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Article
Publication date: 17 May 2013

Mazeyar Parvinzadeh Gashti, Rambod Rashidian, Arash Almasian and Ali Badakhshan Zohouri

In recent years, the textile industry has been required to develop new methods and technologies through introduction of some new materials in various processes rather than…

Abstract

Purpose

In recent years, the textile industry has been required to develop new methods and technologies through introduction of some new materials in various processes rather than employing the same conventional chemicals. The aim of this research was to investigate the changes induced on the cotton fibre by the nanoclay treatment using a pre‐treatment method.

Design/methodology/approach

The fibres were dyed with basic and direct dyes after the nanoclay pre‐treatment. Technical measurements were studied including Fourier‐transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV‐visible spectrophotometer, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermal degradation analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), moisture regain measurement (MRM), tensile strength test (TST), reflectance spectroscopy (RS) and fastnesses evaluation.

Findings

The intensity of the major peaks in FTIR spectra of the nanoclay treated sample is in favour of the chemical changes of the cellulose functional groups. Basic dyes showed a higher dyeability on the clay pre‐treated samples compared to raw materials. The results of the colour measurements showed that the more concentration of the clay mineral was used, the darker the colour of the dyed sample was. Some interesting results were obtained in the research.

Research limitations/implications

The nanoclay and a dispersing agent used in the present context were used as received. Besides, the type of the dispersing agent is important for preparation of a colloidal dispersion of nanoclay.

Practical implications

The method developed in this research provides a simple and practical solution for improving the dyeability of cotton with direct and basic dyes.

Originality/value

The method for enhancing the dyeability of cotton is novel and can be used in cotton processing with new properties.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 42 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 7 January 2021

Subarna Roy, Sudipta Majumder, Sourin Bhattacharya and Imran Hossain Sardar

An indoor office space should not only provide adequate illuminance on horizontal planes but also cater to the physiological and psychological requirements of the…

Abstract

Purpose

An indoor office space should not only provide adequate illuminance on horizontal planes but also cater to the physiological and psychological requirements of the occupants. This paper aims to describe a lighting simulation-based work conducted in Kolkata, India which modeled an indoor office to investigate the effects of variation in room surface reflectance combinations on user perception, mean room surface exitance (MRSE), average horizontal illuminance and overall uniformity of horizontal illuminance.

Design/methodology/approach

A fluorescent illumination system–based office space was modeled and retrofitted with tubular LED lamps in DIALux. Simulations were conducted for 16 different room surface reflectance combinations and a five-point Likert scale-type survey questionnaire was formulated to conduct a survey with 32 test subjects to assess the subjective preferability of each resultant light scene.

Findings

Simulation results demonstrate that the relationship between average horizontal illuminance and MRSE as well as between average horizontal illuminance and overall uniformity of horizontal illuminance, was statistically significant (p < 0.001). In the conducted survey, the resultant light scene arising out of the reflectance combination of wall:ceiling:floor = 60%:90%:20% was the most well-received one with 187 convinced agreements (“agree” and “strongly agree” responses).

Originality/value

This work found strong linear correlation between average horizontal illuminance and MRSE and between average horizontal illuminance and overall uniformity. A five-point Likert scale-type survey questionnaire with seven questions was formulated and validated with 32 test subjects (Cronbach’s alpha > 0.9295), which showed that the wall:ceiling:floor reflectance combination of 60%:90%:20% was the most favored choice.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

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Article
Publication date: 30 March 2012

Peter S. Defoe and Ian Frame

Over the last few years it has been established that there is a need to re‐evaluate the basis of assessment of the sufficiency of daylight, in rights to light cases, where…

Abstract

Purpose

Over the last few years it has been established that there is a need to re‐evaluate the basis of assessment of the sufficiency of daylight, in rights to light cases, where the loss of daylight after obstruction might lead to injunction and/or damages. The purpose of this paper is to further examine whether the methodology used by surveyors, whereby the effect of glazing, window frames and internal reflectance are ignored, is valid and whether theoretical values can be translated into real values obtained through practical experimentation.

Design/methodology/approach

Modern methods of assessment of daylighting, for design purposes, calculate a whole room average as a percentage of available daylight from a Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE) sky whereas Waldram's methodology, in rights to light cases, results in a contour line marking the series of points in a room where the task lighting, from a uniform sky, would be insufficient for normal use. These two methods appear incompatible and the conundrum is that whilst the courts are seeking to determine adequacy of daylighting to a room, the practitioners need to be able to measure the reduction in a way that has real meaning and can be valued.

Findings

By comparing theoretical results using the Waldram methodology with those obtained using the Building Research Establishment (BRE) methodology and with physical measurements on site and in an artificial sky dome, it can be demonstrated that results using the Waldram Diagram, or the proposed CIEL Diagram, can be translated into real values of daylighting for a room and that these values are more realistic than those obtained through the BRE methodology.

Originality/value

This research (which is ongoing) will be useful to practitioners and the courts in determining rights to light cases and is a significant contribution to the debate initiated in this journal by Michael Pitts some 12 years ago.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 14 January 2014

Mahshid Montazeri, Ali Shams Nateri and Keivan Ansari

In this article, a simple system will be presented to measure reflectance of metallic surfaces quickly and precisely based on goniospectrophotometric geometry. The paper…

Abstract

Purpose

In this article, a simple system will be presented to measure reflectance of metallic surfaces quickly and precisely based on goniospectrophotometric geometry. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

This system works by capturing reflected light from different colored patches by digital camera and with the knowledge of spectral power distribution of light source and defined observer, reflection of each sample can be reproduced. By fixing the light source, the position of the detector would be eliminated to four angles of observation.

Findings

This method can achieve acceptable reconstruction accuracy for metallic samples. This approach confirmed repeatability and practicality of the simple imaging acquisition to replace spectral reflectance measurement devices in different viewing angles.

Originality/value

The reflectance of metallic samples has been measured at several angles such as 20°, 45°, 75° and 110° from specular reflection. A simple system was used to measure multi-angle reflectance of metallic surfaces by digital camera. By suggested system can be measured the reflectance without contact and limitation in the shape of surfaces. This method achieved acceptable reconstruction accuracy for metallic samples. This simple imaging acquisition is comparable with goniospectrophotometer for measuring multi-angle reflectance of metallic samples.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 34 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1986

(Dr) SM Drew

The rapid growth of the powder coatings industry over the past ten years has brought with it dramatic changes in the technology of the manufacturing process and in the…

Abstract

The rapid growth of the powder coatings industry over the past ten years has brought with it dramatic changes in the technology of the manufacturing process and in the products themselves. Powder coatings have become recognised as a high performance and cost‐effective alternative to conventional wet paint systems. The increasing numbers of discerning end users who have adopted powder as a finishing process have demanded demonstrable improvements in product quality and performance over their existing finishing systems. This has lent additional impetus to the drive for better products and has accelerated the pace of technological change within the industry. Pressure on powder manufacturers has resulted in increasingly tighter requirements for consistency of product quality and none more so than in control of the colour of the powder coating, especially for demanding applications such as architectural and domestic appliance coatings.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 15 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1999

Keith B. Smith

In many markets customers judge the quality of products by their surface appearance. The term gloss describes the perception of the shiny appearance of a surface when…

Abstract

In many markets customers judge the quality of products by their surface appearance. The term gloss describes the perception of the shiny appearance of a surface when light is reflected from that surface. Imperfections in a surface cause some of the light to be reflected/scattered at angles away from the specular and this impacts on the visual assessment of appearance. A method has existed for measuring surface reflectance for the last 50 years, but its usefulness has been limited by an inability to equal the human eye in discerning subtleties such as haze or distinctness of reflected images. A portable instrument has now been developed to take measurements about the specular, spaced at less than three minutes of arc. This paper explains how this high resolution supports the introduction of additional indices to define haze, distinctness of image and peak specular reflectance while retaining the definition of “gloss” as described in the standard method ISO2813.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 28 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 14 June 2013

Ahmad Fairuz Omar

Visible and near infrared spectroscopy have been applied widely in fruits quality assessment especially on the measurement of soluble solids content (SSC) measured in o

Abstract

Purpose

Visible and near infrared spectroscopy have been applied widely in fruits quality assessment especially on the measurement of soluble solids content (SSC) measured in oBrix and acidity measured in pH. Spectroscopy technique has been applied on three botanically different categories of fruits, that is: imported Californian table grape, Mandarin lime and star fruit. The purpose is to examine the ability of spectroscopy technique to quantify internal quality parameters with very narrow variability due to the characteristics of the raw material analyzed. This work also presents comparative study on peak wavelengths that can best be used to calibrate SSC and pH of different types of fruits.

Design/methodology/approach

The effective wavelengths chosen for calibration development are compared with those selected by other researchers in similar experiments. NIR wavelengths 910 nm (C−H band) and 950 nm (O−H band) are the most important wavelengths for the prediction of SSC for all examined fruits while wavelengths 922‐923 nm and 990‐995 nm for pH. Visible wavelength 605, 675 and 654 nm can efficiently improve the SSC and pH prediction for grape, lime and star fruit, respectively.

Findings

The best prediction for SSC has been achieved with R2=0.953 and RMSE=0.182 for grape, R2=0.918 and RMSE=0.109 for lime and R2=0.957 and RMSE=0.354 for star fruit. The best prediction for pH has been achieved with R2=0.763 and RMSE=0.110 for grape, R2=0.841 and RMSE=0.073 for lime and R2=0.862 and RMSE=0.261 for star fruit.

Originality/value

Currently, the spectroscopy research conducted for the measurement of fruits qualities is conducted through wide range spectrometer. However, the peak responses are only located at specific wavelengths. Hence, the selection of wavelengths related to SSC and pH will allow the design of low cost instruments for the prediction of these internal quality parameters.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 33 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 January 2013

Mazeyar Parvinzadeh Gashti, Mohammad Yousefpour Navid and Mohammad Hossein Rahimi

Silicone softeners are widely used in the textile industry to improve the performance of textile products. The thermal characteristics and flammability of polyester…

Abstract

Purpose

Silicone softeners are widely used in the textile industry to improve the performance of textile products. The thermal characteristics and flammability of polyester fabrics can be influenced by these compounds, which need to be considered, as important issues of human safety. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the changes induced on the polyester fibre by silicone softener treatment using a pad/dry/cure method.

Design/methodology/approach

The fibres were first treated with nano‐ and microemulsion silicone softeners. The influence of the silicone emulsion type on thermal properties and flammability of the resultant samples were investigated by various analytical techniques, namely, the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), dynamical mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) and horizontal flammability test (HFT).

Findings

Results showed that the silicone softeners increase the thermal degradation and flammability of the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate.

Originality/value

The paper's study of thermal and flammability of the silicone‐treated sample is novel and can be used to optimize the properties of silicone polymers during production and consumption.

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1977

G. Geissler

For a better picture still of the fastness to weathering of the various pigments in the chosen paint system, it is worthwhile studying more closely the reflectance curves…

Abstract

For a better picture still of the fastness to weathering of the various pigments in the chosen paint system, it is worthwhile studying more closely the reflectance curves which were measured before and after weathering for the determination of the AN values. In Figure 10 the reflectance curves of the non‐weathered and the weathered areas of the test panels are shown in pairs, again in order of decreasing fastness, i.e. beginning with the pigment with the smallest AN value. However, only the reflectance curves of the 1:50 reductions are shown.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 6 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 8 October 2019

Abdus Salam Azad, Mohd Salman, S.C. Kaushik and Dibakar Rakshit

Lighting in building sectors (consumes the highest energy in commercial buildings and the second highest in residential buildings in India) has very much potential for…

Abstract

Purpose

Lighting in building sectors (consumes the highest energy in commercial buildings and the second highest in residential buildings in India) has very much potential for energy conservation in buildings. With the use of daylighting system, energy consumption in lighting can be lowered up to 30 to 40 per cent.

Design/methodology/approach

An experimental effort has been made in this paper to explore the internal wall coloring effect on the performance of tubular light pipe. Trace-pro software has been used and validated. With the help of this software, light pipe has been designed and simulated in a ray tracing mode. Assessment of four globally used prediction models has also been conducted to compare the performances in different seasons for light pipes in the composite climate of New Delhi.

Findings

It has been conducted based on three statistical indicators as mean bias error, root mean square error and R2. Using regression, an empirical model for average internal illuminance has been developed as a function of light reflectance value (LRV) and solar altitude angle. Trace-pro results confirmed that maximum internal illuminance can be obtained with wall surfaces coated with high LRV color. Finally, by using of a single light pipe system for a test room with the artificial lighting system and applying continuous dimming control, the amount of electrical energy has been saved up to 38.5 per cent per year.

Originality/value

After going through the literature, it has been identified that there has been no paper published which explores the effect of colors of the internal walls on the performance of the light pipe. Along with this, the comparison between existing empirical performance models and find out which model gives the best result in different seasons has been carried out for New Delhi, India.

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