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Article
Publication date: 15 January 2018

Linxian Ji, Shidong Su, Hexian Nie, Shouxu Wang, Wei He, Kehua Ai and Qinghua Li

Copper electrodeposition acts as a crucial step in the manufacture of high-density interconnect board. The stability of plating solution and the uniformity of copper…

Abstract

Purpose

Copper electrodeposition acts as a crucial step in the manufacture of high-density interconnect board. The stability of plating solution and the uniformity of copper electrodeposit are the hotspot and difficulty for the research of electrodeposition. Because a large number of factors are included in electrodeposition, experimentally determining all parameters and electrodeposition conditions becomes unmanageable. Therefore, a multiphysics coupling technology was introduced to investigate microvia filling process, and the mechanism of copper electrodeposition was analyzed. The results provide a strong theoretical basis and technical guidance for the actual electroplating experiments. The purpose of this paper is to provide an excellent tool for quickly and cheaply studying the process behavior of copper electrodeposition without actually needing to execute time-consuming and costly experiments.

Design/methodology/approach

The interactions among additives used in acidic copper plating solution for microvia filling and the effect on the copper deposition potential were characterized through galvanostatic measurement (GM). The adsorption behavior and surface coverage of additives with various concentrations under different rotating speeds of working electrode were investigated using cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements. Further, a microvia filling model was constructed using multiphysics coupling technology based on the finite element method.

Findings

GM tests showed that accelerator, inhibitor and leveler affected the potential of copper electrodeposition, and bis(3-sulfopropyl) disulfide (SPS), ethylene oxide-propylene oxide (EO/PO) co-polymer, and self-made leveler were the effective additives in acidic copper plating solution. CV tests showed that EO/PO–Cu+-Cl complex was adsorbed on the electrode surface by intermolecular forces, thus inhibiting copper electrodeposition. Numerical simulation indicated that the process of microvia filling included initial growth period, the outbreak period and the stable growth period, and modeling result was compared with the measured data, and a good agreement was observed.

Research limitations/implications

The research is still in progress with the development of high-performance computers.

Practical implications

A multiphysics coupling platform is an excellent tool for quickly and cheaply studying the electrodeposited process behaviors under a variety of operating conditions.

Social implications

The numerical simulation method has laid the foundation for mechanism of copper electrodeposition.

Originality/value

By using multiphysics coupling technology, the authors built a bridge between theoretical and experimental study for microvia filling. This method can help explain the mechanism of copper electrodeposition.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 44 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

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Article
Publication date: 5 April 2013

Yingxin Goh, A.S.M.A. Haseeb and Mohd Faizul Mohd Sabri

The purpose of this paper is to enhance the understanding on the electrodeposition of various lead (Pb)‐free solder alloys, so that new studies can be carried out to solve…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to enhance the understanding on the electrodeposition of various lead (Pb)‐free solder alloys, so that new studies can be carried out to solve processing issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper reviews the available reports on the electrodeposition of tin (Sn)‐based solder systems and identifies the challenges in this area.

Findings

Compositional control remains a major challenge in this area, where the achievement of desired composition for binary and ternary alloys is subjected to uncertainties. The use of chelating agents in the bath and optimization of parameters can assist the achievement of near‐desired alloy composition. Acidic plating baths are preferred due to their compatibility with photoresists but oxidation of stannous ions causes poor bath stability. Antioxidants, reducing agents and low oxygen overpotential anodes can suppress the oxidation rate and increase the lifespan of plating baths. Apart from chelating agents and antioxidants, various categories of additives can be added to improve quality of deposits. Surfactants, grain refiners and brighteners are routinely used to obtain smooth, fine‐grained and bright deposits with good thermo‐mechanical properties.

Originality/value

The paper provides information on the key issues in electrodeposition of Pb‐free solder alloys. Possible measures to alleviate the issues are suggested so that the electrodeposition technique can be established for mass production of a wider range of solder alloys.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 25 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 1992

Rajshree Parvani and M.C. Shukla

Water soluble epoxy resins were prepared from epoxy resin, linseed fatty acids, maleic anhydride, trimellitic anhydride, maleinised dehydrated castor oil and maleopimaric…

Abstract

Water soluble epoxy resins were prepared from epoxy resin, linseed fatty acids, maleic anhydride, trimellitic anhydride, maleinised dehydrated castor oil and maleopimaric acid. Pigmented coating compositions for anodic electrodepositions were prepared from water soluble epoxy resins using red oxide of iron and zinc phosphate as pigment. The electrodeposition parameters such as voltage, time, solid content and pH value were optimised. The mechanical and chemical film properties of different electrocoating compositions were studied.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 21 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 3 May 2016

Linxian Ji, Chong Wang, Shouxu Wang, Kai Zhu, Wei He and Dingjun Xiao

The uniformity of electrodeposition is the key to successful application of pattern plating because the quality of electrodeposited copper layer has a huge impact on the…

Abstract

Purpose

The uniformity of electrodeposition is the key to successful application of pattern plating because the quality of electrodeposited copper layer has a huge impact on the performance of printed circuit boards (PCBs). The multi-physics coupling technology was used to accurately analyze and forecast the characteristics of electrochemical system. Further, an optimized plating bath was used to achieve a uniform electrodeposition.

Design/methodology/approach

A multi-physics coupling numerical simulation based on the finite element method was used to optimize electrodeposition conditions in pattern plating process. The influences of geometric and electrochemical factors on uniformity of current distribution and electrodeposited layer thickness were discussed by multi-physics coupling.

Findings

The model results showed that the distance between cathode and anode and the insulating shield had a great impact on uniformity of electrodeposition. By numerical simulation, it had been proved that using an auxiliary cathode was an effective and simple way to improve uniformity of electrodeposition due to redistributing of the current. This helped to achieve more uniform surface of the copper patterns by preventing the edge effect and the roughness of the copper layer was reduced to 1 per cent in the secondary current distribution model.

Research limitations/implications

The research is still in progress with the development of high-performance computers.

Practical implications

A multi-physics coupling platform is an excellent tool for quickly and cheaply studying the process behaviors under a variety of operating conditions.

Social implications

The numerical simulation method has laid the foundation for the design and improvement of the plating bath.

Originality/value

By multi-physics coupling technology, we built a bridge between theoretical and experimental study for control of uniformity of pattern plating in PCB manufacturing. This method can help optimize the design of plating bath and uniformity of pattern plating in PCB manufacturing.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 42 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2002

A.M. Baraka, H.A. Hamed and H.H. Shaarawy

The electrodeposition of any metal over titanium substrates meets with many problems due to the formation of a non‐conductive layer of titanium oxide on the surface of…

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1160

Abstract

The electrodeposition of any metal over titanium substrates meets with many problems due to the formation of a non‐conductive layer of titanium oxide on the surface of substrates during the electroplating process. Trials were made to overcome these problems by the pre‐anodisation of titanium substrates in oxalic acid solution of concentration 100g/l, at high current density of 60‐95mA/cm–2, and at ambient temperature. In these conditions, a thin, porous and conductive titanium oxide film can be obtained, which will then support electroplating processes. Rhodium metal was electrodeposited over the anodised titanium substrates from a bath consisting of Rh2(SO4)3, 5.2g/l and H2SO4, 100g/l. At optimum conditions of electroplating, the rhodium electrodeposits were formed over the anodised titanium substrate with high adhesion, brightness and high current efficiency (92.05 per cent).

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 49 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 22 June 2012

M.M. Abou‐Krisha, F.H. Assaf, M. Khodari and E.M. Elkady

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the corrosion resistance and the electrodeposition behavior of electrodeposited nickel‐cobalt‐iron alloys. Also, to compare the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the corrosion resistance and the electrodeposition behavior of electrodeposited nickel‐cobalt‐iron alloys. Also, to compare the electrodeposition of ternary nickel‐cobalt‐iron alloy from acidic sulfate bath onto a steel substrate with the characteristics of Co‐Fe electrodeposits.

Design/methodology/approach

The investigation of electrodeposition was carried out using cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic techniques, while potentiodynamic polarization resistance and anodic linear sweep voltammetry techniques were used for corrosion study. The phase structure was characterized by means of X‐ray diffraction analysis. The surface morphology and chemical composition of the deposits were examined by using scanning electron microscopy and atomic absorption spectroscopy, respectively.

Findings

The obtained results revealed that the Ni‐Co‐Fe alloys consisted of a mixture of iron (Fe10.8Ni) and (FeCo) phases. It was found that the obtained Ni‐Co‐Fe alloy exhibited a more‐preferred surface appearance and better corrosion resistance, compared to the Co‐Fe alloy that was electrodeposited under similar conditions.

Practical implications

Ni‐Co‐Fe alloy was successfully electroplated from a sulfate bath. This alloy showed better anticorrosion properties compared to Co‐Fe deposits. The Ni‐Co‐Fe alloy could be used advantageously in industry, e.g. the automotive industry. The coating also has particular interest due to it is ability to exhibit stable magnetic properties.

Originality/value

The paper evaluates the effect of electrodeposition of the ternary alloy on the corrosion behavior of electroplated steel. To date, there has been little research on this issue. It was found that the presence of Ni could increase the corrosion resistance of steel.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 59 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1991

Rajshree Parvani and M.C. Shukla

Water soluble alkyds were prepared from phthalic anhydride, maleic anhydride, trimellitic anhydride and maleopimaric acid separately by monoglyceride process. Pigmented…

Abstract

Water soluble alkyds were prepared from phthalic anhydride, maleic anhydride, trimellitic anhydride and maleopimaric acid separately by monoglyceride process. Pigmented electro coating compositions were prepared from water soluble alkyd resin, red oxide of iron and zinc phosphate. The anodic electrodeposition parameters such as voltage, time, solid content and pH were optimised. The mechanical and chemical properties of different electrocoating compositions were studied. The coating compositions prepared from water soluble alkyd resin based in maleopimaric acid showed good mechanical and chemical properties.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 20 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2017

Mei Hyie Koay, Mohd Adham Akmal Tukiran, Siti Nur Amalina Mohd Halidi, Mardziah Che Murad, Zuraidah Salleh and Hamid Yusoff

The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of current density on the surface roughness and corrosion performance of electrodeposited Co–Ni–Fe-coated mild steel…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of current density on the surface roughness and corrosion performance of electrodeposited Co–Ni–Fe-coated mild steel. Process variables are the key factor in controlling the electrodeposition process. It is important to study the processing parameter to optimize the mechanical and corrosion resistance performance of the coating substrate.

Design/methodology/approach

A low-cost electrodeposition method was used to the synthesize Co–Ni–Fe coating on the mild steel substrate. In the electrodeposition, electrochemistry concept was applied. The temperature of the process was controlled at 50 ± 5°C in an acidic environment. The influence of current density (11, 22 and 33 mA/cm2) and deposition time (15, 20 and 30 min) toward the surface roughness, hardness and corrosion rate was investigated.

Findings

The increases of time deposition and current density have improved the microhardness and corrosion resistance of Co–Ni–Fe-coated mild steel. The Co–Ni–Fe nanoparticles deposited at 30 min and current density of 33 mA/cm2 experienced the smallest surface roughness value (Ra). The same sample also obtained the highest Vickers microhardness of 122.6 HV and the lowest corrosion rate. This may be due to the homogenous and complete protection coating performed on the mild steel.

Practical implications

The findings from the study are important for future application of Co–Ni–Fe on the mild steel parts such as fasteners, car body panels, metal chains, wire ropes, engine parts, bicycle rims, nails and screws and various outdoor uses. The improvement of corrosion resistance using optimum electrodeposition parameters is essential for these applications to prolong the life span of the parts.

Originality/value

A new process which pertains to fabrication of Co–Ni–Fe as a protective coating on mild steel was proposed. The Co–Ni–Fe coating can enhance the corrosion protection and thus prolong the lifespan of the mild steel parts.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 69 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 2 February 2015

Linxian Ji, Chong Wang, Shouxu Wang, Wei He, Dingjun Xiao and Ze Tan

The purpose of this paper is to optimize experimental parameters and gain further insights into the plating process in the fabrication of high-density interconnections of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to optimize experimental parameters and gain further insights into the plating process in the fabrication of high-density interconnections of printed circuit boards (PCBs) by the rotating disc electrode (RDE) model. Via metallization by copper electrodeposition for interconnection of PCBs has become increasingly important. In this metallization technique, copper is directly filled into the vias using special additives. To investigate electrochemical reaction mechanisms of electrodeposition in aqueous solutions, using experiments on an RDE is common practice.

Design/methodology/approach

An electrochemical model is presented to describe the kinetics of copper electrodeposition on an RDE, which builds a bridge between the theoretical and experimental study for non-uniform copper electrodeposition in PCB manufacturing. Comsol Multiphysics, a multiphysics simulation platform, is invited to modeling flow field and potential distribution based on a two-dimensional (2D) axisymmetric physical modeling. The flow pattern in the electrolyte is determined by the 2D Navier–Stokes equations. Primary, secondary and tertiary current distributions are performed by the finite element method of multiphysics coupling.

Findings

The ion concentration gradient near the cathode and the thickness of the diffusion layer under different rotating velocities are achieved by the finite element method of multiphysics coupling. The calculated concentration and boundary layer thicknesses agree well with those from the theoretical Levich equation. The effect of fluid flow on the current distribution over the electrode surface is also investigated in this model. The results reveal the impact of flow parameters on the current density distribution and thickness of plating layer, which are most concerned in the production of PCBs.

Originality/value

By RDE electrochemical model, we build a bridge between the theoretical and experimental study for control of uniformity of plating layer by concentration boundary layer in PCB manufacturing. By means of a multiphysics coupling platform, we can accurately analyze and forecast the characteristic of the entire electrochemical system. These results reveal theoretical connections of current density distribution and plating thickness, with controlled parameters in the plating process to further help us comprehensively understand the mechanism of copper electrodeposition.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 41 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1992

S.C. Gupta and M.C. Shukla

Water soluble epoxy‐amine adducts were prepared by reacting epoxy resin with diethanolamine in different molar ratios. These adducts were further partially esterified with…

Abstract

Water soluble epoxy‐amine adducts were prepared by reacting epoxy resin with diethanolamine in different molar ratios. These adducts were further partially esterified with linseed oil fatty acids. Aqueous coating compositions for cathodic electrodeposition were prepared from epoxy‐amine adducts and esterified epoxy‐amine adducts separately. Film properties of cathodically electrodeposited coatings were evaluated and studied. It was observed that coatings based on 20% and 30% esterified epoxy‐amine adducts had good overall film properties.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

1 – 10 of 501