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Article
Publication date: 2 January 2018

Xin Wang, Xiaoling Xu, Zuowan Zhou and Jihua Gou

This paper aims to exploit shape memory polymer (SMP) composite as multifunctional coatings for protecting substrates from surface wear and bacterial. The efficiency of…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to exploit shape memory polymer (SMP) composite as multifunctional coatings for protecting substrates from surface wear and bacterial. The efficiency of added nano or micro-sized particles in enhancing the properties of SMP was investigated. This study also attempts to use a low-cost and effective spraying approach to fabricate the coatings. The coatings are expected to have good conformability with the substrate and deliver multi-functional performance, such as wrinkle free, wear resistance, thermal stability and antimicrobial property.

Design/methodology/approach

High-performance SMP composite coatings or thin films were fabricated by a home-made continuous spray-deposition system. The morphologies of the coatings were studied using the scanning electron microscope and the transmission electron microscope. The abrasion properties were evaluated by Taber Abraser test, and thermo-gravimetric analysis was carried out to investigate the thermal properties of prepared composites. The antimicrobial property was determined by the inhibition zone method using E. coli. The thermally responsive shape memory effect of the resulting composites was also characterized.

Findings

The morphology analysis indicated that the nanoclay was distributed on the surface of the coating which resulted in a significant improvement of the wear property. The wear resistance of the coatings with nanoclay was improved as much as 40 per cent compared with that of the control sample. The thermo-gravimetric analysis revealed that the weight loss rate of composites with nanoclay was dropped over 40 per cent. The SMP coating with zinc oxide (ZnO) showed excellent antimicrobial effect. The shape recovery effect of SMP/nanoclay and SMP/ZnO composites can be triggered by external heating and the composites can reach a full shape recovery within 60 s.

Research limitations/implications

This study proposed a continuous spray-deposition fabrication of SMP composite coatings, which provides a new avenue to prepare novel multi-functional coatings with low cost.

Originality/value

Most studies have emphasized on the sole property of SMP composites. Herein, a novel SMP composite coating which could deliver multi-functionality such as wrinkle free, wear resistance, thermal stability and antimicrobial property was proposed.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 47 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 10 September 2018

M. Taheri, Reza Naderi and Mohamad Mahdavian

This paper aims to enhance the barrier properties and active protection of a water-based silane coating on mild steel through nanoclay and zinc acetylacetonate…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to enhance the barrier properties and active protection of a water-based silane coating on mild steel through nanoclay and zinc acetylacetonate simultaneously included into the formulation.

Design/methodology/approach

The corrosion protection performance of the silane sol-gel coatings with no additive, zinc acetylacetonate, nanoclay and nanoclay + zinc acetylacetonate was monitored using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy during 5 h of immersion in a sodium chloride solution. Moreover, the surface of coatings was analyzed using a field emission scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (FESEM-EDX) and water contact angle measurements.

Findings

In electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis, the impedance at low frequencies, coating resistance and charge transfer resistance were the parameters considered which indicated the superiority of silane coating formulated with both nanoclay and zinc acetylacetonate. According to the results of FESEM/EDX and water contact angle measurements, the superiority was linked with the enhancement in the barrier properties in the presence of nanoclay, as well as function of the corrosion inhibitor at coating–substrate interface.

Originality/value

According to the literature, there is no research conducted to study the impact of the simultaneous use of nanoclay and zinc acetylacetonate on the barrier properties and active protection of an eco-friendly silane sol-gel coating including glycidyloxypropyltrimethoxysilane, tetraethoxysilane and methyltriethoxysilane on mild steel in a sodium chloride solution.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 47 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 17 May 2013

Mazeyar Parvinzadeh Gashti, Rambod Rashidian, Arash Almasian and Ali Badakhshan Zohouri

In recent years, the textile industry has been required to develop new methods and technologies through introduction of some new materials in various processes rather than…

Abstract

Purpose

In recent years, the textile industry has been required to develop new methods and technologies through introduction of some new materials in various processes rather than employing the same conventional chemicals. The aim of this research was to investigate the changes induced on the cotton fibre by the nanoclay treatment using a pre‐treatment method.

Design/methodology/approach

The fibres were dyed with basic and direct dyes after the nanoclay pre‐treatment. Technical measurements were studied including Fourier‐transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV‐visible spectrophotometer, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermal degradation analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), moisture regain measurement (MRM), tensile strength test (TST), reflectance spectroscopy (RS) and fastnesses evaluation.

Findings

The intensity of the major peaks in FTIR spectra of the nanoclay treated sample is in favour of the chemical changes of the cellulose functional groups. Basic dyes showed a higher dyeability on the clay pre‐treated samples compared to raw materials. The results of the colour measurements showed that the more concentration of the clay mineral was used, the darker the colour of the dyed sample was. Some interesting results were obtained in the research.

Research limitations/implications

The nanoclay and a dispersing agent used in the present context were used as received. Besides, the type of the dispersing agent is important for preparation of a colloidal dispersion of nanoclay.

Practical implications

The method developed in this research provides a simple and practical solution for improving the dyeability of cotton with direct and basic dyes.

Originality/value

The method for enhancing the dyeability of cotton is novel and can be used in cotton processing with new properties.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 42 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 15 April 2014

Harun Sepet and Necmettin Tarakçıoğlu

This paper presents the experimental study of mechanical and thermal properties of organically modified montmorillonite clay (Nanoclay) (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 wt.%) in the…

Abstract

This paper presents the experimental study of mechanical and thermal properties of organically modified montmorillonite clay (Nanoclay) (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 wt.%) in the vinyl ester matrix by ultrasonic stirrer. The changes in mechanical properties are investigated by using tensile and impact testing machine. It was found that the addition of nanoclay particles significantly improved tensile properties of pure vinyl ester, but impact properties of pure vinyl ester were affected negatively with the nanoclay content in the nanocomposite. It was found that the absorbed energy and impact resistance of the nanocomposites decreased with increasing the nanoclay content. DSC curves showed the glass transition temperature change in the nanoclay reinforced vinyl ester nanocomposites as compared to the pure vinyl ester. XRD analysis was performed to identify the structure of nanocomposites. SEM results showed the change in fracture surface morphology of nanoclay reinforced vinyl ester nanocomposite. Also, homogeneous distribution of nanoclays in the matrix was showed by SEM micrographs. This observation helped in identifying the morphology of the nanocaly in the vinyl ester matrix.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

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Article
Publication date: 4 September 2017

Zaker Bahreini, Vahid Heydari and Zahra Namdari

Mechanical and chemical properties of acrylic-melamine automotive clear coat in the presence of different percentages of well dispersed nano-layered sodium montmorillonite…

Abstract

Purpose

Mechanical and chemical properties of acrylic-melamine automotive clear coat in the presence of different percentages of well dispersed nano-layered sodium montmorillonite (Na-MMT) silicate particles were investigated. For this purpose, prepared dry clear coat film samples were subjected to the entire standard test series, usually carried out in automotive coating industry.

Design/methodology/approach

Effects of adding different percentages of nano-layered silicate on mechanical and chemical properties of acrylic-melamine automotive clear coat were investigated. To increase the compatibility of nanoclays with polymer matrix of clear coat, the surface of nanoclays was modified by benzalkonium chloride as a cationic surfactant. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used for characterization and comparison between clays before and after modification, and also after dispersion in coating. Prepared dry clear coat film samples subjected to the test series are usually carried out in automotive coating industry.

Findings

The results indicated that incorporation of 1 and 2 Wt.% of nano-layered silicate caused desired improvement in chemical and physical properties of the acrylic-melamine clear coat. Increasing the percentage of nanoclay to over 2 Wt.% caused damage in some properties such as hardness, cupping and gloss.

Research limitations/implications

All materials and methods were used in this research are industrial grade. Therefore, the introduced modified clear coat sample has potential for commercial production as an automotive clear coat.

Originality/value

As far as it was searched in the literature, effects of adding nanoclay particles on mechanical and physical properties of different clear coats, such as epoxy clear coat, have been investigated in a few researches, but in this research, common and special tests which are necessary in automotive coating industry have been ignored. In the present study for the first time, acrylic-melamine clear coat was subjected to modification using nano-clay, and also, the most common industrial test methods were used for investigation of mechanical and chemical properties.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 46 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 9 April 2018

Shanti Kiran Zade, Suresh Babu V. and Sai Srinadh K.V.

The purpose of this study is to manufacture test boards for re-enacting plant or field situations where vacuum chamber for expelling gas bubbles and autoclave equipment…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to manufacture test boards for re-enacting plant or field situations where vacuum chamber for expelling gas bubbles and autoclave equipment would not be accessible. This research focuses on the examination and enhancement of tensile strength for the nanocomposites consisting of uniaxial glass fiber mats, nanoclay (NC) and epoxy.

Design/methodology/approach

The parameters considered are the weight content of Cloisite 15A NC, the volume of glass fiber (Vgf) and the direction of glass fibers (θ). The composites are made by hand lay-up technique and tested according to ASTM D 638 standard. Taguchi L9 orthogonal array is used to design the experiments.

Findings

The results imply that the orientation of fibers exhibited high significance with a p-value of 0.001 for the upgrade of strength. NC percentage and the volume of fiber have a low effect as the p-values obtained were 0.375 and 0.294. Confirmation tests were performed at the optimal levels of parameters and the outcomes were in the permissible range of the anticipated values of S/N ratio and mean tensile strength. The negligible effect of nanoclay is due to the lack of infusion of resin into the d-spacing of clay layers due to the low configuration settings of mixing conditions which was confirmed by XRD studies. The negligible effect of glass fiber volume is due to the void content and lack of stress transfer between fibers uniformly due to the void content and improper mixing of nanoclay.

Research limitations/implications

The limitation of this study is that a low-speed mechanical stirrer was used to mix NC in the epoxy and the mixture was not subjected to vacuum and ultrasonication for degassing and deagglomeration.

Practical implications

These composites can be used as substitute materials in place of metallic parts in the aerospace and automobile sector. These composites can be used in civil structures instead of steel and concrete, which have low strength-to-weight ratio and where the requirement of strength is in the range of 60 to 390 MPa.

Social implications

The composites can be used in a variety of applications, for example, structural works, automotive panels and low-cost housing.

Originality/value

This research gives an idea about the combined contribution of NC, Vgf and “θ” to the improvement of tensile strength of the glass-epoxy composite.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

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Article
Publication date: 23 February 2012

M. Abdullah, K. Zamhari, N. Nayan, M. Hainin and M. Hermadi

Nowadays, researchers are interested in using the material at nanoscales as one of asphalt binder modifier. In this paper, Malaysian asphalt binder was modified with…

Abstract

Nowadays, researchers are interested in using the material at nanoscales as one of asphalt binder modifier. In this paper, Malaysian asphalt binder was modified with nanoclay and warm asphalt additives (WAA) and tested to determine the physical properties and storage stability. The results of the investigation indicated that the modified asphalt binders were stable in term of storage and they also have potential to improve physical properties of asphalts such as increasing softening point and decreasing the penetration. In addition, there was a significant reduction of temperature for mixing and compaction of asphalt mixtures.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

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Article
Publication date: 7 September 2012

V. Marchante Rodríguez, F.M. Martínez‐Verdú, M.I. Beltrán Rico and A. Marcilla Gomis

This research deals with a new kind of nanopigment, obtained from the combination of organic dyes and layered nanoclays, that the authors call nanoclay‐colorant pigment…

Abstract

Purpose

This research deals with a new kind of nanopigment, obtained from the combination of organic dyes and layered nanoclays, that the authors call nanoclay‐colorant pigment (NCP). Whilst they have already been employed in inks and coatings, to date these nanopigments have not been used as pigments for polymers. The existing lack of knowledge surrounding them must be redressed in order to bridge the gap between current academic studies and commercial exploitation. Therefore, the main purpose of this paper is to examine the hitherto unknown aspects of the NCP, which relate specifically to their applicability as a new type of colorant for polymers.

Design/methodology/approach

A blue NCP has been prepared at the laboratory according to the patented method of synthesis (patent WO0104216), using methylene blue and montmorillonite nanoclay. It has then been applied to a thermoplastic polymer (linear low‐density polyethylene – LLDPE) to obtain a coloured sample. Furthermore, samples with the same polymer but using conventional blue colorants have been prepared under the same processing conditions. The mechanical, thermal and colorimetric properties of these materials have been compared.

Findings

The thermal stability of the sample coloured with NCP is reduced to some extent, while the mechanical strength is slightly increased. Moreover, this sample has better colour performance than the conventionally pigmented samples.

Originality/value

In this paper, a blue NCP has been synthesised and successfully employed with polyethylene and the obtained sample shows better colour performance than polyethylene with conventional pigments.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 41 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 20 October 2020

Lamiaa Kamal El-Gabry, Mohamed Fathy Nasr and Amira Adel Abou El-Kheir

This work aims to increase the dyeability of nylon 6 with basic dyeing through the treatment of the fibre with available and cheap nanomaterials, namely; nano bentonite…

Abstract

Purpose

This work aims to increase the dyeability of nylon 6 with basic dyeing through the treatment of the fibre with available and cheap nanomaterials, namely; nano bentonite using an economic and simple method.

Design/methodology/approach

Different amounts of nano clay, namely, nano bentonite were dispersed in distilled water using an ultrasonic homogenizer for 1 h. Nylon fabrics were treated with different concentrations of dispersed nano bentonite (1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5% wt/v). After half an hour, the samples were padded using SVETEMA laboratory padding system. The padding pressure was adjusted at 3 bar to allow a pickup of 100%. The padded samples were dried at 80°C for 5 min and cured at 160°C for 3 min using ROACHES laboratory thermos-fixation. The cured samples were then washed with running water and left to dry at room temperature.

Findings

The obtained results indicated that the modification of polyamide 6 fibres with nano bentonite had a great impact on their dyeing properties. The obtained shades, absorption behaviour and fastness properties were significantly enhanced. Based on these results, it was concluded that polyamide fabrics could be successfully dyed with basic dyes using economical dyeing conditions.

Originality/value

This paper introduces a new method the loaded the nano-clay on the synthetic fibres, which are nylon 6 to enhance the dyeability with cationic dyes using the physical method without changing the structure of the fibres.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

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Article
Publication date: 12 March 2019

Deepa P., Meena Laad, Sangita and Rina Singh

The purpose of this paper is to study the recent work carried out in enhancing the properties of bitumen using nano-additives. Bitumen is a by-product obtained from the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the recent work carried out in enhancing the properties of bitumen using nano-additives. Bitumen is a by-product obtained from the refining process of crude oil, therefore making it a diminishing product. It has been used by mankind since ages for various applications like sealants, binders, waterproof coatings and pavement construction material. It is a black viscous substance with adhesive nature.

Design/methodology/approach

Bitumen is used as a binding material because of its ability to become liquid when heated and become solid when cooled and thus used largely in construction of roads because of its unique properties. Low softening point of bitumen leads to melting of bitumen during summer and causes rutting of roads, whereas during winter it leads to cracking as bitumen acts brittle in nature during low temperature. Increasing global demand of bitumen has created gap between demand and supply which is increasing with the passage of time. Further modern life has created very high traffic volume and heavy load which makes it essential to improve performance of bitumen.

Findings

Research studies have reported that the thermal properties of bitumen are enhanced by using thermoplastic polymers such as styrene-butadiene-styrene, polyethylene and ethylene-vinyl acetate, rubber and bio waste etc.

Originality/value

This paper reviews various types of materials which have been used to improve the properties of bitumen and explores the possibility to synthesise bitumen composite materials with nanoadditives with improved structural, mechanical and thermal properties.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

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