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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2001

Seppo K. Aho

Experiences are a main issue in tourism. However, the conceptual configuration of experiences in tourism has proved to be difficult. The English word ‘experience’ is…

Abstract

Experiences are a main issue in tourism. However, the conceptual configuration of experiences in tourism has proved to be difficult. The English word ‘experience’ is rather neutral and vague; it can be understood to cover all kind of things that a person has passed through, regardless of their mental, emotianal or other relevance. There is a more precise terms available for emotional experiences in some languages: Erlebnis in German, upplevelse in Swedish and elämys in Finnish are examples of these. (Cf. e.g. Ireland & Kivi 1998.) The purpose of this paper is to clarify the nature and main characteristics of experiences in tourism for the benifit of general understanding of experience processes in tourism. The scope, contents and types of experiences are discussed first from functional points or view giving special attention to the scope of processes producing various types of experiences. The types and roles of various personal resources are clarified then. The stages of experience processes in tourism are then figured out in the third section of the paper. Finally, a preliminary model is presented decribing the essential elements and dynamics of the process where tourism experiences evolve.

Details

Tourism Review, vol. 56 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

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Book part
Publication date: 28 December 2016

Crystal C. Lewis and Cristina H. Jönsson

It is observed that many destinations are implementing sport tourism offerings to enhance their ability to attract visitors through satisfying their desires of new…

Abstract

Purpose

It is observed that many destinations are implementing sport tourism offerings to enhance their ability to attract visitors through satisfying their desires of new experiences. This has led to a highly competitive sport tourism market and as a result destinations engage in various marketing techniques and promotional tools to gain an advantage. For that reason this research was undertaken to acquire a greater understanding of the importance of promotional tools to successfully and efficiently market sport tourism experiences.

Methodology/approach

The construct of this study comprises of two stages. The aim of the first stage is to evaluate the specific tools used to promote sport tourism and sport tourism experiences in Barbados by examining the responses of various sporting and tourism bodies. The second stage of this research was conducted to present and analyze how marketing/promotional tools could contribute to better market sport tourism experiences.

Findings

The research found that many of the promotional tools implemented in Barbados during their marketing process correspond with those used internationally. However, problems of poor and insufficient sporting facilities as well as little collaboration between tourism and sporting entities, hamper the success of Barbados as a sport tourism destination. This further minimized Barbados’ ability to market favorable tourism experiences. This therefore shows that while promotional tools are essential in attracting tourists, other elements must also be taken into consideration to ensure sport tourists have positive experiences which would lead to a successful sport tourism destination.

Originality/value

Few studies in this area have been undertaken in the Caribbean. This study attempts to fill this gap by examining the implementation of sport tourism offerings to attract visitors to Barbados.

Details

The Handbook of Managing and Marketing Tourism Experiences
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-289-7

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 12 August 2021

S. Mostafa Rasoolimanesh, Siamak Seyfi, Raouf Ahmad Rather and Colin Michael Hall

This paper aims to investigate the interplay of memorable tourism experiences (MTE) dimensions in driving behavioral intentions of heritage tourists through the mediating…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the interplay of memorable tourism experiences (MTE) dimensions in driving behavioral intentions of heritage tourists through the mediating role of satisfaction.

Design/methodology/approach

Empirical data were collected from tourists in the heritage city of Kashan, Iran. Partial least squares-structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) and fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) were applied to analyze the data.

Findings

The results of PLS-SEM showed that three dimensions of MTE as follows: local culture, involvement and knowledge, significantly directly or indirectly influence tourists’ behavioral intention toward a destination. However, the results of fsQCA identified greater heterogeneity among the respondents by highlighting the positive effects of hedonism and novelty on satisfaction and revisit and word-of-mouth intentions.

Originality/value

This study enriches the empirical evidence on MTE by constructing a composite picture of the memorability of tourists’ experiences within a heritage tourism context. This study is one of the first to investigate the effects of dimensions of MTE on behavioral intentions using both symmetric (PLS-SEM) and asymmetric approaches to identify the more significant dimensions of MTE, as well as sufficient combinations of dimensions to predict behavioral intentions.

研究目的

本文旨在研究难忘旅游体验 (MTE) 各维度通过满意度这个中介变量来驱动遗产旅游游客行为意图的机制

研究设计/方法论/研究方法

实证数据是从伊朗遗产城市卡尚的游客那里收集的。本研究采用偏最小二乘结构方程模型(PLS-SEM)和模糊集定性比较分析(fsQCA)对数据进行分析

研究发现

偏最小二乘结构方程模型的研究结果表明,难忘旅游体验(MTE)的三个维度:当地文化、参与度和熟悉程度,显著地直接或间接地影响游客对目的地的行为意向。然而,模糊集定性比较分析的研究结果表明受访者间存在更大的异质性,其结果凸显了享乐主义和新鲜感对满意度、重游意向和口碑(WOM)意向的正效应

独创性/价值

本研究通过构建遗产旅游背景下游客体验难忘性的相互影响机制,丰富了关于难忘旅游体验(MTE)的实证研究证据。本研究是第一个同时使用对称方法(PLS-SEM)和非对称方法(fsQCA)来探究MTE各维度对行为意向的影响的研究之一,通过这种方式可以识别出MTE各维度中更为重要的维度以及维度组合,以此来预测行为意向

Propósito

Este artículo investiga la influencia de las dimensiones de las experiencias turísticas memorables (ETM) en el fomento de las intenciones de comportamiento de los turistas del patrimonio a través del papel mediador de la satisfacción.

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

Se recogieron datos empíricos de turistas en la ciudad patrimonial de Kashan, Irán. Para analizar los datos se aplicaron las técnicas partial least squares – structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) y fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA).

Conclusiones

Los resultados que proporcionó el análisis PLS-SEM mostraron que tres dimensiones de las ETM: cultura local, implicación y conocimiento, influyen significativamente, de forma directa o indirecta, en la intención de comportamiento de los turistas hacia un destino. Sin embargo, los resultados del enfoque fsQCA identificaron una mayor heterogeneidad entre los encuestados al destacar los efectos positivos del hedonismo y la novedad sobre la satisfacción y las intenciones tanto de volver a visitar el destino como de realizar una comunicación de boca a boca (WOM).

Originalidad/valor

Este estudio enriquece la evidencia empírica sobre las ETM al construir una imagen combinada del carácter memorable de las experiencias de los turistas dentro de un contexto de turismo patrimonial. Este estudio es uno de los primeros en investigar los efectos de las dimensiones las ETM en las intenciones de comportamiento utilizando enfoques simétricos (PLS-SEM) y asimétricos para identificar las dimensiones más significativas las ETM, así como para determinar las combinaciones necesarias de dimensiones para predecir las intenciones de comportamiento.

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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2021

Robert Bowen

This paper aims to investigate the potential for developing a unique coffee tourism experience in the Eje Cafetero region of Colombia, considering unique local traditions…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the potential for developing a unique coffee tourism experience in the Eje Cafetero region of Colombia, considering unique local traditions of coffee production, as well as local tourism infrastructure.

Design/methodology/approach

With the aim of observing coffee tourism experiences in-place, this paper uses an analytical auto-ethnographic methodology, where the researcher observes the coffee tourism experience, considering both the tourism providers and tourists. This represents an emerging method in tourism research with data collected through a reflective diary and photographic documentation.

Findings

Coffee tourism has already established itself in the Eje Cafetero region, and with increasing tourism in Colombia, there is potential for further interest in coffee tourism in the region. With an established infrastructure and positive reputation for coffee, Colombia is well placed to provide various coffee tourism offerings, including unique experiences based on local traditions.

Originality/value

Coffee tourism is an under-researched area, with few studies based on primary data to understand the potential for coffee tourism experiences. This study advances knowledge on this while also promoting innovative auto-ethnographic research methods. Findings help places understand how to leverage competitive advantage through unique offerings.

Details

International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6182

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Article
Publication date: 7 June 2021

Dominik Huber and Sven Gross

The purpose of this study is to increase the understanding of how local residents in tourism destinations perceive their role in the creation of tourist experiences.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to increase the understanding of how local residents in tourism destinations perceive their role in the creation of tourist experiences.

Design/methodology/approach

Qualitative research was conducted with 16 local residents in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, a tourism hotspot in Germany. The study used thematic analysis combined with qualitative content analysis to identify various themes associated with host–guest-based tourist experience creation.

Findings

Findings demonstrate how diverse local residents contribute to tourist experiences. A model was developed that suggests a distinction between active and passive contribution to tourist experiences. Only little evidence was found that the concept of co-creation plays a role in host–guest relationships, which contradicts other literature.

Research limitations/implications

The chosen qualitative research approach does not allow for generalisation of the research findings. The examination of perceptions raises epistemological questions.

Practical implications

This paper includes implications for improved internal marketing strategies and the involvement of local residents in tourism destination development.

Originality/value

This study contributes to knowledge by conceptualizing the role of local residents in tourist experience creation. The paper closes research gaps by using a qualitative study design in Germany to explore the underlying conditions that affect host–guest encounters to the discussion of tourist experience creation. Research findings may be adapted to other geographical or cultural settings with similar levels of tourism development.

当地居民对旅游体验的贡献:从德国加米施·帕滕基兴社区视角入手研究方法

本文对来自德国热门旅游景点加米施·帕滕基兴的16名当地居民进行了定性研究。本研究采用主题分析与定性内容分析相结合的方法, 探究与创造主客旅游体验相关的各个主题。

研究目的

本研究旨在探索旅游地居民如何感知自身在旅游体验创造中的作用。

研究结果

研究结果表明不同当地居民对旅游体验的贡献。本文通过建立模型, 表明旅游体验的主动贡献和被动贡献之间的显著区别。与其他文献相矛盾的是, 只有很少的证据表明共创的概念在主客关系中起到了一定作用。

研究局限性

本研究所选择的定性研究方法无法对研究结果进行概括总结。对知觉的考察提出了认识论的问题。

实践意义

本文提出了对改进内部营销策略和当地居民参与旅游目的地发展的一些启示。

研究价值

本研究的理论贡献在于概念化的提出本地居民在旅游体验创造中的作用。本研究采用定性研究方法探索影响主客接触的潜在条件, 从而探讨旅游体验的创造, 填补研究空白。本文研究结果同样适用于其他相似旅游发展水平的地理或文化环境。

La contribución de los residentes locales a las experiencias turísticas: Una perspectiva comunitaria desde Garmisch-Partenkirchen, alemaniaDiseño/metodología/enfoque

Se llevó a cabo una investigación cualitativa con 16 residentes locales en Garmisch-Partenkirchen, un lugar turístico de Alemania. En el estudio se utilizó un análisis temático combinado con un análisis de contenido cualitativo para identificar diversos temas relacionados con la creación de experiencias turísticas por parte de los anfitriones.

Propósito

El objetivo de este estudio exploratorio es aumentar la comprensión de cómo los residentes locales de los destinos turísticos perciben su papel en la creación de experiencias turísticas.

Hallazgos

Los hallazgos demuestran cómo los diversos residentes locales contribuyen a las experiencias turísticas. Se elaboró un modelo que sugiere una distinción entre la contribución activa y pasiva a las experiencias turísticas. Se encontraron pocas pruebas de que el concepto de co-creación desempeñe un papel en las relaciones anfitrión-huésped, lo que contradice otras publicaciones.

Limitaciones/implicaciones de la investigación

El enfoque de investigación cualitativa elegido no permite generalizar los resultados de la investigación. El examen de las percepciones plantea cuestiones epistemológicas.

Implicaciones prácticas

Este documento incluye las implicaciones para mejorar las estrategias de comercialización interna y la participación de los residentes locales en el desarrollo de los destinos turísticos.

Originalidad/valor

Este estudio contribuye al conocimiento al conceptualizar el papel de los residentes locales en la creación de experiencias turísticas. El documento cubree ciertas lagunas de la investigación utilizando un diseño de estudio cualitativo para explorar las condiciones subyacentes que afectan a los encuentros entre huéspedes y anfitriones para el debate sobre la creación de experiencias turísticas. Las conclusiones de la investigación pueden adaptarse a otros entornos geográficos o culturales con niveles similares de desarrollo turístico.

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Book part
Publication date: 28 December 2016

Jong-Hyeong Kim

This chapter sought to overcome the current theoretical lack of understanding of the memorable tourism experiences (MTEs) phenomena and provide a conceptual framework for…

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter sought to overcome the current theoretical lack of understanding of the memorable tourism experiences (MTEs) phenomena and provide a conceptual framework for guiding destination managers who seek to design and deliver memorable experiences appropriate to their particular destination.

Methodology/approach

This chapter employed literature-based research methods. More specifically, it sought to (1) summarize the understanding of MTEs gained from a review of others’ work, and conduct a retrospective examination of my own empirical research on the topic; and (2) convey the insights I have formulated regarding the implications for destination managers of this understanding for designing, delivering, and evaluating programs, which may increase the probability a visitor will return home with truly memorable experiences.

Findings

The literature review and the content analysis and synthesis identified seven conceptual and theoretical components of MTEs, such as hedonism, refreshment, novelty, local culture, meaningfulness, knowledge, and adverse feelings.

Practical implications

The current study suggested what characteristics of tourism experiences lead to strong memorability and how to measure each component of MTEs. Thus, the findings provide important implications for destination managers to develop tourism programs that last long in visitors’ memories.

Originality/value

Previous researchers suggested some practical strategies to prepare environments and design experiences. However, a comprehensive, theoretically sound understanding of the fundamental factors of MTEs was left out. This study investigated tourism experiential factors that enable and facilitate MTEs. It also tried to demonstrate the managerial importance of these theoretical components to the design of “on the ground” destination programs, which initially create excitement and anticipation among potential visitors (within the context of a highly competitive marketplace), to the point where a given destination is selected over a multitude of others and where it subsequently delivers the kind of high-quality “truly memorable” experiences that fully meet the inflated expectations initially “promised” by the destination brand.

Details

The Handbook of Managing and Marketing Tourism Experiences
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-289-7

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 15 February 2021

Li-Hsin Chen, Mei-Jung Sebrina Wang and Alastair M. Morrison

Despite the increasing recognition of coffee tourism, there is limited research on the influence of memorable tourism experiences (MTEs) on coffee tourist behaviours. This…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite the increasing recognition of coffee tourism, there is limited research on the influence of memorable tourism experiences (MTEs) on coffee tourist behaviours. This investigation attempted to fill the gap in extending the MTE model by integrating travel motivations and expectation–confirmation theory (ECT).

Design/methodology/approach

A mixed-method approach was employed. A survey questionnaire containing closed- and open-ended questions was used to obtain quantitative and qualitative information. Interviews with coffee shop owners were also conducted to obtain greater insight.

Findings

Both the quantitative and qualitative findings confirmed that coffee tourists’ revisit and word-of-mouth intentions were strongly influenced by satisfaction and MTEs, which were predicted by confirmation of expectations (CoEs) and travel motivations.

Research limitations/implications

The findings confirmed that travel motivation is one of the most important precursors of MTEs. CoE was also determined to be a precursor of MTEs. MTEs had positive influences on satisfaction, word of mouth (WoM) and revisit intentions.

Practical implications

The results offer insights by identifying vital factors linked to coffee tourist experiences and satisfaction, which will aid practitioners developing better marketing strategies.

Originality/value

The memorable tourism experience scale has rarely been applied in food tourism and particularly in relation to coffee consumption. Moreover, this research is unique in investigating the relationships among motivations, CoE, MTEs, satisfaction and WoM and revisit intentions.

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Book part
Publication date: 22 August 2017

Anita Zatori and Meghan Beardsley

The tourist experience has matured in its body of literature, but researchers still debate the best way to measure and define the concept. The purpose of this paper is to…

Abstract

The tourist experience has matured in its body of literature, but researchers still debate the best way to measure and define the concept. The purpose of this paper is to analyze and compare memorable and on-site tourist experiences from theoretical, empirical, and methodological perspectives. A review of the literature is used to identify and describe the next evolutionary research step which is the quality-of-life (QOL) aspect of tourism experiences. It is argued that the evolving focus on QOL attributes is fueled by the theories and concepts of service-dominant logic. The paper argues that value (co)created on all sides of the equation (e.g., customer or company) must be considered when carrying out research. The paper also finds that different value outcomes for the individual customer occur in both on-site and memorable experience contexts. The findings contest an earlier theoretical argument, suggesting that memorable tourist experiences provide more value than on-site tourist experience.

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Book part
Publication date: 28 December 2016

Marios Sotiriadis and Christos Sarmaniotis

The aim of this chapter is twofold: (i) to explore the issue of experience within the context of the hotel industry and (ii) to analyze the contribution of collaboration…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this chapter is twofold: (i) to explore the issue of experience within the context of the hotel industry and (ii) to analyze the contribution of collaboration between businesses in providing valuable experiences in hotel settings.

Methodology/approach

Extensive literature reviews have been done on dimensions and outcomes of tourist experiences and on collaboration/business venture’s contribution in providing memorable experiences in the hotel industry. A case study is then used to illustrate how hotel operations are collaborating to provide tourism experience opportunities.

Findings

(i) Collaboration between hotel operations makes a significant contribution in providing special guest experiences; (ii) Investment in business ventures is a good investment because it constitutes a potential source of competitive advantage; (iii) A collaborative platform wisely designed creates a series of business benefits.

Research limitations/implications

This study is explorative in nature. Based on a single case study of a business network, the suggestions are indicative rather than conclusive. Thus, more empirical studies and analyses are needed to fully validate the chapter’s suggestions.

Practical implications

The collaborative approach is a requirement for hotel businesses in providing valuable tourism experiences and in overcoming the issues and challenges arising within the context of experiential tourism. This collaboration offers a way of enriching and deepening guests’ experiences, based on endogenous resources and meeting the tourists’ requirements.

Originality/value

Offers insights on tourism providers’ collaborations in offering attractive experience opportunities to their customers.

Details

The Handbook of Managing and Marketing Tourism Experiences
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-289-7

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 28 December 2016

Medet Yolal

The purpose of the chapter is to discuss the tourist experiences by tracing various perspectives and dimensions of authenticity, commodification, and McDonaldization.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the chapter is to discuss the tourist experiences by tracing various perspectives and dimensions of authenticity, commodification, and McDonaldization.

Methodology/approach

The main debates on the authenticity of the tourism experiences and the commodification of the tourism product is examined. Further a relevant literature on the McDonaldization thesis is provided focusing on experiential dimensions of the tourism consumption.

Findings

Destinations rely not only on the object authenticity of their attractiveness but also strive to attract tourists by tailoring experiences that will meet high-order needs of the tourists. However, these destinations are under threat by commodification and McDonaldization due to excessive use of the resources as a result of mass tourism.

Practical implications

Destination managers and planners should focus on the experiences without compromising on authenticity, uniqueness, and genuineness of their destinations while refraining over-commercialization and McDonaldization of their offerings.

Originality/value

This chapter discusses the authenticity, commodification, and McDonaldization issues on the basis of a case study of a well-established destination.

Details

The Handbook of Managing and Marketing Tourism Experiences
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-289-7

Keywords

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