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Article
Publication date: 19 January 2022

Gul Afshan, Carolina Serrano-Archimi and Zubair Akram

The paper examines the effect of relative leader-member exchange (LMX) on follower's in-role performance, citizenship behaviour and cynicism via relational identification…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper examines the effect of relative leader-member exchange (LMX) on follower's in-role performance, citizenship behaviour and cynicism via relational identification. Moreover, LMXSC (LMXSC) moderates the direct and mediating relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on multi-level (individual and group level) model, dyadic data were collected from 298 employees working under 47 group managers in the banking sector in Pakistan.

Findings

The multi-level moderated mediation model tested in Mplus and HLM software showed the full support for direct, mediating and moderating hypothesized relationships; however, the moderated mediation hypothesis was partially supported. It reveals that relative LMX standing of followers predicted in-role performance, organizational citizenship behaviour at an individual level (OCB-individual) and cynicism. Relational identification with the leader mediated the relationship. Moreover, at high LMXSC, the relationship between relative LMX and relational identification and consequently the outcomes were stronger.

Originality/value

LMX has widely been studied at dyadic level, despite the suggested high and low LMX quality relationships that exist in a workgroup. This study not only investigates the role of relative LMX on employee performance through relational identification but also reports that subjective evaluation of LMXSC plays a major role in promoting employee performance.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article
Publication date: 10 January 2022

Yilmaz Akgunduz, Selcen Seda Turksoy and Mehmet Alper Nisari

Compatible with the principles of leader–member exchange (LMX) theory and social exchange theory (SET), the study explores the effect of LMX on job embeddedness and job…

Abstract

Purpose

Compatible with the principles of leader–member exchange (LMX) theory and social exchange theory (SET), the study explores the effect of LMX on job embeddedness and job dedication and the mediating role of employee advocacy.

Design/methodology/approach

The data were gathered via a survey at four hotels in Izmir. To test the reliability and validity, 194 valid questionnaires were subjected to confirmatory factor analysis and path analysis. Structural equation modelling was used to test the hypothesized relationships.

Findings

The results show that high quality LMX and employee advocacy increase the hotel employees' job embeddedness and job dedication. In addition, the results show that employee advocacy has a partial mediating effect on the relationships between LMX and job embeddedness, and between LMX and job dedication.

Originality/value

Although past researches have examined both various determinants of employee job embeddedness and job dedication, and consequences of high-quality LMX, they have ignored a critical factor, which is employee advocacy. This current study addresses this research gap by investigating the interrelations between LMX and job embeddedness, and job advocacy through employee advocacy in hotels. Moreover, this research is the first empirical study that analyzes the relationships between LMX, job embeddedness, job dedication and employee advocacy in the same model. Therefore, this research contributes to hospitality literature by filling this gap.

Details

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Insights, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9792

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Article
Publication date: 24 December 2021

David O. Danesh and Thomas P. Huber

The purpose of the paper is to describe the current state of leadership and leader–member exchange (LMX) theory in dentistry and develop a novel conceptual model of LMX to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to describe the current state of leadership and leader–member exchange (LMX) theory in dentistry and develop a novel conceptual model of LMX to guide future research and highlight the importance of enhancing leadership training for new dentists.

Design/methodology/approach

A literature review exploring leadership in dentistry and LMX in dentistry was completed. The findings were analyzed with framework analysis to develop a novel conceptual model of LMX specific to dentistry.

Findings

LMX theory was applied to leadership in dentistry, including a focus on new dentists, senior dentists, other dental team members and the patient. A new conceptual model of the New Dentist LMX Quartet, which is unique and specific to new dentist teams, was developed.

Research limitations/implications

The study identifies the need for research in LMX in dentistry, contributes a new conceptual model for LMX theory and identifies future research.

Practical implications

Practitioners, policymakers and educators can utilize this information to explore concepts in leadership and improve training and dental practice.

Originality/value

No other studies specifically exploring LMX in dentistry for new dentists exist. The current literature review and conceptual paper begins the conversation on developing understanding of leadership in dentistry through further research.

Details

Journal of Health Organization and Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7266

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Article
Publication date: 3 January 2022

Ya-Ting Chuang, Hua-Ling Chiang, An-Pan Lin and Yung-Chih Lien

Adopting conservation of resources (COR) theory as a guiding framework, this study proposes that benevolent supervision (BS) is a feasible leadership style for building a…

Abstract

Purpose

Adopting conservation of resources (COR) theory as a guiding framework, this study proposes that benevolent supervision (BS) is a feasible leadership style for building a positive resource gain process in subordinates' extra-role actions and reducing their exhaustion, and leader-member exchange (LMX) and positive affect (PA) serve as indirect crossover mechanisms.

Design/methodology/approach

Surveys were conducted at three-time points with four-week intervals. A total of 304 subordinates and 55 supervisors at a Taiwanese university participated in the surveys, and a multilevel model was used to test the hypotheses.

Findings

The results showed that prior BS (time 1) was positively associated with subordinates' subsequent LMX and PA (time 2). LMX mediated the relationship between BS and subsequent supervisor-rated contextual performance (time 3), and PA mediated the relationship between BS and subordinate-rated emotional exhaustion (time 3). In addition, supervisors' learning orientation positively moderated the relationship between BS and contextual performance via LMX, whereas supervisors' performance orientation negatively moderated this relationship.

Practical implications

The results of the study encourage leaders to exhibit benevolence toward subordinates, increase subordinates' contextual performance and enhance personal feelings, thereby ultimately benefitting the organization.

Originality/value

This study reveals that BS is a source of resource investment in the process of subordinates' positive job (contextual performance) and personal (emotional exhaustion) resource gains through social exchange (LMX) and affective (PA) crossover mechanisms and that supervisors' goal inclinations impact this process.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article
Publication date: 24 December 2021

Theano Lianidou, Ashley Lytle and Maria Kakarika

This study explores how status, demographic and positional, moderates the negative effect of deep-level dissimilarity on leader–member exchange (LMX) quality.

Abstract

Purpose

This study explores how status, demographic and positional, moderates the negative effect of deep-level dissimilarity on leader–member exchange (LMX) quality.

Design/methodology/approach

Data from three samples were analyzed using hierarchical linear regression and linear mixed-effects methods.

Findings

Results suggest that the negative effect of deep-level dissimilarity (perceived work-related attitude and perspective differences) on LMX quality is stronger when the LMX partner has low demographic status (e.g. the LMX partner is an African-American woman). This moderating effect was not significant when deep-level dissimilarity was extended to include differences in personality, interests and values. Results were mixed on whether low positional status (i.e. when the LMX partner is a member rather than a leader) strengthens the negative effect of deep-level dissimilarity on LMX quality.

Practical implications

This study may help leaders, organizational members and diversity managers better manage attitude and perspective dissimilarity in leader–member dyads.

Originality/value

This study expands research exploring interactive effects of dissimilarity and status on work-related outcomes. It is novel in that it explores status not in relative terms but at the societal level. It is also the first study to analyze the moderating effects of two types of status: demographic and positional.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 18 October 2021

Jin Ho Jung, Jaewon Yoo and Yeonsung Jung

The aim of this paper is to test how leader–member exchange (LMX) interacts with procedural justice climate to influence three types of employee motivation (i.e…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to test how leader–member exchange (LMX) interacts with procedural justice climate to influence three types of employee motivation (i.e. achievement striving motivation, status striving motivation and communion striving motivation). Furthermore, this study empirically examines the indirect effects of LMX on customer loyalty through employee motivation and service orientation.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used a matched sample of 188 retail service employees and 376 customers from a large shopping mall in South Korea to test the empirical model. Structural equation modeling (SEM) and bootstrapping method were employed to test a series of proposed hypotheses.

Findings

The results show that LMX significantly enhances customer loyalty through two motivational dimensions and service orientation. In particular, this study shows that achievement and status striving motivation are directly related to service orientation, but communion striving motivation does not affect customer-focused service attitude. In addition, procedural justice climate serves as a critical moderator and synergistically interacts with LMX to influence achievement and status striving motivation.

Research limitations/implications

This study offers new insight regarding how managers' roles in both individual (leader–member exchange) and organizational (procedural justice climate) level affect different forms of retail service employee motivation and service orientation, which in turn, result in customer loyalty.

Practical implications

The results suggest that when retail service employees perceive procedural fairness at retail stores, they are more motivated to work hard to complete their assignments and achieve their sales goals in conjunction with leader support. Therefore, managers must provide a clear guideline and procedure regarding salary raises and performance evaluations or engage in thorough discourse on such matters with employees prior to announcements of such decisions. Moreover, as retail service employees interact with customers in the frontline, and how they serve customers plays a key role in creating customer loyalty. Managers should encourage retail service employees to engage in service-oriented behaviors.

Originality/value

The results suggest that LMX facilitates more formal task-related motivation to achieve either tasks or status while it is less related to relationship-building motivation, which is a unique contribution of this study. The results offer better understating of how LMX differentially leads to specific types of employee motivation in the existing literature.

Details

Journal of Service Theory and Practice, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2055-6225

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Article
Publication date: 6 September 2021

Rachel Gabel-Shemueli and Franco Alberto Riva Zaferson

The purpose of this two-wave longitudinal study was to examine the impact of leader–member exchange (LMX) on employee performance through trust in leader and appraisal…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this two-wave longitudinal study was to examine the impact of leader–member exchange (LMX) on employee performance through trust in leader and appraisal satisfaction both cross-sectionally and after one year, and the reciprocal effect of employee performance on LMX one year later.

Design/methodology/approach

A full panel data design was applied and the sample consisted of 289 employees of a Peruvian insurance organization. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test the research hypotheses.

Findings

The results show the relationship between LMX and performance was sequentially mediated by trust in leader and appraisal satisfaction on both occasions. Additionally, employee performance at Time 1 positively influenced LMX at Time 2.

Originality/value

This study highlights the dynamic and complex relationship between LMX and employee performance over time while identifying relevant variables that influence it.

Propósito

El propósito de este estudio longitudinal fue examinar el impacto del intercambio líder-miembro (LMX) en el desempeño de los trabajadores a través de la confianza en el líder y la satisfacción con la evaluación, tanto de forma transversal como después de un año, así como el efecto recíproco del desempeño en LMX un año después.

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

La muestra estuvo compuesta por 289 trabajadores de una aseguradora peruana. Se aplicó un diseño de panel y se utilizó el modelado de ecuaciones estructurales (SEM en inglés) para probar las hipótesis de investigación.

Hallazgos

Los resultados muestran que la relación entre LMX y el desempeño fue mediada secuencialmente por la confianza en el líder y la satisfacción con la evaluación en ambas ocasiones. Además, el desempeño de los empleados en el memento 1 influyó positivamente en LMX en el memento 2.

Originalidad

Este estudio destaca la relación dinámica y compleja entre LMX y desempeño de los trabajadores a lo largo del tiempo, mientras que identifica variables relevantes que lo influyen.

Details

Academia Revista Latinoamericana de Administración, vol. 34 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1012-8255

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Article
Publication date: 24 September 2021

Jeevita Muniandi, Christopher Richardson and Yashar Salamzadeh

The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between ethical leadership and the quality of the manager-subordinate relationship, as well as the moderating…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between ethical leadership and the quality of the manager-subordinate relationship, as well as the moderating effect of female employees’ psychological empowerment on this relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

This is quantitative research in which an online questionnaire was distributed to female subordinates from multinational enterprises in Malaysia (n = 120). A partial least square is used for analysis in this research.

Findings

The findings confirm a strong positive correlation between all the seven ethical leadership dimensions and the quality of manager-subordinate relationship (leader member exchange). However, the moderating effect of psychological empowerment was found to be insignificant for two of the seven dimensions of ethical leadership.

Originality/value

This study contributes to highlighting new perspectives of women empowerment. Moreover, it also uncovers psychological factor that influences manager-subordinate relationship using cognitive evaluation theory. The seven dimensions of ethical leadership have not been tested in the past studies (only identified, not tested separately).

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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Book part
Publication date: 17 October 2016

Melissa K. Carsten, Mary Uhl-Bien and Tracy L. Griggs

Building upon relational leadership theory, we develop a theoretical model examining the association between leader-follower congruence in follower role orientation and…

Abstract

Building upon relational leadership theory, we develop a theoretical model examining the association between leader-follower congruence in follower role orientation and manager and subordinate relational and well-being outcomes. Follower role orientation represents individuals’ beliefs regarding the best way to enact a follower role. We predict that managers and subordinates who share similar role orientations will experience higher quality leader-member exchange (LMX) relationships and greater eustress than those who differ in their follower role orientations. Propositions are presented for direct effects between congruence and stress and indirect effects through LMX. Our theoretical model contributes to nascent research on followership by offering greater understanding of manager and subordinate beliefs regarding how followers should enact their roles, and the importance of considering leader (i.e., manager) as well as follower outcomes in the workplace. It also extends current thinking about stress as an important outcome of leader-follower relationships.

Details

The Role of Leadership in Occupational Stress
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-061-9

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Book part
Publication date: 8 June 2011

Dana L. Joseph, Daniel A. Newman and Hock-Peng Sin

Purpose – This chapter (a) summarizes leader–member exchange (LMX) measurement practices since the influential reviews by Schriesheim, Castro, and Cogliser (1999) and…

Abstract

Purpose – This chapter (a) summarizes leader–member exchange (LMX) measurement practices since the influential reviews by Schriesheim, Castro, and Cogliser (1999) and Gerstner and Day (1997), (b) clarifies the status of LMX as a broad construct from a hierarchical factor model, (c) conducts multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) analyses on leader and follower reports of multidimensional LMX, and (d) investigates discriminant validity between Member LMX and satisfaction with supervisor.

Methodology/Approach – We used (a) a literature search of LMX measurement practices, (b) a combination of meta-analysis and factor analysis to specify the broad LMX construct underlying Liden and Maslyn's (1998) (LMX-MDM) multidimensional instrument, (c) MTMM analyses of leader and member ratings of the LMX-MDM, and (d) a combination of meta-analysis and multiple regression to assess incremental validity of Member LMX beyond satisfaction with supervisor.

Findings – Since 1999, 85% of LMX studies now use one of two dominant LMX scales (LMX-7, Scandura, & Graen, 1984; LMX-MDM, Liden & Maslyn, 1998). These two measures are correlated (rcorrected=.9), suggesting the LMX-7 and the LMX-MDM are alternate forms of the same instrument. 94% of studies that used these two measures treat LMX as a single, broad construct rather than as a multidimensional set of constructs. MTMM analyses suggest Leader LMX and Member LMX are two, separate-but-related constructs (i.e., confirming two source factors and no lower-order trait factors). Last, Member LMX meta-analytically correlates with satisfaction with supervisor at rcorrected=.8. There is some incremental validity of LMX, but the pattern is inconsistent across samples.

Social Implications – We point out that LMX researchers have now moved toward standard measurement of LMX – as a broad, higher-order factor that varies between leader and follower. By doing so, we reveal that the stage is set for cumulative and replicable research on leadership as a dyadic, follower-specific phenomenon.

Originality/Value of Paper – Our chapter is the first to reveal consensus in LMX measurement across studies; to summarize the standard treatment of LMX as a single, broad factor; and to apply MTMM analyses to demonstrate separate Leader LMX and Member LMX source factors.

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