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1 – 10 of over 1000
Article
Publication date: 5 April 2011

Colin Williams, Steve Goodhew and Richard Griffiths

The purpose of the paper is to explore the structural feasibility of substituting traditional thick joint mortars with earth slurry mortars modified with varying amounts…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to explore the structural feasibility of substituting traditional thick joint mortars with earth slurry mortars modified with varying amounts of sand. Thin jointing of earth blocks would reduce the cost of sustainable earth construction.

Design/methodology/approach

Compressive strength of earth‐block cubes was determined. Flexural strength was measured using the BRE electronic bond wrench, which enables block couplets to be tested quickly and accurately. Three samples of earth block, one from southwest England and two from East Anglia, together with nine examples of earth slurry mortar jointing were studied, including the effect of reinforcing the joint and or the block using hessian.

Findings

The 28‐day cube characteristic compressive strengths were determined for Appley soil, Norfolk lump and Beeston soil, the last with 0 per cent sand, 25 per cent sand and with 25 per cent sand with hessian. The flexural strengths of Appley and Beeston earth slurries were determined, along with Thermalite thin jointed cement and cement mortar for comparison. The Beeston soil flexural strength increased with increasing sand content. Earth slurry with 40 per cent sand and hessian present in the joint gave the greatest strength. It is important to use blocks and slurry mortars of the same soil. Extruded and compressed earth blocks are best suited to slurry jointing.

Originality/value

This work successfully demonstrates the structural feasibility of carefully reducing the thickness of earth mortars when constructing sustainable earth block walling. Characteristic flexural strengths are suggested where the test results were sufficiently consistent, and of a magnitude likely to be useful in design.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 2021

Chrysoula Pandelidi, Tobias Maconachie, Stuart Bateman, Ingomar Kelbassa, Sebastian Piegert, Martin Leary and Milan Brandt

Fused deposition modelling (FDM) is increasingly being explored as a commercial fabrication method due to its ability to produce net or near-net shape parts directly from…

Abstract

Purpose

Fused deposition modelling (FDM) is increasingly being explored as a commercial fabrication method due to its ability to produce net or near-net shape parts directly from a computer-aided design model. Other benefits of technology compared to conventional manufacturing include lower cost for short runs, reduced product lead times and rapid product design. High-performance polymers such as polyetherimide, have the potential for FDM fabrication and their high-temperature capabilities provide the potential of expanding the applications of FDM parts in automotive and aerospace industries. However, their relatively high glass transition temperature (215 °C) causes challenges during manufacturing due to the requirement of high-temperature build chambers and controlled cooling rates. The purpose of this study is to investigate the mechanical properties of ULTEM 1010, an unfilled polyetherimide grade.

Design/methodology/approach

In this research, mechanical properties were evaluated through tensile and flexural tests. Analysis of variance was used to determine the significance of process parameters to the mechanical properties of the specimens, their main effects and interactions. The fractured surfaces were analysed by scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy and porosity was assessed by X-ray microcomputed tomography.

Findings

A range of mean tensile and flexural strengths, 60–94 MPa and 62–151 MPa, respectively, were obtained highlighting the dependence of performance on process parameters and their interactions. The specimens were found to fracture in a brittle manner. The porosity of tensile samples was measured between 0.18% and 1.09% and that of flexural samples between 0.14% and 1.24% depending on the process parameters. The percentage porosity was found to not directly correlate with mechanical performance, rather the location of those pores in the sample.

Originality/value

This analysis quantifies the significance of the effect of each of the examined process parameters has on the mechanical performance of FDM-fabricated specimens. Further, it provides a better understanding of the effect process parameters and their interactions have on the mechanical properties and porosity of FDM-fabricated polyetherimide specimens. Additionally, the fracture surface of the tested specimens is qualitatively assessed.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 November 2021

M. Balasubramanian, Thozhuvur Govindaraman Loganathan and R. Srimath

The purpose of this study is to understand the behavior of hybrid bio-composites under varied applications.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to understand the behavior of hybrid bio-composites under varied applications.

Design/methodology/approach

Fabrication methods and material characterization of various hybrid bio-composites are analyzed by studying the tensile, impact, flexural and hardness of the same. The natural fiber is a manufactured group of assembly of big or short bundles of fiber to produce one or more layers of flat sheets. The natural fiber-reinforced composite materials offer a wide range of properties that are suitable for many engineering-related fields like aerospace, automotive areas. The main characteristics of natural fiber composites are durability, low cost, low weight, high specific strength and equally good mechanical properties.

Findings

The tensile properties like tensile strength and tensile modulus of flax/hemp/sisal/Coir/Palmyra fiber-reinforced composites are majorly dependent on the chemical treatment and catalyst usage with fiber. The flexural properties of flax/hemp/sisal/coir/Palmyra are greatly dependent on fiber orientation and fiber length. Impact properties of flax/hemp/sisal/coir/Palmyra are depended on the fiber content, composition and orientation of various fibers.

Originality/value

This study is a review of various research work done on the natural fiber bio-composites exhibiting the factors to be considered for specific load conditions.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 May 2019

Rajendra Kumar, Ravi Pratap Singh and Ravinder Kataria

This paper aims to investigate the flexural properties i.e. the flexural strength and the flexural modulus under the influence of selected input variables, namely; fiber…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the flexural properties i.e. the flexural strength and the flexural modulus under the influence of selected input variables, namely; fiber type, fiber loading and fiber size in fabricated natural fiber polymeric composites through using Taguchi’s design of experiment methodology.

Design/methodology/approach

The Taguchi’s design of experiment approach has been used to scheme a suitable combination to fabricate the polymeric composites. Pure polypropylene (PP) has been chosen as a matrix material, whereas two types of fibers, namely; wood powder (WP) i.e. sawdust and rice husk powder (RHP), have been used as a reinforcement in the matrix. Microstructure analysis of fabricated and tested samples has also been evaluated and analyzed using a scanning electron microscope. This analysis has divulged that at moderate fiber size and higher fiber loading, no gap or cavities presented between the fillers and matrix particles, which illustrates the good interfacial bonding between the materials.

Findings

The flexural strength of the wood powder pure polypropylene (WPPP) composite decreases if the fiber content gets increased beyond 20 Wt.%. In addition, the flexural strength of hybrid composite (WPRHPPP) has been revealed to get improved more in comparison to composites with single fiber as reinforcement. Furthermore, the flexural modulus of WPPP composite has also increased with the increase in fiber loading. It has been concluded that reinforcement size plays an imperative role in influencing the flexural modulus. The optimum parametric setting for the flexural strength and the flexural modulus has been devised as; fiber type – WPRHP, fiber loading – 10 Wt.% and fiber size – 600 µm; and fiber type – WP, fiber loading – 30 Wt.% and fiber size – 1,180 µm, respectively. The microstructure images clearly revealed that during conducted flexural tests, some particles get disturbed from their bonded position that mainly represents the plastic deformation.

Social implications

The fabricated polymer materials proposed in the research work are green and environmentally friendly.

Originality/value

The natural fiber-based composites are possessing wide-spread requirements in today’s competitive structure of manufacturing and industrial applications. The fabrication of the natural fiber-based composites has also been planned through the designed experiments (namely; Taguchi Methodology- L9 orthogonal array matrix), which, further, makes the analysis more fruitful and qualitative too. The fabricated polymer materials proposed in the research work are green and environmentally friendly. Shisham WP has been rarely used in the past researches; therefore, this factor has been included for the present work. The injection molding process is used to fabricate the three different polymer composite by varying the fiber weight percentage and fiber size.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 January 2017

Shamsad Ahmad

This study aims to make an effort to develop a model to predict the residual flexural strength of reinforced concrete beams subjected to reinforcement corrosion.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to make an effort to develop a model to predict the residual flexural strength of reinforced concrete beams subjected to reinforcement corrosion.

Design/methodology/approach

For generating the required data to develop the model, a set of experimental variables was considered that included corrosion current density, corrosion duration, rebar diameter and thickness of concrete cover. A total of 28 sets of reinforced concrete beams of size 150 × 150 × 1,100 mm were cast, of which 4 sets of un-corroded beams were tested in four-point bend test as control beams and the remaining 24 sets of beams were subjected to accelerated rebar corrosion inducing different levels of corrosion current densities for different durations. Corroded beams were also tested in flexure, and test results of un-corroded and corroded beams were utilized to obtain an empirical model for estimating the residual flexural strength of beams for given corrosion current density, corrosion duration and diameter of the rebars.

Findings

Comparison of the residual flexural strengths measured experimentally for a set of corroded beams, reported in literature, with that predicted using the model proposed in this study indicates that the proposed model has a reasonably good accuracy.

Originality/value

The empirical model obtained under this work can be used as a simple tool to predict residual flexural strength of corroded beams using the input data that include rebar corrosion rate, corrosion duration after initiation and diameter of rebars.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 64 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 July 2017

Hassan A.M. Mhamoud and Jia Yanmin

This study aims to investigate the effectiveness of different additives (individual effects) in improving the strength of concrete to resist temperatures of up to 60ºC.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the effectiveness of different additives (individual effects) in improving the strength of concrete to resist temperatures of up to 60ºC.

Design/methodology/approach

In all, 13 different mixtures with a constant water/binder ratio of 0.36 and grade M40 were prepared by using ordinary Portland concrete alone, or with partial replacement by fly ash (FA), blast-furnace slag, silica fume (SF) and a combination of all three. After 7 and 28 days under water, their strength and residual strength were measured.

Findings

The results of testing revealed that the addition of 10 per cent SF was found to result in the greatest increase in compressive strength and flexural strength along with decreased the residual strengths. The addition of FA increased the compressive strength and enhanced the residual compressive strength. However, it also decreased the residual flexural strength.

Originality/value

The addition of slag achieved better flexural strength and the best residual compressive strength. The combination of additives also enhanced the compressive strength but was not found to be better than using SF alone.

Details

Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-2317

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 May 2022

Erfan Najaf, Hassan Abbasi and Seyed Mehdi Zahrai

Today, using lightweight structural concrete plays a major role in reducing the damage to concrete structures. On the other hand, lightweight concretes have lower…

33

Abstract

Purpose

Today, using lightweight structural concrete plays a major role in reducing the damage to concrete structures. On the other hand, lightweight concretes have lower compressive and flexural strengths with lower impact resistance compared to ordinary concretes. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of simultaneous use of waste glass powder, microsilica and polypropylene fibers to make sustainable lightweight concrete that has high compressive and flexural strengths, ductility and impact resistance.

Design/methodology/approach

In this article, the lightweight structural concrete is studied to compensate for the lower strength of lightweight concrete. Also, considering the environmental aspects, microsilica as a partial replacement for cement, waste glass powder instead of some aggregates and polypropylene fibers are used. Microsilica was used at 8, 10 and 12 wt% of cement. Waste glass powder was added to 20, 25 and 30 wt% of aggregates, while fibers were used at 0.5, 1 and 1.5 wt% of cement.

Findings

After making the experimental specimens, compressive strength, flexural strength and impact resistance tests were performed. Ultimately, it was concluded that the best percentage of used microsilica and glass powder was equal to 10 and 25%, respectively. Furthermore, using 1.5 wt% of fibers could significantly improve the compressive and flexural strengths of lightweight concrete and increase its impact resistance at the same time. For constructing a five-story building, by replacing cement with microsilica by 10 wt%, the amount of used cement is reduced by 5 tons, consequently producing 4,752 kg less CO2 that is a significant value for the environment.

Originality/value

The study provides a basis for making sustainable lightweight concrete with high strength against compressive, flexural and impact loads.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 November 2021

Wasim Barham, Ammar AL-Maabreh and Omar Latayfeh

The influence of using magnetic water instead of tap water in the mechanical properties of the concrete exposed to elevated temperatures was investigated. Two concrete…

Abstract

Purpose

The influence of using magnetic water instead of tap water in the mechanical properties of the concrete exposed to elevated temperatures was investigated. Two concrete mixes were used and cast with the same ingredients. Tap water was used in the first mix and magnetic water was used in the second mix. A total of 48 specimens were cast and divided as follows: 16 cylinders for the concrete compressive strength test (8 samples for each mix), 16 cylinders for the splitting tensile strength (8 specimens for each mix) and 16 beams to test the influences of magnetized water on the flexural strength of concrete (8 specimens for each mixture). Specimens were exposed to temperatures of (25 °C, 200 °C, 400 °C and 600 °C). The experimental results showed that magnetic water highly affected the mechanical properties of concrete. Specimens cast and curried out with magnetic water show higher compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and flexural strength compared to normal water specimens at all temperatures. The relative strength range between the two types of water used was 110–123% for compressive strength and 110–133% for splitting strength. For the center point loading test, the relative flexural strength range was 118–140%. The use of magnetic water in mixing concrete contribute to a more complete hydration process.

Design/methodology/approach

Experimental study was carried out on two concrete mixes to investigate the effect of magnetic water. Mix#1 used normal water as the mixing water, and Mix#2 used magnetic water instead of normal water. After 28 days, all the samples were taken out of the tank and left to dry for seven days, then they were divided into different groups. Each group was exposed to a different temperature where it was placed in a large oven for two hours. Three different tests were carried out on the samples, these tests were concrete compressive strength, flexural strength and splitting tensile strength.

Findings

Exposure of concrete to high temperatures had a significant influence on concrete mechanical properties. Specimens prepared using magnetic water showed higher compressive strength at all temperature levels. The use of magnetic water in casting and curing concrete can increase the compressive strength by 23%. Specimens prepared using magnetic water show higher splitting tensile strength at all temperatures up to 33%. The use of magnetic water in casting and curing can strengthen and increase concrete resistance to high temperatures, a significant enhancement in flexural strength at all temperatures was found with a value up to 40%.

Originality/value

Previous research proved the advantages of using magnetic water for improving the mechanical properties of concrete under normal conditions. The potential of using magnetic water in the concrete industry in the future requires conducting extensive research to study the behavior of magnetized concrete under severe conditions to which concrete structures may be subjected to. These days, there are attempts to obtain stronger concrete with high resistance to harsh environmental conditions without adding new costly ingredients to its main mixture. No research has been carried out to investigate the effect of magnetic water on the mechanical properties of concrete exposed to elevated temperature. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of using magnetic water on the mechanical properties of hardened concrete subjected to elevated temperature.

Details

International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-4708

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 February 2020

Ghasem Pachideh and Majid Gholhaki

With respect to the studies conducted so far and lack of researches on the post-heat behavior of cement mortars containing pozzolanic materials, the purpose of this paper…

Abstract

Purpose

With respect to the studies conducted so far and lack of researches on the post-heat behavior of cement mortars containing pozzolanic materials, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the post-heat mechanical characteristics (i.e. compressive, tensile and flexural strength) of cement mortars containing granulated blast-furnace slag (GBFS) and silica fume (SF). In doing so, selected temperatures include 25, 100, 250, 500, 700 and 9000c. Last, the X-ray diffraction test was conducted to study the microstructure of mixtures and subsequently, the results were presented as power-one mathematical relations.

Design/methodology/approach

Totally, 378 specimens were built to conduct flexural, compressive and tensile strength tests. Accordingly, these specimens include cubic and prismatic specimens with dimensions of 5 × 5 × 5 cm and 16 × 4 × 4 cm, respectively, to conduct compressive and flexural strength tests together with briquette specimen used for tensile strength test in which cement was replaced by 7, 14 and 21 per cent of SF and GBFS. To study the effect of temperature, the specimens were heated. In this respect, they were heated with a rate of 5°C/min and exposed to temperatures of 25 (ordinary temperature), 100, 250, 500, 700 and 900°C.

Findings

On the basis of the results, the most profound effect of using GBFS and SF, respectively, takes place in low (up to 250°C) and high (500°C and greater degrees) temperatures. Quantitatively, the compressive, tensile and flexural strengths were enhanced by 73 and 180 per cent, 45 and 100 per cent, 106 and 112 per cent, respectively, in low and high temperatures. In addition, as the temperature elevates, the particles of specimens containing SF and GBFS shrink less in size compared to the reference specimen.

Originality/value

The specimens were cured according to ASTMC192 after 28 days placement in the water basin. First, in compliance with what has been specified by the mix design, the mortar, including pozzolanic materials and superplasticizer, was prepared and then, the sampling procedure was conducted on cubic specimens with dimension of 5 × 5 × 5 mm for compressive strength test, prismatic specimens with dimensions of 16 × 4 × 4 mm for flexural strength test and last, briquette specimens were provided to conduct tensile strength tests (for each temperature and every test, three specimens were built).

Details

Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-2317

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 May 2019

Daniel Paul Thanaraj, Anand N. and Prince Arulraj

This paper aims to explain the influence of Standard Fire as per ISO 834 on the strength and microstructure properties of concrete specimens with different strength grade.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explain the influence of Standard Fire as per ISO 834 on the strength and microstructure properties of concrete specimens with different strength grade.

Design/methodology/approach

The strength grades of concrete considered for the experimental investigation were Fck20, Fck30, Fck40 and Fck50. The specimens were heated up to 1, 2, 3 and 4 h as per standard fire curve. Effect of elevated temperature on compressive and flexural behavior of specimens with various strength grades was examined. Effects of age of concrete, weight loss, surface characteristics and thermal crack pattern were also investigated.

Findings

Experimental investigation shows that strength grade, duration of exposure and age of concrete are the key parameters affecting the residual strength of concrete. For the beams exposed to 3 and 4 h of heating, the residual flexural strength was found to be so insignificant that the specimens were not able to even sustain their own weight. The loss in compressive and flexural strength of Fck50 concrete specimens heated up to 1 h were found to be 26.41 and 86.03 per cent of the original unheated concrete, respectively. The weight loss was found to be more for higher grade concrete specimens, and it was about 8.38 per cent for Fck50 concrete. Regression analysis was carried out to establish the empirical relation between residual strength and grade of concrete. Scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis were carried out to examine the damage level of fire-affected concrete specimens.

Originality/value

Empirical relationship was developed to determine the residual strength of concrete exposed to elevate temperature, and this will be useful for design applications. This database may be useful for identifying member strength of reinforced beams subjected to various durations of heating so that suitable repair technique can be adopted from the available database. It will be useful to identify the proper grade of concrete with regard to fire endurance, in the case of concrete under compression or flexure.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. 17 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 1000