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Book part
Publication date: 10 October 2007

Hans-Jorg Albrecht

Abstract

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Crime and Human Rights
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-056-9

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Article
Publication date: 26 October 2012

Lukman Raimi

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effectiveness of faith‐based advocacy (FBA) as a tool for mitigating human trafficking in Nigeria, where trafficking has…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effectiveness of faith‐based advocacy (FBA) as a tool for mitigating human trafficking in Nigeria, where trafficking has assumed epidemic dimension. The choice of faith‐based advocacy is based on the recognition of religion as a tool for shaping people's opinions and influencing policies in Nigeria.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology employed in the paper is the narrative‐textual case study (NTCS) combined with qualitative data. The NTCS method utilises human trafficking data made available by the National Agency for the Prohibition of Trafficking in Persons (NAPTIP) for the periods 2004 to 2010.

Findings

From the qualitative data sourced, the paper argues that human trafficking in Nigeria can be mitigated through faith‐based advocacy as exemplified many years back by both Muslim and Christian groups for the abolition of slavery, a similar phenomenon to human trafficking. The paper concludes that the performance of the Nigerian government in the areas of prosecuting traffickers, protecting victims, and preventing human trafficking has been commendable, but could be better enhanced and energized through the power of faith‐based advocacy.

Originality/value

This paper recommends that governments of Nigeria should partner with religious authorities to jointly mitigate the scourge of human trafficking in Nigeria.

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Humanomics, vol. 28 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0828-8666

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Book part
Publication date: 26 August 2019

Valerie R. Anderson, Teresa C. Kulig and Christopher J. Sullivan

Purpose – The purpose of this chapter is to examine the ways in which human trafficking has been measured through the use of agency record data.Approach – The authors…

Abstract

Purpose – The purpose of this chapter is to examine the ways in which human trafficking has been measured through the use of agency record data.

Approach – The authors review the state of previous research on human trafficking using agency record data and the challenges that are important to consider when using agency records in the study of human trafficking.

Findings – Researchers have used agency records in a wide variety of ways to measure human trafficking victimization, perpetration, and patterns or case characteristics. Agency data provide unique contributions to understand human trafficking including the scope of the problem, predictors of victimization, and public perceptions of this crime. The authors describe the efforts to use agency records to estimate the prevalence of human trafficking in a statewide study.

Value – This chapter provides an overview of how agency records have been used in human trafficking research in recent years. Furthermore, this chapter includes a case study and methodological reflection on the use of agency records in a statewide human trafficking prevalence study. The authors conclude with a methodological reflection and considerations moving forward for future use of agency data in human trafficking research.

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Methods of Criminology and Criminal Justice Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-865-9

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Book part
Publication date: 19 May 2009

Amy Farrell

Purpose – The present study provides information about the pervasiveness of human trafficking in local communities and the challenges law enforcement face identifying and…

Abstract

Purpose – The present study provides information about the pervasiveness of human trafficking in local communities and the challenges law enforcement face identifying and responding to such problems. This chapter describes how often law enforcement agencies find cases of human trafficking and it examines the contextual and organizational factors affecting their ability to identify and respond to such cases.

Methodology – This analysis is based upon data from a national survey of local, state and county law enforcement agencies in the United States regarding human trafficking.

Findings – Law enforcement identification of trafficking cases is relatively rare, though agencies encounter victims more often than federal prosecution statistics suggest. Law enforcement is generally under-prepared to identify and respond to human trafficking, but when agencies train officers develop protocols and designate specialized personnel they are more likely to identify trafficking cases.

Implications – With the proper tools and support, local law enforcement can learn to more successfully identify and respond to human trafficking victimization.

Originality – This is the first national survey of American state and local police regarding their experiences in responding to the problems of human trafficking.

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Immigration, Crime and Justice
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-438-2

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Article
Publication date: 18 April 2020

Annie Isabel Fukushima, Kwynn Gonzalez-Pons, Lindsay Gezinski and Lauren Clark

The purpose of this study is to contribute to the social understanding of stigma as a societal and cultural barrier in the life of a survivor of human trafficking. The…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to contribute to the social understanding of stigma as a societal and cultural barrier in the life of a survivor of human trafficking. The findings illustrate several ways where stigma is internal, interpersonal and societal and impacts survivors’ lives, including the care they receive.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used qualitative methods. Data collection occurred during 2018 with efforts such as an online survey (n = 45), focus groups (two focus groups of seven participants each) and phone interviews (n = 6). This study used thematic analysis of qualitative data.

Findings

The research team found that a multiplicity of stigma occurred for the survivors of human trafficking, where stigma occurred across three levels from micro to meso to macro contexts. Using interpretive analysis, the researchers conceptualized how stigma is not singular; rather, it comprises the following: bias in access to care; barriers of shaming, shunning and othering; misidentification and mislabeling; multiple levels of furthering how survivors are deeply misunderstood and a culture of mistrust.

Research limitations/implications

While this study was conducted in a single US city, it provides an opportunity to create dialogue and appeal for more research that will contend with a lens of seeing a multiplicity of stigma regardless of the political climate of the context. It was a challenge to recruit survivors to participate in the study. However, survivor voices are present in this study and the impetus of the study’s focus was informed by survivors themselves. Finally, this study is informed by the perspectives of researchers who are not survivors; moreover, collaborating with survivor researchers at the local level was impossible because there were no known survivor researchers available to the team.

Practical implications

There are clinical responses to the narratives of stigma that impact survivors’ lives, but anti-trafficking response must move beyond individualized expectations to include macro responses that diminish multiple stigmas. The multiplicity in stigmas has meant that, in practice, survivors are invisible at all levels of response from micro, meso to macro contexts. Therefore, this study offers recommendations for how anti-trafficking responders may move beyond a culture of stigma towards a response that addresses how stigma occurs in micro, meso and macro contexts.

Social implications

The social implications of examining stigma as a multiplicity is central to addressing how stigma continues to be an unresolved issue in anti-trafficking response. Advancing the dynamic needs of survivors both in policy and practice necessitates responding to the multiple and overlapping forms of stigma they face in enduring and exiting exploitative conditions, accessing services and integrating back into the community.

Originality/value

This study offers original analysis of how stigma manifested for the survivors of human trafficking. Building on this dynamic genealogy of scholarship on stigma, this study offers a theory to conceptualize how survivors of human trafficking experience stigma: a multiplicity of stigma. A multiplicity of stigma extends existing research on stigma and human trafficking as occurring across three levels from micro, meso to macro contexts and creating a system of oppression. Stigma cannot be reduced to a singular form; therefore, this study argues that survivors cannot be understood as experiencing a singular form of stigma.

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International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4902

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Article
Publication date: 4 May 2012

Ruth Farrugia

This paper aims to establish the existence and enforceability of State responsibility for human trafficking, making special reference to children and Malta. Given that…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to establish the existence and enforceability of State responsibility for human trafficking, making special reference to children and Malta. Given that trafficking has been described by the European Court of Human Rights as a form of modern slavery, the paper's hypothesis is that the State has a responsibility to ensure that all possible steps are taken to combat the practice and to protect possible victims.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is divided into three parts: the first part makes a concise review of the international criteria applied in response to human trafficking, the second part examines the pertaining situation relating to human trafficking in Malta and the final part makes an analysis of the recent judgment of the European Court of Human Rights in Rantsev v. Cyprus and Russia.

Findings

The paper demonstrates that the affirmation of State responsibility to combat human trafficking is enforceable, with reference to the Rantsev judgement which clearly attributes a positive obligation on States under Article 4. It also highlights the difficulty in tracing judgments related to human trafficking as evidenced by the review of the Maltese position, although this appears to be an issue common to a number of States which indiscriminately put together all cases for trafficking (drug trafficking and human trafficking).

Originality/value

The paper only uses first‐hand sources and Maltese judgements are supplemented with original research into cases as reported in the press. The third part of the work analyses the recent judgement of the European Court of Human Rights in Rantsev v. Cyprus and Russia (2010), speculating as to its impact on all member states of the Council of Europe, including Malta.

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Journal of Money Laundering Control, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-5201

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Article
Publication date: 31 March 2020

Rachel Kappler and Arduizur Carli Richie-Zavaleta

Human trafficking (HT) is a local, national and international problem with a range of human rights, public health and policy implications. Victims of HT face atrocious…

Abstract

Purpose

Human trafficking (HT) is a local, national and international problem with a range of human rights, public health and policy implications. Victims of HT face atrocious abuses that negatively impact their health outcomes. When a state lacks protective laws, such as Safe Harbor laws, victims of HT tend to be seen as criminals. This paper aims to highlight the legal present gaps within Missouri’s anti-trafficking legislation and delineates recommendations for the legal protection of victims of HT and betterment of services needed for their reintegration and healing.

Design/methodology/approach

This case-study is based on a policy analysis of current Missouri’s HT laws. This analysis was conducted through examining current rankings systems created by nationally and internationally recognized non-governmental organizations as well as governmental reports. Additionally, other state’s best practice and law passage of Safe Harbor legislations were examined. The recommendations were based on human rights and public health frameworks.

Findings

Missouri is a state that has yet to upgrade its laws lately to reflect Safe Harbor laws. Constant upgrades and evaluations of current efforts are necessary to protect and address HT at the state and local levels. Public health and human rights principles can assist in the upgrading of current laws as well as other states’ best-practice and integration of protective legislation and diversion programs to both youth and adult victims of HT.

Research limitations/implications

Laws are continually being updated at the state level; therefore, there might be some upgrades that have taken place after the analysis of this case study was conducted. Also, the findings and recommendations of this case study are limited to countries that are similar to the USA in terms of the state-level autonomy to pass laws independently from federal law.

Practical implications

If Safe Harbor laws are well designed, they have greater potential to protect, support and assist victims of HT in their process from victimization into survivorship as well as to paving the way for societal reintegration. The creation and enforcement of Safe Harbor laws is a way to ensure the decriminalization process. Additionally, this legal protection also ensures that the universal human rights of victims are protected. Consequently, these legal processes and updates could assist in creating healthier communities in the long run in the USA and around the world.

Social implications

From a public health and human rights perspectives, communities in the USA and around the world cannot provide complete protection to victims of HT until their anti-trafficking laws reflect Safe Harbor laws.

Originality/value

This case study, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, is a unique analysis that dismantles the discrepancies of Missouri’s current HT laws. This work is valuable to those who create policies at the state level and advocate for the protection of victims and anti-trafficking efforts.

Details

International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4902

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Article
Publication date: 14 October 2019

Foluké Abigail Badejo, Sharyn Rundle-Thiele and Krzysztof Kubacki

Responding to the call for an extension of social marketing scope and application, this paper aims to outline implementation of a multi-stream, multi-method formative…

Abstract

Purpose

Responding to the call for an extension of social marketing scope and application, this paper aims to outline implementation of a multi-stream, multi-method formative research approach to understanding human trafficking in the global South context of Nigeria.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected using a multi-method, multi-stream research design. The study used alternative methods allowing a critical perspective to be taken.

Findings

Contradictions between upstream discourses and the lived experiences of trafficked individuals emerged. Specifically, moral and rational agency ideology, which conflates human trafficking with prostitution, unintentionally promotes human trafficking and underrepresents other forms of trafficking was evident. Experiences of socioeconomic oppression, traditional practices and an aspirational culture fuels positive attitudes towards human trafficking. The lived experience of human trafficking survivors while varied was underpinned by the common theme of job seeking. Participants perceived human traffickers as benevolent users rather than oppressors, and their rescue as oppressive and disempowering.

Research limitations/implications

Application of a multi-stream approach is limited by research context, sample size, time and cost constraints. Future research extending the multi-stream research approach to other research contexts and groups is recommended.

Practical implications

Multi-stream formative research design assisted to yield wider insights, which informed the design of a multilevel pilot intervention to combat human trafficking in Nigeria.

Originality/value

Extending understanding beyond individual, myopic approaches that have dominated social marketing formative research.

Details

Journal of Social Marketing, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-6763

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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2017

Arvinder P.S. Loomba

The purpose of this paper is to introduce a transformative service-based model, which analyzes tripartite service interaction logics among trafficking survivors, anti…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to introduce a transformative service-based model, which analyzes tripartite service interaction logics among trafficking survivors, anti-trafficking agencies and the community during a process of actively- and passively transformative exchanges. It aims to help researchers and practitioners better understand services that facilitate reintegration of trafficking survivors into society.

Design/methodology/approach

Using theory development from sociological and liminality schools of thought, this paper explores a variety of coping strategies that anti-trafficking agencies can offer human-trafficking survivors in post-trafficking service settings.

Findings

A novel transformative service-based framework extends current conceptualizations of social and service exchange in a tripartite interaction setting. Anti-trafficking agencies can create a supportive community environment to offer trafficking survivors passively transformative services and to cultivate and nurture their coping skills towards reintegration into society.

Research limitations/implications

Important implications for transformative service-based theory and practice of serving trafficking survivors are discussed. In addition, the study limitations are addressed.

Practical implications

The transformative service-based model analyzes tripartite service interaction logics during a process of exchanges between trafficking survivors, anti-trafficking agency and community ecosystem to achieve meaningful post-trafficking reintegration into society.

Social implications

Using the transformative service model, community ties need to be re-established for trafficking survivors to achieve successful reintegration into society, and for communities to heal and restore human dignity.

Originality/value

This research proposes a new framework for actively- and passively-transformative service logic for anti-trafficking agencies to offer assistance to trafficking survivors, based on sociological and liminality schools of thought.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 31 no. 4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 19 June 2019

Suzi Mohamed Rashad

This paper aims to explore the factors leading to the phenomenon of child trafficking in Egypt, how deeply it runs through the Egyptian society and evaluate the state’s…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the factors leading to the phenomenon of child trafficking in Egypt, how deeply it runs through the Egyptian society and evaluate the state’s efforts to combat it.

Design/methodology/approach

This research paper uses a case study method applied to the phenomenon of child trafficking in the Arab Republic of Egypt, and how the State is fighting it. The general policy approach is also used to clarify the State’s plans, programs and legislation in addressing the phenomenon of child trafficking, evaluate those policies and analyze the international documents.

Findings

The research paper concluded that child trafficking in Egypt represents a serious phenomenon, which stems from social, economic and cultural reasons. Even though the Egyptian Government exerts relentless efforts to fight this crime, all attempts have proven insufficient due to the lack of coordination between the concerned parties and low funds, in addition to the feeble services offered to the victims.

Practical implications

This study sheds light on a very perilous phenomenon in the Egyptian society; an international one with intricate magnitudes, upon which the State must concentrate more and eradicate it.

Originality/value

The study contributes to drawing the attention of decision makers in Egypt to the dangers of this phenomenon, and to the points of strength and weaknesses of the government’s efforts against it.

Details

Review of Economics and Political Science, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2631-3561

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