grade of concrete with regard to fire endurance, in the case of concrete under compression or flexure.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. 17 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

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Article

Saranya Ilango and Sunil Mahato

Concrete in-filled stainless steel square tubular column combines both the benefits of concrete and steel material, providing enhanced ductility and high compressive…

Abstract

Purpose

Concrete in-filled stainless steel square tubular column combines both the benefits of concrete and steel material, providing enhanced ductility and high compressive strength to the vertical structural members. Other advantages include high stiffness, better resistance to corrosion, increased pace of construction, enhanced bearing capacity, etc. The purpose of this paper is to understand the various behavioural aspects of concrete in-filled cold-formed duplex stainless steel (CI-CFDSS) square tubular column under axial compressive loads and to assess its structural performance.

Design/methodology/approach

In the current paper, the performance of CI-CFDSS square tubular column is numerically investigated under uniform static loading using finite element technique. The numerical study was based on an experimental investigation, which was carried out earlier, in order to study the effects of concrete strength and shape of stainless steel tube on the strength and behaviour of CI-CFDSS square tubular column. The experimental CI-CFDSS square tubular column has a length equal to 450 mm, breadth of 150 mm, width of 150 mm, thickness of 6 mm and a constant ratio of length to overall depth equal to 3. Numerical modelling of the experimental specimen was carried out using ABAQUS software by providing appropriate material properties. Non-linear finite element analysis was performed and the load vs axial deflection curve of the numerical CI-CFDSS square tubular column obtained was validated with the results of the experiment. In order to understand the behaviour of CI-CFDSS square tubular column under axial compressive loads, a parametric study was performed by varying the grade of concrete, type of stainless steel, thickness of stainless steel tube and shape of cross section. From the results, the performance of CI-CFDSS square tubular column was comparatively studied.

Findings

When the grade of concrete was increased the deformation capacity of the CI-CFDSS square tubular column reduced but showed better load carrying capacity. The steel tube made of duplex stainless steel exhibited enhanced performance in terms of load carrying capacity and axial deformation than the other forms, i.e. austenitic and ferritic stainless steel. The most suitable cross section for the CI-CFDSS square tubular column with respect to its performance is rectangular cross section and variation of the steel tube thickness led to the change of overall dimensions of the N-CI-CFDSS-SHS1C40 square tubular column showing marginal difference in performance.

Originality/value

The research work presented in this manuscript is authentic and could contribute to the understanding of the behavioural aspects of CI-CFDSS square tubular column under axial compressive loads.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

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Article

Alwyn Varghese, Anand N., Diana Andrushia and Prince Arulraj

Aim of this research work is to examine the stress–strain behavior and modulus of elasticity of fiber-reinforced concrete (FRC) exposed to elevated temperature. The…

Abstract

Purpose

Aim of this research work is to examine the stress–strain behavior and modulus of elasticity of fiber-reinforced concrete (FRC) exposed to elevated temperature. The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of standard fire exposure on the mechanical and microstructure characteristics of concrete specimens with different strength grade.

Design/methodology/approach

An electrical bogie hearth furnace was developed to simulate the ISO 834 standard fire curve. Specimens were exposed to high temperatures of 821°C, 925°C and 986°C for the duration of 30, 60 and 90 min, respectively, as per standard fire curve. Peak stress, peak strain, modulus of elasticity and damage level of heated concrete specimens were evaluated by experimental investigation. SEM-based microstructure investigation has been carried out to analyze the microstructure characteristics of heated concrete specimens.

Findings

The results revealed that carbon fiber reinforced concrete was found to be better than the FRC made with other fibers on improving the modulus of elasticity of concrete. An empirical relationship has been established to predict the modulus of elasticity of temperature exposed specimens with different type of fiber and grade of concrete. In comparison with low melting point fibers, high melting point fibers exhibited higher modulus of elasticity under all tested conditions. Surface damage and porosity level of concrete with carbon and basalt fibers were found to be lower than other FRC.

Originality/value

Empirical relationship was developed to determine the modulus of elasticity of concrete exposed to elevate temperature, and this will be useful for concrete design applications. This research work may be useful for finding the residual compressive strength of concrete exposed to elevate temperature. So that it will be helpful to identify the suitable repair/retrofitting technique for reinforced concrete elements.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

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Article

Utino Worabo Woju and A.S. Balu

The aim of this paper is mainly to handle the fuzzy uncertainties present in structures appropriately. In general, uncertainties of variables are classified as aleatory…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is mainly to handle the fuzzy uncertainties present in structures appropriately. In general, uncertainties of variables are classified as aleatory and epistemic. The different sources of uncertainties in reinforced concrete structures include the randomness, mathematical models, physical models, environmental factors and gross errors. The effects of imprecise data in reinforced concrete structures are studied here by using fuzzy concepts. The aim of this paper is mainly to handle the uncertainties of variables with unclear boundaries.

Design/methodology/approach

To achieve the intended objective, the reinforced concrete beam subjected to flexure and shear was designed as per Euro Code (EC2). Then, different design parameters such as corrosion parameters, material properties and empirical expressions of time-dependent material properties were identified through a thorough literature review.

Findings

The fuzziness of variables was identified, and their membership functions were generated by using the heuristic method and drawn by MATLAB R2018a software. In addition to the identification of fuzziness of variables, the study further extended to design optimization of reinforced concrete structure by using fuzzy relation and fuzzy composition.

Originality/value

In the design codes of the concrete structure, the concrete grades such as C16/20, C20/25, C25/30, C30/37 and so on are provided and being adopted for design in which the intermediate grades are not considered, but using fuzzy concepts the intermediate grades of concrete can be recognized by their respective degree of membership. In the design of reinforced concrete structure using fuzzy relation and composition methods, the optimum design is considered when the degree of membership tends to unity. In addition to design optimization, the level of structural performance evaluation can also be carried out by using fuzzy concepts.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. 18 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

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Article

Peter Lindsell and Mike Mulheron

Introduction In a recent paper in this journal, Campbell outlined some of the techniques and problems associated with the demolition of existing structures and touched…

Abstract

Introduction In a recent paper in this journal, Campbell outlined some of the techniques and problems associated with the demolition of existing structures and touched upon the possibility of recycling the debris from this process. This reflects the growing awareness among the general public, local authorities and central Government that the recycling of waste materials, from all sources, is both necessary and desirable. Indeed, according to a recently published report from the Trade and Industry Committee of the House of Commons: ‘The benefits of recycling are obvious: rarely do environ‐mental and economic factors so unambiguously support the same goal’.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

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Article

Rachit Sharma

This paper presents the effects of replacing fine aggregate (FA) with waste foundry sand (WFS) in natural aggregate and construction waste aggregate concrete specimens…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper presents the effects of replacing fine aggregate (FA) with waste foundry sand (WFS) in natural aggregate and construction waste aggregate concrete specimens without and with superplasticizer (SP), silica fume (SF) and fiber (F) to solve the disposal problems of various wastes along with saving the environment. This study aims to investigate the effect of construction waste, WFS along with additives on the stress-strain behavior and development of compressive strength with age.

Design/methodology/approach

The various concrete specimen were prepared in mix proportion of 1: 2: 4 (cement (C): sand: coarse aggregate). The water-cement ratio of 0.5 (decreased by 10% for samples containing SP) to grading 1: 2: 4 under air-dry condition was adopted in the preparation of concrete specimens. The compressive strength of various concrete specimen were noticed for 3, 7 and 28 days by applying load through universal testing machine.

Findings

Upon adding construction and demolition waste aggregates, the compressive strength of concrete after 28 days was comparable to that of the control concrete specimen. An enhancement in the value of compressive strength is perceived when FA is replaced with WFS to the extent of 10%, 20% and 30%. If both construction and demolition waste aggregate and WFS replacing FA are used, the compressive strength increases. When FA is interchanged with WFS in natural aggregate or construction demolition waste aggregate concrete including usage of SF or F, the compressive strength improves significantly. Further, when construction and demolition waste aggregate and WFS replacing FA including SP are used, the compressive strength improves marginally compared to that of control specimen. The rate of strength development with age is observed to follow similar trend as in control concrete specimen. Therefore, construction and demolition waste and or WFS can be used effectively in concrete confirming an improvement in strength.

Originality/value

The utilization of these wastes in concrete will resolve the problem of their disposal and save the environment.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

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Article

Alan Richardson and Urmil V. Dave

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of various polypropylene fibre additions (types and volume) to concrete with regard to explosive spalling when subject…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of various polypropylene fibre additions (types and volume) to concrete with regard to explosive spalling when subject to high temperatures similar to those experienced in building or tunnel fires.

Design/methodology/approach

Medium strength concrete was manufactured with varying proportions of polypropylene fibres. Plain control samples were used to determine the original concrete strength and this was used as a benchmark following high temperature heat tests to evaluate the surface condition and final compressive strength. A pilot study was used to determine an appropriate heat source for the test. This was three Bunsen burners, however sufficient heat could not be generated within 150 mm concrete cubes and the concrete was shown to be a significant insulator and fire protection for structural members. The concrete test cubes were tested in a saturated condition which may reflect conditions where concrete is used in an external environment and thus is subject to soaking.

Findings

One hundred and fifty millimetre concrete cubes with and without fibres were placed into a furnace at 1,000°C. Explosive spalling was shown to be reduced with the use of polypropylene fibres but the final compressive strength of concrete was significantly reduced and had little residual structural value after a two hour period of heating.

Research limitations/implications

As the concrete tested was saturated, this condition provided a worst case scenario with regards to the build up of hydrostatic and vapour pressure within the cube. A range of percentage moisture contents would produce a more evenly balanced view of the effects of fibres in concrete. A single grade of concrete was used for the test. As the permeability of concrete influences the rate at which steam can escape from the interior of a saturated concrete cube, testing a range of concrete strengths would show this aspect of material performance with regard to spalling and final residual strength. Further research is recommended with regard to moisture contents, strengths of concrete and a range of temperatures.

Practical implications

This research has significance for the designer, in that buildings subject to terrorist activity may suffer from impact damage and an outbreak of fire following the initial attack.

Originality/value

The use of polypropylene fibres in concrete to provide anti spalling qualities is relatively new and this research adds to the knowledge regarding fibre type and volume with regard to first spall time, total area and number of areas subject to spalling and the final compressive strength of concrete following two hours of raised temperatures.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 26 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

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Article

Swapnil K. Shirsath and Subhash C. Yaragal

This study reports the performance of thermally deteriorated concrete with and without fibres. Attempts have been made to find the suitable performance of steel…

Abstract

Purpose

This study reports the performance of thermally deteriorated concrete with and without fibres. Attempts have been made to find the suitable performance of steel polypropylene (PP) hybrid fibre combination that could significantly enhance the performance of mechanical properties at elevated temperatures.

Design/methodology/approach

In this experimental investigation, concrete cubes of 100 mm in size of various compositions were cast and water-cured for 28 days, and later exposed to elevated temperatures of either 200 or 400°C or 600 and or 800°C with a retention period of 2 h. The properties like change in colour and percentage weight loss were evaluated. Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity test was used to obtain qualitative information of strength variation. Residual strength of thermally deteriorated concrete specimen was measured by destructive testing.

Findings

Steel fibre volume fraction of 1 per cent improves the compressive strength of concrete in the temperature range of 400 to 800°C. The addition of steel fibre and PP fibre (Mix 3) improves the splitting strength of the concrete at elevated temperature range of 400 to 600°C.

Originality/value

Performance enhancement is observed with hybrid fibres for temperature endurance of concrete.

Details

Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-2317

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Article

Franco Muleya, Bodwin Mulenga, Sambo Lyson Zulu, Sunday Nwaubani, Chipozya Kosta Tembo and Henry Mushota

This study aimed to investigate the suitability and cost-benefit of using copper tailings as partial replacement of sand in concrete production. The study was motivated by…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aimed to investigate the suitability and cost-benefit of using copper tailings as partial replacement of sand in concrete production. The study was motivated by the accumulation and non-use of copper tailings in dams among them tailing dam 25 also known as TD 25 in Kitwe city of the Copperbelt province in Zambia that take up approximately 111 hectares of unused land.

Design/methodology/approach

Laboratory experimental approach of concrete production based on water/cement ratios of 0.3 and 0.5 was used because this was an exploratory study designed to establish the primary performance of concrete. In total, 30 concrete cubes were cast based on the two water-cement ratios. In total, 0% to 30% partial sand replacement with copper tailings was used in both mixes with the 0% copper tailings replacement being the control mix and reference point. Other concrete tests included workability, density, compressive strength and element composition analysis.

Findings

Results revealed that copper tailings from TD 25 were suitable for partial replacement of sand in concrete. Thirty per cent of sand replacement with copper tailings was established as the maximum replacement amount to produce optimum compressive strength values from both mixes. The drier mix of 0.3 water-cement ratios produced higher compressive strength results of 23 MPa at 28 days of concrete curing with 2.34% as optimum concrete cost reduction.

Practical implications

The research results provide the cost-benefit analysis and savings that can be attained from using cheaper copper tailings based concrete. The study further provided the quantity of land available for development arising from absorption of copper tailings as a sustainable construction material. The local authority now has statistics and numerical values that it can use to absorb copper tailings as a concrete raw material.

Originality/value

The study provides guidance on optimum concrete grade produced and cost reduction details of copper tailing-based concrete to support for local authorities in suitable land wand waste management using real data.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

Keywords

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