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Article
Publication date: 4 April 2016

Gopal Das and Srabanti Mukherjee

Given the increasing dominance of medical tourism on the service economy of some of the developing nations, as a pioneering attempt, this study aims to develop a…

Abstract

Purpose

Given the increasing dominance of medical tourism on the service economy of some of the developing nations, as a pioneering attempt, this study aims to develop a consumer-based brand equity (CBBE) measurement scale for the medical tourist destinations (city/hospital).

Design/methodology/approach

Following the traditional marketing construct development process (qualitative study, purification study and validation study), in the present study, two sets of large and independent samples were assessed to judge the dimensionality of the measure.

Findings

A well-validated measurement scale was developed as an amalgamation of four dimensions, namely, awareness, perceived quality, brand loyalty and authenticity to assess CBBE of medical destinations.

Practical implications

To reduce the financial and physical risk associated with the purchase of treatment, the customers may rely on “authenticity” of the service providers to select a treatment destination. The outcomes would help medical administrators/managers to focus more on developing “assurance” by increased reliability, responsiveness and tangibles to attract the medical tourists to a large extent.

Originality/value

The study is a pioneering attempt to develop a scale for measuring CBBE for medical tourist destinations. The study aligns with earlier CBBE scales in terms of the first three elements, namely, brand awareness, loyalty and perceived quality. However, based on predictive validity, the study puts forth five interrelated first order attributes, namely, “trust”, “value for money”, “quality of residents”, reliability and soft issues (like friendliness and ease of process) as contributing factors to a so far unexplored dimension, “brand authenticity”.

Details

International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6123

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Article
Publication date: 23 July 2021

Muhammad Sabbir Rahman, Surajit Bag, Hasliza Hassan, Md Afnan Hossain and Rajesh Kumar Singh

This paper aims to investigate the relationship between destination brand equity and tourist's revisit intention towards health tourism destinations. The study also…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the relationship between destination brand equity and tourist's revisit intention towards health tourism destinations. The study also examines the mediating effect of destination brand association between destination-based brand equity and travellers' revisit intention for health tourism destinations.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey instrument is used to examine the relationships in the proposed model using the co-variance-based structural equation modelling (SEM) technique. The collected primary data from two hundred forty-six respondents (n = 246) are analysed to test the relationship amongst exogenous, mediating, moderating and endogenous constructs articulated in the proposed structural model.

Findings

Empirical findings reveal that destination brand equity influences the revisit intention of a traveller for health tourism via destination brand association. The perceived trust, reliability and soft issues of a traveller moderate the relationship between destination brand equity and destination brand association. Enduring travel involvement also proves a significant moderation effect on the relationship between destination brand association and the revisit intention of a traveller for a health tourism destination.

Practical implications

This paper is an initial attempt to develop and empirically examine a conceptual model of the intention of a traveller to revisit a health tourism destination in a dynamic process of information search using the data collected from current travellers after medical tourism-related trips. Results suggest that stakeholders must focus on hedonic and utilitarian factors of the destination that are recognised by travellers to encourage revisit for medical tourism.

Originality/value

Although there have been numerous studies on health tourism. However, to the best of the authors' knowledge, this research is a pioneer in the healthcare tourism literature that links destination brand equity, brand association and revisit intention of a traveller for health tourism. These findings extend the knowledge of how healthcare tourism that is embedded with destination brand equity and destination brand association. The study findings potentially benefit the marketers for gaining competitive advantages through considering the experience of a traveller.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

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Article
Publication date: 27 July 2018

Diya Guha Roy, Srabanti Mukherjee and Sujoy Bhattacharya

The medical tourism market across the globe lacks a consolidated, standard customer-based brand equity (CBBE) scale till the present day. The purpose of this research is…

Abstract

Purpose

The medical tourism market across the globe lacks a consolidated, standard customer-based brand equity (CBBE) scale till the present day. The purpose of this research is to theorize a scale with probable existing dimensions and based on prior literature adding culture and infrastructure/superstructure as new components for global comparison among BRICS and SAARC nations. This empirical research initiates laying the foundation of deriving a unified scale.

Design/methodology/approach

Extensive literature reviews from leading academic journals, books and web information were used to theoretically propose the scale. R (an open source coding language) was used for quantitative analysis.

Findings

Culture (environment index) and infrastructure/superstructure (industry/economic index) were found to be relevant in the context of CBBE scale for medical tourism. The other dimensions are brand awareness, brand association, perceived quality and loyalty.

Research limitations/implications

The research literature was fragmented because of international scopes of medical tourism destinations as well as a variety of medical services offered. The dynamic nature of this industry, which is dependent on several factors such as healthcare, cost, related services, tourism etc. made it difficult to access the real contribution of individual items.

Practical implications

This paper proposes the foundation to develop a CBBE scale for medical tourism in India, adding culture and infrastructure/superstructure as new dimensions. It opens doors for new research with scale refining, branding assessment and fine-tuning items for the new dimensions.

Originality/value

This research is the first of its kind to create a standard CBBE scale for developing countries. It has added a new set of literature and consolidated prior contextual works on culture and infrastructure in reference to medical tourism. The questionnaire is of practical value to hospitals. The interview transcript is novel in nature for future works.

Details

International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6123

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Book part
Publication date: 4 August 2014

Rodrigo Murillo

This chapter analyzes the tourism industry from national and regional perspectives, in order to understand the past and current trends in Costa Rica’s positioning and…

Abstract

This chapter analyzes the tourism industry from national and regional perspectives, in order to understand the past and current trends in Costa Rica’s positioning and branding attributes and strategies for tourism development. The intent here is not to provide an exhaustive comprehensive literature review of academic research on country branding; and so it is by all means a case study as it describes the evolution of the tourism industry in Costa Rica – including the transformative stages the country went through since the 1980s – as planned tourism national management programs evolved toward reaching the target of creating a nature-based tourism brand. The medical industry and then medical tourism industries are analyzed in a global basis and the US market is examined in detail because of its potential to develop a new complementary niche for Costa Rica’s tourism industry. The chapter intends to asses Costa Rica’s potential to become a country brand in medical tourism, leveraged on its natural tourism destination branding status quo.

Details

Tourists’ Perceptions and Assessments
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-618-7

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Article
Publication date: 22 July 2021

Deepa Jawahar and Aslam Muhammed M.K.

This paper aims to analyse the relationship between the image of a tourism product and destination brand equity in the context of Kerala's Ayurveda. The study also…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to analyse the relationship between the image of a tourism product and destination brand equity in the context of Kerala's Ayurveda. The study also examined the influence of destination image (DI) and hospital brand image (HBI) and the mediating role of total experience (TEX).

Design/methodology/approach

The research analysed 342 primary data from Ayurvedic tourists who visited Kerala for the treatment.

Findings

Results show that product–place image (PPI) and DI significantly influence the brand equity, but the HBI is insignificant towards the brand equity. Even though HBI does not directly influence Kerala's brand equity, it has a strong relationship through TEX (mediating variable).

Practical implications

This study can be implemented by destination marketing organization and tourism authorities while making strategic decisions and plans for the image creation of a tourist place.

Originality/value

People perceive some products from a particular place as having superior quality and uniqueness. As far as a tourist destination is concerned, a “tourism product” associated with the destination will also uplift its popularity. The study has investigated the image of this “product–place” combination in medical tourism.

Details

Journal of Place Management and Development, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8335

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2019

Ayse Collins, Anita Medhekar, Ho Yin Wong and Cihan Cobanoglu

The purpose of this paper is to explore how Americans choose a country and medical facility to travel abroad for medical treatment based on the following factors country…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore how Americans choose a country and medical facility to travel abroad for medical treatment based on the following factors country environment, tourism destination, medical tourism costs and medical facilities and services.

Design/methodology/approach

Online survey with the help of Amazon Mechanical Turk website was used for data collection, and 541 valid cases were used of American residents who had travelled abroad for medical tourism. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were undertaken to validate the scales.

Findings

Findings indicated four major factors that can influence American medical tourists’ choices of medical tourism destinations. These factors are overseas’ country factors, attractiveness of tourism destination, medical tourism costs and facilities and services. Both the convergent and discriminant validities for the constructs were established. The results of the measurement-model-fit based on various measures were within the suggested cut-off values.

Research limitations/implications

Out of the 541 responses of post-travel experienced medical tourists, it is hard to tell how similar/dissimilar the participants are in terms of ranking the four factors. To be competitive to attract global medical tourists, research suggests that the five popular countries of treatment, India, China, Thailand, Mexico and Turkey, identified in this study should provide high quality of medical and tourism facilities to patients.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the understanding of the underlying factors, which influence American medical tourists’ choice of destinations, with validated scales. For this exploratory research, 25 new items together with 34 items from other studies were adapted.

Details

Tourism Review, vol. 74 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 10 May 2019

Pooja Rani

This paper aims to analyze the customer-based brand equity index (CBBE-I) of Tourism Brand Kurukshetra.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to analyze the customer-based brand equity index (CBBE-I) of Tourism Brand Kurukshetra.

Design/methodology/approach

For the purpose of this study, the author uses primary and secondary data on destination attractiveness of Tourism Brand Kurukshetra for a sample of 150 tourists including domestic and international. The study used structural equation modeling and factor weighting methods.

Findings

The research presents an investigation into the destination attractiveness index of Tourism Brand Kurukshetra in an emerging market, i.e. Kurukshetra. Tourism Brand Kurukshetra from the brand equity perspective is an attractive destination.

Practical implications

It suggests that the CBBE index of Kurukshetra ought to analyze a longitudinal study to get the proper image of Kurukshetra from a touristic perspective. It provides long-term attractiveness to enhance tourism.

Originality/value

This is the first brand equity study contributed to branding literature of Tourism Brand Kurukshetra. The index is an accomplished way to present the tourism condition of any destination.

Details

Journal of Tourism Analysis: Revista de Análisis Turístico, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2254-0644

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Article
Publication date: 3 January 2020

Eric Ping Hung Li, Hyun Jeong Min and Somin Lee

The purpose of this paper is to explore the interconnection between the corporatisation of K-beauty and Korea’s nation branding exercise and its links with soft power…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the interconnection between the corporatisation of K-beauty and Korea’s nation branding exercise and its links with soft power. Through the investigation of the transformation of Korea’s beauty industry, the authors seek to illustrate the inter-relationship of the market systems and national identification practices.

Design/methodology/approach

This study employed the qualitative case study approach to examine the latest development of Korea’s medical tourism. Through analysing a variety of secondary data that associated to the latest development of cosmetic tourism, this paper presents the impact of the transformation and reconfiguration of Korea’s beauty industry on the country’s nation branding strategy and the development of Korea’s soft power in the global marketplace.

Findings

The findings highlight how Korea’s new cosmetic tourism industry contributed to the renewal of Korea’s nation brand in the global market. The findings also illustrate the interconnection of the emerging Korean popular cultural products (K-pop and K-beauty) in the regional and global marketplace.

Research limitations/implications

The findings demonstrate the role of market in re-defining a nation’s brand and identity. The findings also illustrate how market-driven strategy influences the development of a nation’s soft power in the regional and/or global marketplace.

Practical implications

The study shows that practitioners can be active agents in nation branding. Through highlighting strategies to develop soft power within and beyond the country boundary, this study shows how market agents, governments and other stakeholders can co-create a market system that transform and reconfigure the nation brand in the global marketplace.

Social implications

In additional to explore the transformation of the beauty industry in Korea, this paper also presents the history and transformation of the beauty standards in Korea and other Asian cultures. Such dialogue invites marketing and consumer researchers to further explore the role of history and culture in guiding the production and consumption of new (consumption) standards.

Originality/value

This is the first paper that connects the theory of soft power in nation branding and country-of-origin literature. The case analysis of the socio-historical development of K-beauty also demonstrates how non-Western cultural goods enter the international marketplace. In summary, this paper provides new conceptual framework that illustrates a new collaborative mechanism that engages government and practitioners to co-create new cultural norms and standards to the local and international markets.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 38 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 25 June 2020

Deepa Jawahar, Vinney Zephaniah Vincent and Anju Varghese Philip

All touristic cities have their unique attributes to showcase and differentiate themselves from others. This distinctive attribute is the unique selling product or tourism…

Abstract

Purpose

All touristic cities have their unique attributes to showcase and differentiate themselves from others. This distinctive attribute is the unique selling product or tourism product of a particular city. It could be an art form, culture, regional climate, food and festival. Literature indicates that the identity of the entire city would be affected by such tourism products. The purpose of this study is to analyse the influence of the ‘image’ of an Art-event to city branding. The study also examines the mediating role of ‘city attachment’ in the relationship between event image and city brand equity.

Design/methodology/approach

In all, 432 samples have been collected from visitors to one of the biggest contemporary art events in India – the “Kochi-Muziris Biennale – 2018,” conducted in the city of Cochin, situated in Kerala, the southernmost state of India.

Findings

Results show that the direct relationship between event image and city brand equity is stronger than the hypothesised path through the mediating role of city attachment.

Research limitations/implications

This study provides a better understanding of the event image and its importance in creating the host city’s brand equity. It contributes to both the practitioners and tourism researchers.

Originality/value

This study looks at the event image through functional and affective aspects and its influence on city attachment and city brand equity.

Details

International Journal of Tourism Cities, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-5607

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Article
Publication date: 25 February 2020

Ahmed Kamassi, Noor Hazilah Abd Manaf and Azura Omar

This paper aims to address and identify the major stakeholders in the medical tourism industry, based on their participation in medical tourism activities and their…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to address and identify the major stakeholders in the medical tourism industry, based on their participation in medical tourism activities and their support for medical tourism development.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper systematically reviews the content of medical tourism studies from literature to identify key stakeholders and address the roles they play in the medical tourism industry.

Findings

This study shows that the key stakeholders in the medical tourism industry are eight, namely, medical tourists, health-care providers, government agencies, facilitators, accreditation and credentialing bodies, health-care marketers, insurance providers and infrastructure and facilities. These stakeholders strongly influence medical tourists’ decision-making process in seeking medical treatment abroad. Besides, a successful medical tourism development depends greatly on the excellent partnership between all stakeholders.

Practical implications

This paper sheds light on the crucial role of these stakeholders that can be an important consideration in medical tourists’ decision-making process and industry growth. The study can facilitate policymakers in designing and developing policies to improve medical tourism practices.

Originality/value

This paper expands the knowledge about medical tourism literature by identifying and explaining the significant role of each stakeholder in the industry. The results of this paper are quite revealing to all practitioners in terms of the potential strategies and medical tourism growth. The study establishes a foundation for future medical tourism research in the rapidly growing industry.

目的

本文旨在根据医疗旅游的参与及其对医疗旅游发展的支持, 来确定医疗旅游的主要利益相关者。

设计/方法/方法

本文系统地回顾了文献中的医疗旅游研究内容, 以识别关键的利益相关者并探讨他们在医疗旅游行业中所扮演的角色。

结果

这项研究表明, 医疗旅游的主要利益相关者有八个:医疗游客, 医疗保健提供者, 政府机构, 促进者, 资格认证机构, 医疗保健营销人员, 保险提供者以及基础设施。这些利益相关者强烈影响医疗旅游游客在国外寻求医疗服务的决策过程。此外, 医疗旅游业的成功发展很大程度上取决于所有利益相关者之间的良好伙伴关系。

实际含义

本文阐明了这些利益相关者的关键作用, 这是医疗游客决策过程和行业增长的重要考虑因素。该研究可以帮助决策者设计和制定改善医疗旅游实践的政策。

创意/价值

本文通过确定和解释每个利益相关者在行业中的重要作用, 扩展了对医疗旅游文献的了解。本文的结果在潜在策略和医疗旅游的增长方面对所有从业者都颇具启发性。该研究为快速发展的医疗旅游行业的未来方向研究奠定了基础。

Propósito

Este artículo, tiene como objetivo abordar e identificar, los principales actores en la industria del turismo médico, en función de su participación en actividades de turismo médico y su apoyo al desarrollo del turismo médico.

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

El trabajo revisa sistemáticamente, la literatura y el contenido de los estudios de turismo médico para identificar a las partes interesadas, elementos clave y abordar los roles que desempeñan en la industria del turismo médico.

Resultados

Este estudio muestra que los actores clave en la industria del turismo médico son ocho: turistas médicos, proveedores de atención médica, agencias gubernamentales, facilitadores, organismos de acreditación y acreditación, comercializadores de atención médica, proveedores de seguros e infraestructura e instalaciones. Estos actores, influyen de forma notable, en el proceso de toma de decisiones de los turistas médicos, al buscar tratamiento en el extranjero. Además, un desarrollo exitoso del turismo médico depende en gran medida de una excelente asociación entre todas las partes interesadas.

Implicaciones prácticas

Este documento arroja luz sobre el papel crucial de estos actores y puede ser una consideración importante en el proceso de toma de decisiones de los turistas médicos y el crecimiento de la industria. El estudio puede facilitar, en el diseño y desarrollo de políticas para mejorar las prácticas de turismo medico, a los responsables políticos.

Originalidad/valor

Este documento amplía el conocimiento sobre la literatura de turismo medico, identificando y explicando el papel importante de cada actor en la industria. Los resultados de este documento son bastante reveladores para todos los profesionales, en términos de estrategias potenciales y crecimiento del turismo médico. El estudio establece una base para futuras investigaciones sobre turismo médico en la industria de rápido crecimiento.

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