Search results

1 – 10 of 166
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 May 1992

Avraham Shama

Centres on the transformation of the consumer in Russia, Hungaryand Poland. Reports on a study, carried out in co‐operation withscholars in these countries, which uses…

Abstract

Centres on the transformation of the consumer in Russia, Hungary and Poland. Reports on a study, carried out in co‐operation with scholars in these countries, which uses focus groups to outline the impact on consumers of the transformation to a market economy, and discusses the adjustments these consumers have been making in response to new economic realities. Concludes with research propositions and by pointing out implications for international marketing managers.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 9 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 January 1992

Sandra M. Huszagh, Juanita P. Roxas and Kay L. Keck

A survey of marketing executives within randomly selected, majorfirms in the Philippines investigates firms′ marketing actions inresponse to stagflation caused by the 1990…

Abstract

A survey of marketing executives within randomly selected, major firms in the Philippines investigates firms′ marketing actions in response to stagflation caused by the 1990 Persian Gulf crisis. A central premiss is that there will be differences in sensitivity to macroeconomic conditions between industry sectors. Results show that the manufacturing sector redirects pricing, product and research and development strategies more extensively than non‐manufacturers. These differences may be explained by the extent to which the industry sector is capital‐intensive in its formation and operation. Empirically demonstrates the effects of macroeconomic conditions on firms′ marketing practices and the relevance of the stagflation paradigm outside the United States.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 30 April 2020

C. Muhammad Siddique, Hinna Fatima Siddique and Shama Urooj Siddique

This study has two primary objectives: (1) to shed light on the mechanism by which authoritarian leadership unfolds its impact on such critical aspects of subordinates'…

Abstract

Purpose

This study has two primary objectives: (1) to shed light on the mechanism by which authoritarian leadership unfolds its impact on such critical aspects of subordinates' work lives as job satisfaction and in-role performance and (2) to identify the moderating conditions which place limits on the impact of authoritarian leadership on work outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected on 552 supervisor-subordinate dyads from the United Arab Emirates. A series of research hypotheses were tested using a mixed-method statistical approach, including CFA and moderated hierarchical regression analysis.

Findings

As predicted, authoritarian leadership exerts negative impact on subordinates' job satisfaction and performance through poor quality LMX and weak employee organizational embeddedness. Both LMX and employee embeddedness mediated the negative relationship between authoritarian leadership and outcome measures while power distance moderated the relationship of authoritarian leadership with LMX and employee organizational embeddedness. Low power distance orientation was found to exacerbate the negative impact of authoritarian leadership on the quality of both LMX relationships and employee embeddedness.

Research limitations/implications

The study shares limitations of most studies cast in the survey research design.

Practical implications

The findings underscore the importance of work environment in nurturing high quality LMX relationships and employee organizational embeddedness to buffer the negative effect of authoritarian leadership on subordinates' job satisfaction and performance. In high power distance cultures where workplace inequality is largely rationalized, subordinates who perceive their leaders as authoritarian tend to show low job satisfaction and poor in-role performance. These findings illustrate the importance of management intervention in the early stage of recruitment and selection to attract managers receptive to egalitarian leadership approaches who can equip subordinates with appropriate resources to enhance their job satisfaction and performance outcomes.

Originality/value

The study offers valuable new insights into the mechanism by which authoritarian leadership influences work outcomes in a high-power distance culture. It represents first systematic effort in the Middle Eastern context to identify the conditions that mediate the linkage between authoritarian leadership and work outcomes. The study adds value to the literature by investigating the moderating role of power distance at the individual level of analysis. It detects significant differences in subordinates' perception of power inequality in the workplace in a culture viewed as a high-power distance culture and illustrates how such differences in turn shape the quality of LMX and employee organizational embeddedness.

Details

Journal of Strategy and Management, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-425X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 January 1992

Avraham Shama

Centres on the impact of stagflation on marketing management inYugoslavia and on the responses of managers to stagflation. Based onpersonal interviews and a survey…

Abstract

Centres on the impact of stagflation on marketing management in Yugoslavia and on the responses of managers to stagflation. Based on personal interviews and a survey, reports that while the impact of stagflation was drastic, managers responded by taking only mild countermeasures. This high impact‐mild adjustment phenomenon is quite different from reactions in the USA, where high impacts bring extensive adjustments. Explanations for this Yugoslav phenomenon, which have important implications for international marketing, are found in the country′s self‐managed economy.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 3 July 2020

Ali Ghasemi, Farzin Shama, Gholamreza Karimi and Farshad Khosravi

The purpose of this paper is to provide appropriate methods for reducing the abnormalities on the extracted fetal heart signal from the maternal electrocardiogram (ECG).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide appropriate methods for reducing the abnormalities on the extracted fetal heart signal from the maternal electrocardiogram (ECG).

Design/methodology/approach

In this regard, the extracted signal of the fetal heart from the mother, improved using an active noise cancelation (ANC) system. It uses commonly adaptive algorithms of normalized least mean squares (NLMS). In the present paper, fetal extraction and denoising methodology are proposed. This methodology uses a combination of the NLMS algorithm with Savitzky–Golay (S-G) filter.

Findings

The obtained results show that a combination of NLMS algorithm with filter coefficient of 15 and µ = 0.02 and S-G filter has a better qSNR (qSNR = 3.6727) and good performance for fetal ECG extraction in comparison with the other works for average fmSNR in the range of −30 to −15 dB. Also, with considering the SNR value of −24.7 dB before filtering and SNR = 3.1861 dB after filtering; the SNR improvement of 27.8861 dB has been obtained.

Originality/value

A new method in the extract and noise reduction of fetal ECG from maternal ECG by the combination of NLMS algorithm and S-G filter is proposed.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 47 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 21 May 2020

Shama Nazneen, Hong Xu and Nizam Ud Din

Based on Butlers’ Tourism Area Life Cycle (TALC) model and stakeholder theory, this paper aims to propose an integrative model to examine the perceived impacts of…

Abstract

Purpose

Based on Butlers’ Tourism Area Life Cycle (TALC) model and stakeholder theory, this paper aims to propose an integrative model to examine the perceived impacts of cross-border mega-infrastructure development within the China–Pakistan economic corridor (CPEC). It was hypothesised that these perceptions may be predictors of residents’ perceived destination image (RPDI) and pro-tourism development behaviour (PTDB).

Design/methodology/approach

Interviewer adopted a self-administered questionnaire method and a descriptive technique to analyse the data.

Findings

The empirical results of 800 questionnaires in SEM indicates that, perceived CPEC benefits positively effects RPDI and PTDB. Further, the perceived CPEC costs positively influenced RPDI but had a negative relationship with PTDB. Moreover, RPDI partially mediated between perceived CPEC benefits and PTDB but fully mediated between perceived CPEC costs and PTDB.

Originality/value

In residents’ destination image studies, there is a paucity of the application of Butlers’ TALC model. Therefore, application of Butlers’ TALC model in residents’ destination image study in the context of cross-border mega-infrastructure development project of CPEC is entirely new.

目的

本文基于巴特勒的旅游目的地生命周期模型和利益相关者理论, 提出一个整合的模型用于考察跨越国境的大型基础设施在中国-巴基斯坦经济走廊的影响。本文假定对这些影响的感知能够预测当地居民感知目的地形象和旅游发展前的行为。

方法

使用自填式问卷和描述性数据分析技术。

发现

通过对800份问卷数据的结构方程分析, 发现感知中国-巴基斯坦经济走廊收益积极影响居民感知目的地形象和旅游发展前的行为。进一步, 感知中国-巴基斯坦经济走廊成本积极影响居民感知目的地形象但是消极影响旅游发展前的行为。而且, 居民感知目的地形象部分中介了感知中国-巴基斯坦经济走廊收益和旅游发展前的行为, 完全中介了感知中国-巴基斯坦经济走廊成本和旅游发展前的行为。

贡献

在居民目的地形象研究中, 很少使用巴特勒的旅游目的地生命周期模型。故而, 在居民目的地形象研究中使用巴特勒的旅游目的地生命周期模型, 应用在中国-巴基斯坦经济走廊这一跨国界的大型基础设施开发项目情境中, 是创新的。

关键词

目的地形象, 旅游发展前行为, 巴特勒旅游目的地生命周期模型, 利益相关者理论, 感知中国-巴基斯坦经济走廊的影响, 多群组分析

论文类型

研究论文

Propósito

Este trabajo, basado en el modelo de CDVT de Butlers y la teoría de stakeholder, propone un modelo integrador para examinar los impactos percibidos del desarrollo transfronterizo de megainfraestructuradentro dentro del corredor económico China-Pakistán (CPEC). Se presumió que estas percepciones pueden ser predictores de la imagen de destino percibida de los residentes y del comportamiento de desarrollo pro-turismo.

Metodología

el entrevistador adoptó un método de cuestionario autoadministrado y una técnica descriptiva para analizar los datos.

Resultados

Los resultados empíricos de 800 cuestionarios en el modelado de ecuaciones estructurales (SEM, por sus siglas en inglés) indican que los beneficios percibidos del CPEC influyen positivamente en la RPDI y en el comportamiento de desarrollo pro-turismo. Además, los costos percibidos del CPEC influyeron positivamente en la RPDI pero tuvieron una relación negativa con el desarrollo pro-turismo. Por otra parte, la RPDI media parcialmente entre los beneficios percibidos del CPEC y el comportamiento de desarrollo pro-turismo, pero totalmente mediado entre los costos percibidos del CPEC y el comportamiento de desarrollo pro-turismo.

Originalidad

En los estudios de imagen de destino percibida de los residentes, rara vez se aplica el Modelo del Ciclo de Vida de los Destinos Turísticos de Butlers (MCDVT). Por lo tanto, la aplicación del modelo de CDVT de Butlers en el estudio de imagen de destino percibida de los residentes, en el contexto dell proyecto de desarrollo trans-fronterizo de la mega-infraestructura del CPEC, es completamente nuevo

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 October 2000

Irina Akimova

Recent studies have reflected the need to investigate the development of market orientation in the transitional economies under conditions of economic decline and great…

Abstract

Recent studies have reflected the need to investigate the development of market orientation in the transitional economies under conditions of economic decline and great systemic change. However, the relationship between the level of market orientation and firm’s competitiveness in a turbulent environment has not been analysed. Personal interviews conducted with 221 managers of Ukrainian enterprises provided data to investigate the level of the development of market orientation and competitiveness. Managers’ attitudes toward marketing are used to create a typology of marketing approaches in the Ukraine. Competitiveness is measured as a multi‐dimensional concept using variables of organisational adaptability to the changes in business environment, advantages across the marketing mix and performance indicators as the dimensions. The results of the study suggest that the level of a firm’s competitiveness in the turbulent environment of a transitional economy is associated with the level of the development of market orientation.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 34 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 2 December 2020

Jan Lees, Rex Haigh, Simone Bruschetta, Anando Chatterji, Veronica Dominguez-Bailey, Sandra Kelly, Aldo Lombardo, Shama Parkhe, Joāo G. Pereira, Yousuf Rahimi and Barbara Rawlings

This paper aims to describe a method of training for practitioners in democratic Therapeutic Communities (TCs) which has been used in several settings across the world…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to describe a method of training for practitioners in democratic Therapeutic Communities (TCs) which has been used in several settings across the world over the past 25 years: the “Living-Learning Experience” (LLE) workshop. It goes on to consider the cross-cultural implications of the work.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on the experience of running exactly the same programme in different countries and cultures, the paper examines the cross-cultural adaptability and describes necessary adaptations for local circumstances. It also contains original ethnographic research in UK and Italy; further study is planned for other countries.

Findings

The workshops are readily transferable to different cultures and are appreciated for their democratic and relational way of working.

Research limitations/implications

The ethnographic study examines the workshops in some depth, in UK and Italy, and could usefully be replicated in other countries. No quantitative, outcome or follow-up studies have yet been done, and this paper could contribute to the design of useful quantitative studies.

Practical implications

The paper demonstrates that the LLE is a useful experiential learning tool in widely different settings. It could be developed in different ways, such as for developing relational practice or establishing therapeutic environments in different settings.

Social implications

The workshops' acceptance in widely different cultures indicates that the open and non-didactic format addresses essential and fundamental qualities required for therapeutic engagement and human relatedness.

Originality/value

This is the first description of the principles of democratic TCs being applied across different international settings. Its value extends beyond the TC field, to the use of democratic and relational principles' applicability in therapeutic pedagogy and training.

Details

Therapeutic Communities: The International Journal of Therapeutic Communities, vol. 42 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-1866

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 19 December 2018

Stephen Gibb and Shama Rahman

The purpose of this study is to model and explore kindness as a factor in employment contexts. “Kindness among colleagues” is a particular context for the scientific study…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to model and explore kindness as a factor in employment contexts. “Kindness among colleagues” is a particular context for the scientific study of kindness which has been under-researched. There is scope within the burgeoning study of kindness for research concerned with employment contexts and colleagues, adopting an employment context appropriate construct of kindness, generating and considering evidence that might be evaluated rigorously in the employment context where kindness is both advocated and critiqued.

Design/methodology/approach

The literature review identifies and explores the gaps in kindness research in the employment context. A construct distinguishing a set of antecedents of kindness among colleagues was developed to address these gaps. The relevance and usefulness of the construct was tested in semi-structured interviews among some work colleagues in a specific organization setting.

Findings

The results show that the four antecedents of kindness can be used to capture and explore perceptions and experiences of kindness among colleagues. There is scope for analysis at the levels of individuals, teams and organizations using data about these antecedents which allows for individual and more general workplace dynamics to be described and explored.

Research limitations/implications

The antecedents of kindness construct are validated to an extent by this initial study. The potential of this for describing and analyzing kindness and workplace relevant themes makes it worth further development; to refine and validate an instrument for measuring kindness among colleagues.

Practical implications

Kindness among colleagues, if understood in the nuanced way presented here, can help individuals, teams and organizations review and evaluate themselves in diverse contexts. Contexts can be expected to vary with workforce demographics, leadership style and organization cultures.

Social implications

Kindness is a burgeoning theme and concern across diverse social and cultural contexts for various reasons. The scientific contribution to the advocacy or critique of kindness, in this case kindness among colleagues, provides value in rigor, operationalization and evidencing of the case for and against advocacy of the value of kindness in general.

Originality/value

This is a focused review and study of kindness among colleagues which contributes to the nomological and methodological development of a scientific approach to organizational analysis concerns with this important theme in contemporary times.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 27 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 April 1985

Avraham Shama

Most marketing executives are aware by now that some consumers believe that “small is beautiful” and “less is more.” Such executives may be surprised to find out that this…

Abstract

Most marketing executives are aware by now that some consumers believe that “small is beautiful” and “less is more.” Such executives may be surprised to find out that this type of voluntary simplicity consumer (VSC) is the fastest‐growing market segment in the U.S. Who the voluntary simplicity consumers are, how they came about, and how to cater to them profitably are the subjects of this article. The VSC is the outcome of a lifestyle trend toward voluntary simplicity (VS), but unlike any other market segment, the VSC prefers a lifestyle of low consumption, ecological responsibility, and self‐sufficiency. As a result, marketers are often puzzled as to how to market to the VSC.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 2 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

1 – 10 of 166