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Article
Publication date: 2 July 2021

Abdallah Alsaad and Manaf Al-Okaily

This study explores the acceptance of protection technology, namely, exposure detection apps, in the context of the Covid-19 pandemic. Unlike other situations, the context…

Abstract

Purpose

This study explores the acceptance of protection technology, namely, exposure detection apps, in the context of the Covid-19 pandemic. Unlike other situations, the context of the pandemic is characterized by large levels of threat and fear which largely affect the human decision-making process. To identify such characteristics, this study investigates the acceptance of exposure detection apps from the perspective of protection motivation theory (PMT). It examines how the perceived risk of Covid-19, perceived fear of Covid-19, self-efficacy, response efficacy and protection motivation interact to predict the acceptance of exposure detection apps.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 306 Jordanian participants, and structural equation modelling was used for data analysis.

Findings

The results reveal that acceptance of these apps is triggered by the perceived risk of Covid-19, which increases the experienced level of fear. The latter then initiates a compelling desire or motivation to protect oneself by using the recommended adaptive response (exposure detection app). The results show that an increased level of self-efficacy and perceived efficacy of exposure detection apps also contribute to the development of protection motivation and later the intent to use exposure detection apps.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the technology acceptance domain by developing a context-driven model of the key characteristics of pandemics that lead to different patterns of technology acceptance. The key components in designing effective marketing campaigns to prompt the use of exposures detection apps are discussed.

Details

Information Technology & People, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

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Article
Publication date: 5 June 2019

Jee Hye Lee, Azlin Mustapha and Johye Hwang

This study evaluated risk perception as a critical factor influencing the intention to visit ethnic restaurants; in addition, the role of food safety information in…

Abstract

Purpose

This study evaluated risk perception as a critical factor influencing the intention to visit ethnic restaurants; in addition, the role of food safety information in reducing risk perception toward ethnic food was examined. Finally, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of protection motivation on risk perception.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey was performed with 506 respondents. Data analyses including descriptive statistics, simple linear regression structural equational modeling and an independent t-test were conducted.

Findings

The results highlighted the negative influence of risk perception toward ethnic food consumption on the intention to visit ethnic restaurants. The results indicated that providing food safety information on menus reduces risk perception. Protection motivation theory explained consumers’ risk perception toward ethnic food. In particular, vulnerability (the chance of occurrence), self-efficacy (certainty in one’s ability to carry out a recommended preventive behavior) and response-efficacy (belief that an individual can handle a threat effectively) affected consumers’ risk perception toward ethnic food.

Practical implications

The results provide effective strategies for reducing risk perception, such as a provision of food safety information on the ethnic menu or an open kitchen, which produces a safer food image for consumers.

Originality/value

A scarcity of research has been offered to explain the predictors influencing consumers’ risk perception toward ethnic food and the methods whereby risk perception can be reduced. Thus, this study makes an important contribution to the hospitality literature by exploring risk-perception-related variables.

Details

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Insights, vol. 2 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9792

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Article
Publication date: 8 June 2020

Megan C. Good and Michael R. Hyman

The purpose of this paper is to apply protection motivation theory (PMT) to brick-and-mortar salespeople's responses to customers' fear appeals.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to apply protection motivation theory (PMT) to brick-and-mortar salespeople's responses to customers' fear appeals.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach is to develop a conceptual model for the effect of customers' fear appeals on brick-and-mortar salespeople.

Findings

PMT relates to the influence of customers' fear appeals on brick-and-mortar salespeople's behaviours. The salesperson's decision whether to follow a retail manager's suggestion about ways to mitigate a customer's fear appeal depends on believed threat severity, believed threat susceptibility, response efficacy, self-efficacy and response costs.

Research limitations/implications

PMT is applied to a new domain: brick-and-mortar salespeople. Although a powerful yet universal emotion, only limited research has examined fear within this group.

Practical implications

Understanding salespeople's fears will help retail managers identify strategies for encouraging adaptive behaviours and deterring maladaptive behaviours by salespeople.

Originality/value

A model relating customers' fear appeals to salespeople's behaviours is introduced.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 48 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Book part
Publication date: 27 November 2014

Julia Crouse Waddell, Caitlin McLaughlin, Robert LaRose, Nora Rifon and Christina Wirth-Hawkins

The purpose of this research was to utilize protection motivation theory, which states that individuals will take actions to protect themselves from threats when they have…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research was to utilize protection motivation theory, which states that individuals will take actions to protect themselves from threats when they have both knowledge of actions that will protect them from the threat and the motivation to do so, to develop a better way of training adolescents to be safe on the Internet.

Design/methodology/approach

This study utilized an experimental approach in a high school environment to test its hypotheses. Participants were split into two groups: a group who received a tutorial about how to stay safe on the Internet (an enactive mastery tutorial that allowed students to actually try out the skills they were learning) and a group who did not receive the training. Participants were then asked about their intentions to engage in protective behaviors, their perceived ability to do so, and the likelihood that these protective behaviors would help them to stay safer on the Internet.

Findings

The findings indicated that an enactive mastery training program increased intentions to engage in safe online behavior in the future, offering a foundation for the development of future theory-based online safety interventions.

Research limitations/implications

This study was conducted in a small geographic region in schools that agreed to utilize a class period to test the enactive mastery tutorial, which limits its external validity. Furthermore, this study only measured intentions to engage in protective behaviors, not actual behaviors.

Practical implications

This research provides a guideline for an effective way of increasing the likelihood that adolescents will engage in protective behaviors online, which has great practical applications for teachers, administrators, PSA advertisers, etc.

Originality/value

This chapter provides a framework for creating programs to help adolescents engage in safer behavior. Furthermore, it introduces the idea of involvement to the protection motivation theory literature, which is a valuable variable to consider when determining how to create an effective campaign to change behavior.

Details

Communication and Information Technologies Annual
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-629-3

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Article
Publication date: 8 June 2015

Teodor Sommestad, Henrik Karlzén and Jonas Hallberg

This paper aims to challenge the assumption that the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) includes all constructs that explain information security policy compliance and…

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2090

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to challenge the assumption that the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) includes all constructs that explain information security policy compliance and investigates if anticipated regret or constructs from the protection motivation theory add explanatory power. The TPB is an established theory that has been found to predict compliance with information security policies well.

Design/methodology/approach

Responses from 306 respondents at a research organization were collected using a questionnaire-based survey. Extensions in terms of anticipated regret and constructs drawn from the protection motivation theory are tested using hierarchical regression analysis.

Findings

Adding anticipated regret and the threat appraisal process results in improvements of the predictions of intentions. The improvements are of sufficient magnitude to warrant adjustments of the model of the TPB when it is used in the area of information security policy compliance.

Originality/value

This study is the first test of anticipated regret as a predictor of information security policy compliance and the first to assess its influence in relation to the TPB and the protection motivation theory.

Details

Information & Computer Security, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4961

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2021

Ai Na Seow, Chee Keong Choong, I-Chi Chen and Yuen Onn Choong

Medical tourism has grown to become a formidable multinational industry to generate revenue. This phenomenon has also increased impact on the healthcare sector as well as…

Abstract

Purpose

Medical tourism has grown to become a formidable multinational industry to generate revenue. This phenomenon has also increased impact on the healthcare sector as well as strategies development opportunities. The present study emphases on the international tourists' behavioural intention for medical tourism in Malaysia. A research framework is derived from the exceptional component of fear appeal in protection motivation theory (PMT).

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected with a sample of 501 respondents and analysed via structural equation modelling approach. Both measurement model and structural model were assessed to generate the result.

Findings

The outcomes have shown a good backing on the use of adapted PMT theoretical model. There is a higher predictive power on health coping than health threats. Coping alternatives can be served as the linkage between the PMT appraisals and behavioural intention.

Research limitations/implications

The study confirmed the effectiveness of using a theoretical framework in predicting international tourists' behavioural intention for medical tourism. It is suggesting that risk adaptive behaviour does offer a valuable proposition in contributing to the reception of medical tourism.

Practical implications

The present study argues the need for greater clarity in understanding the emergent implications for health policy and healthcare delivery for future medical tourism development.

Originality/value

The fundamental theories and current literature do not incorporate the component of fear appeal in explaining decision making. The study findings demonstrate that protection motivation theory has provide another promising theoretical model in explaining international tourists' behaviour intention for medical tourism.

Details

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Insights, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9792

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Article
Publication date: 9 July 2018

Jurjen Jansen and Paul van Schaik

The purpose of this paper is to test the protection motivation theory (PMT) in the context of fear appeal interventions to reduce the threat of phishing attacks. In…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to test the protection motivation theory (PMT) in the context of fear appeal interventions to reduce the threat of phishing attacks. In addition, it was tested to what extent the model relations are equivalent across fear appeal conditions and across time.

Design/methodology/approach

A pre-test post-test design was used. In the pre-test, 1,201 internet users filled out an online survey and were presented with one of three fear appeal conditions: strong fear appeal, weak fear appeal and control condition. Arguments regarding vulnerability of phishing attacks and response efficacy of vigilant online information-sharing behaviour were manipulated in the fear appeals. In the post-test, data were collected from 786 internet users and analysed with partial least squares path modelling.

Findings

The study found that PMT model relations hold in the domain of phishing. Self-efficacy and fear were the most important predictors of protection motivation. In general, the model results were equivalent across conditions and across time.

Practical Implications

It is important to consider online information-sharing behaviour because it facilitates the occurrence and success of phishing attacks. The results give practitioners more insight into important factors to address in the design of preventative measures to reduce the success of phishing attacks. Future research is needed to test how fear appeals work in real-world settings and over longer periods.

Originality/value

This paper is a substantial adaptation of a previous conference paper (Jansen and Van Schaik, 2017a, b).

Details

Information & Computer Security, vol. 26 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4961

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Article
Publication date: 18 February 2021

Hao Chen, Ofir Turel and Yufei Yuan

Electronic waste (e-waste) such as discarded computers and smartphones may contain large amounts of confidential data. Improper handling of remaining information in…

Abstract

Purpose

Electronic waste (e-waste) such as discarded computers and smartphones may contain large amounts of confidential data. Improper handling of remaining information in e-waste can, therefore, drive information security risk. This risk, however, is not always properly assessed and managed. The authors take the protection motivation theory (PMT) lens of analysis to understand intentions to protect one's discarded electronic assets.

Design/methodology/approach

By applying structural equation modeling, the authors empirically tested the proposed model with survey data from 348 e-waste handling users.

Findings

Results highlight that (1) protection intention is influenced by the perceived threat of discarding untreated e-waste (a threat appraisal) and self-efficacy to treat the discarded e-waste (a coping appraisal) and (2) optimism bias plays a dual-role in a direct and moderating way to reduce the perceived threat of untreated e-waste and its effect on protection intentions.

Originality/value

Results support the assertions and portray a unique theoretical account of the processes that underline people's motivation to protect their data when discarding e-waste. As such, this study explains a relatively understudied information security risk behavior in the e-waste context, points to the role of optimism bias in such decisions and highlights potential interventions that can help to alleviate this information security risk behavior.

Details

Information Technology & People, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

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Article
Publication date: 27 June 2020

Esther Dzidzah, Kwame Owusu Kwateng and Benjamin Kofi Asante

The inception of mobile financial services (MFSs) has positively provoked economic growth and productivity, nonetheless, it has pessimistically caused an upward surge in…

Abstract

Purpose

The inception of mobile financial services (MFSs) has positively provoked economic growth and productivity, nonetheless, it has pessimistically caused an upward surge in cybersecurity threat. Customers are progressively becoming conscious of some of the threat and several of them now shun away from some suspicious activities over the internet as a form of protection. This study aims to explore the factors that influence users’ to adopt security behaviour.

Design/methodology/approach

A synthesis of theories – Self-efficacy and technology threat avoidance theories – was used to examine the security behaviour of users of MFSs. Data was gathered from 530 students in Ghana using convenience sampling technique. Data analysis was carried out using descriptive statistics, inferential statistics and structural equation model.

Findings

Outcome of the investigation indicate that both mastery experience and verbal persuasion have substantial effect on the avoidance motivation of MFSs users. It was, however, found that emotional state and vicarious experience of users do not influence their avoidance motivation. Also, it was established that avoidance motivation is a positive prognosticator of avoidance behaviour.

Practical implications

Understanding the security behaviour of MFS users will help the operators to outline strategies to sustain the successes achieved.

Originality/value

Studies on user security behaviour are rare, especially in sub Saharan Africa, thus, this study will contribute to extant literature by adding a new dimension of user security behaviour.

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Article
Publication date: 15 February 2018

Hafedh Ibrahim and Mahmoud Mohammad Q. Al-Ajlouni

While there has been a great deal of research to distinguish the factors that promote the adoption of sustainable consumption, however there has been a very little…

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2592

Abstract

Purpose

While there has been a great deal of research to distinguish the factors that promote the adoption of sustainable consumption, however there has been a very little attention given to the contribution of justice, coping appraisal, and psychological distance. The purpose of this paper is to explore the potential role of deontic justice, protection motivation, and construal level theories to elucidate the green purchase intention.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 471 participants in a laboratory experiment. Then, structural equation modeling was carried out to analyze the data.

Findings

Protection motivation theory is valuable to apply specifically since it introduces the concept of coping appraisal. The findings demonstrate that deontic justice theory (DJT) is a suitable framework that can be employed to shed more light on sustainable consumption. The study shows that consumer can conceptualize a green product at different levels of concreteness or abstraction.

Originality/value

This study is a pioneering effort to look at sustainable consumption within the context of DJT. It departs from the more traditional research by repositioning moral obligation as the primary driver of green purchase intention and by elucidating when green purchase intention is elevated in investigating the moderating role of mindset.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 56 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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