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Article
Publication date: 29 March 2022

Brian Poole

The purpose of this paper is to examine the way “moderation” is defined and operationalised at UK universities. It is hoped that this investigation provides pointers for…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the way “moderation” is defined and operationalised at UK universities. It is hoped that this investigation provides pointers for modifications in university documentation and practices, as well as indicates possible areas for future research.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper begins with a review of relevant scholarly literature, first tracing the history of the concept of moderation (essentially meaning the avoidance of extremes) in western thought and then proceeding to show how moderation is understood and operationalised in UK universities. Relevant documentation from 10 UK universities, all in the public domain, is analysed to show both commonalities and differences in definition and operationalisation of moderation.

Findings

This paper shows that universities differ in their understanding of the scope of moderation, with some seeing it as covering the evaluation of draft assessment artifacts. It is also noted that the distinction between moderation and marking is not always expressed in university documentation in ways that distinguish between the two with maximal clarity.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations include the relatively small sample of documents examined. Conversely, ancient universities (e.g. Edinburgh), long-established universities (e.g. Manchester) and 1992 and more recent universities (e.g. Manchester Metropolitan University and Suffolk) are contained in the sample, so moderation practices from across the sector are included.

Practical implications

The main findings are that some universities see moderation as including drafting, redrafting and approval of assessment artifacts, whereas others do not. In addition, although all universities stress that moderation and marking are separate activities, some documentation discusses both the activities in tandem; thus, undermining the contention that they are discrete. Both these findings have implications for UK university documentation in terms of both document structure and precise wording.

Originality/value

The approach taken, in which a sample of publicly available university documents is scrutinised and evaluated, casts a new light on understandings of “moderation”, which is a term and concept that may not always be examined critically by lecturers and quality assurance professionals involved in higher education.

Details

Quality Assurance in Education, vol. 30 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0968-4883

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 December 2021

Zanele Dube-Xaba and Malehlohonolo Precious Makae

The aim of quality assessment is to support the development of learners’ competencies as required in 21st century economies. This paper aims to analyse the role and…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of quality assessment is to support the development of learners’ competencies as required in 21st century economies. This paper aims to analyse the role and understanding of heads of department (HoDs) regarding quality assessment and the moderation of school-based assessment (SBA) tasks in tourism, which is a subject in the secondary school curriculum.

Design/methodology/approach

To elicit valid findings in this interpretative study, focus group discussions were conducted with 16 participants. The HoDs who participated in this study were purposively sampled based on their role as managers of tourism in their respective schools.

Findings

Informed by the context, input, process and output theoretical model, this study identified various elements that impacted the enactment of HoDs’ role in the moderation of SBA tasks, with particular reference to tourism. Despite these HoDs’ understanding of the importance of moderation as a key aspect in assuring quality assessment practices, it was found that the moderation of tourism SBA tasks was generally not conducted meticulously and appropriately.

Research limitations/implications

The qualitative case study on which this paper is based used a limited sample within a restricted timeframe and the results may thus not be generalised. However, the methodology produced trustworthy results and may thus be replicated and extended to other subjects with a practical component for enhanced insights into SBA practices.

Practical implications

This paper highlights the necessity for schools to rely on knowledgeable and principled curriculum leaders, particularly HoDs, for the effective management of assessment and moderation strategies to ensure quality outcomes. The qualitative case study on which this paper is based used a limited sample within a restricted timeframe, and the results may thus not be generalised. However, the methodology produced trustworthy results and may thus be replicated and extended to other subjects with a practical component for enhanced insights into SBA practices.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the discourse on quality assurance and SBA, with particular focus on how quality assessment can be enhanced in the moderation process of tourism. The insights that this paper share may contribute to improved policy decisions regarding the SBA process in tourism.

Details

Quality Assurance in Education, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0968-4883

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 October 2021

S. Mostafa Rasoolimanesh, Mingzhuo Wang, Josip Mikulić and Puvaneswaran Kunasekaran

This article aims to propose guidelines to develop moderation hypotheses, assess moderators using the multigroup analysis and interaction effect approaches and interpret…

1056

Abstract

Purpose

This article aims to propose guidelines to develop moderation hypotheses, assess moderators using the multigroup analysis and interaction effect approaches and interpret the results of moderation analysis in tourism and hospitality research.

Design/methodology/approach

Through a review of 600 articles published in top tourism and hospitality journals from the year 2016 to 2020, and reviewing the literature related to moderation analysis, this study identifies key issues in different steps of moderation analysis and proposes robust guidelines to aid future research.

Findings

The results of the systematic review uncovered some key issues in different steps of moderation analysis, such as hypothesis development, moderation assessment and results interpretation. The findings emphasized the typical methodological misconceptions and improper practices for moderation analysis.

Research limitations/implications

Moderation analysis is of great significance to the advancement of theory, and its application has increased significantly in recent years. However, many studies appear to have a limited understanding of moderation analysis and follow questionable practices regarding hypothesis development, moderation assessment and results interpretation, thus leading to suspicious conclusions for theory advancement. By highlighting these methodological issues, this article provides robust guidelines for moderation analysis, which is of great theoretical and methodological significance to the academic research in tourism and hospitality.

Originality/value

As one of the first studies to provide robust guidelines for moderation analysis, based on a critical and systematic review of papers published in top-tier journals in tourism and hospitality and the latest developments on moderation analysis in the wider literature, this article has important theoretical and methodological significance for the academic research in tourism and hospitality as well as general social science disciplines.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 33 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 February 2018

Mohammed Hersi Warsame and Edward Mugambi Ireri

The purpose of this paper is to examine the direct and indirect moderation effects of demographic and socio-economic(s) factors on the adoption of Islamic banking in UAE.

1134

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the direct and indirect moderation effects of demographic and socio-economic(s) factors on the adoption of Islamic banking in UAE.

Design/methodology/approach

Convenience sampling was done on the residents of Sharjah, Dubai, and Abu Dhabi. A closed-ended questionnaire with 30 items was designed and pre-tested before the start of the study. Path analysis and moderation testing were the main analytical approach. A total of 320 respondents completed the survey.

Findings

The research revealed that demographic and socio-economic(s) moderators may have direct and indirect moderation effects on the adoption of the Islamic banking in the UAE, which indicates the importance of these factors in the provision of Islamic banking products and services in the UAE.

Practical implications

This study further revealed that these moderators have huge practical implications for Islamic bank managers and marketers as they can exploit these demographics to enhance their market share in the UAE.

Social implications

In UAE, minimal attention has been directed toward the role moderators would play in the criterion that individual investors would use in the adoption of Islamic banking products and services in a cosmopolitan environment that is experiencing competition from conventional banks.

Originality/value

An extensive review of the existing literature on the adoption of Islamic banking reveals that no empirical research has been undertaken to explore the role played by demographic and socio-economic(s) moderators in the adoption of Islamic banking in UAE and internationally. This study attempts to fill this gap.

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1978

J.F. McMORROW

This paper presents a case study of the reaction of the Queensland Teachers Union to the moderation proposals of the 1970 Radford Report. After reviewing the events…

Abstract

This paper presents a case study of the reaction of the Queensland Teachers Union to the moderation proposals of the 1970 Radford Report. After reviewing the events surrounding the development and implementation of Union policy concerning moderation, the implications of these events for the Union and for education in Queensland are discussed. These implications are considered in terms of the Union's internal characteristics, its principal political targets, alternative sources of influence and the industrial and political tactics adopted. The study demonstrates the importance of intramural divisions, the strategic role of individual activists and the interaction between conservative and militant pressures in determining the nature and effectiveness of teachers' organizations as pressure groups.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

Article
Publication date: 1 April 2006

Gary Packham, Paul Jones, Brychan Thomas and Christopher Miller

The on‐line tutor or e‐moderator faces a diversity of new challenges, including instructional design, organisation, direct instruction and facilitating discourse. This…

1448

Abstract

Purpose

The on‐line tutor or e‐moderator faces a diversity of new challenges, including instructional design, organisation, direct instruction and facilitating discourse. This study aims to contrast the views of students and tutors regarding what factors constitute effective e‐moderation in order to identify key attributes of an on‐line tutor.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative methodology was adopted. The research utilised a semi‐structured interview technique to collect data contrasting and comparing the views of 35 students and 35 tutors on the constituents of effective e‐moderation.

Findings

The paper finds that from a student perspective the quality of feedback, student support and module management were key attributes of an effective e‐moderator. In contrast tutors argued that motivating students, including the provision of constructive feedback and developing an engaging on‐line persona were critical to successful e‐moderation. Comparison revealed that students and tutors have a broadly similar view to what constitutes effective on‐line moderation and any disparities related to how these groups tended to interact with the learning environment. Students were concerned primarily with how moderation enabled them to engage with the learning environment whereas tutors tended to discuss effective moderation in terms of factors that facilitated the learning process.

Originality/value

The study recognises the key attributes of an effective e‐moderator that should inform course design and tutor training.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 48 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 19 March 2013

Kamna Malik

In an online executive education setting, online discussions are seen as a frequently used pedagogical tool that promotes higher level of learning and critical thinking. A…

Abstract

In an online executive education setting, online discussions are seen as a frequently used pedagogical tool that promotes higher level of learning and critical thinking. A teacher's role is seen more as a moderator or facilitator of learning than as a lecturer or preacher. This shift of roles enhances the online students’ opportunities to critically think and reflect; and encourages co-creation of knowledge by way of peer discussions. It is imperative that students apply their critical thinking as well as soft skills to effectively participate and contribute towards making the discussion forum as self-regulated. However, in reality it needs explicit planning and effort on the part of the teacher to motivate them towards this positional shift. This chapter presents the motivation and techniques for improving student engagement by way of assigning them the role of moderator in a predominantly asynchronous online course for management graduates. A qualitative analysis of the observations made based on the application of three techniques of student moderation on student cohorts is shared and implications are discussed.

Details

Increasing Student Engagement and Retention in e-learning Environments: Web 2.0 and Blended Learning Technologies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-515-9

Abstract

Details

Fostering Productivity: Patterns, Determinants and Policy Implications
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-840-7

Book part
Publication date: 23 April 2021

Tanner Mirrlees

Purpose – This chapter demonstrates the power that Google, Apple, Facebook, Amazon and Microsoft (or the “GAFAM”) exercise over platforms within society, highlights the…

Abstract

Purpose – This chapter demonstrates the power that Google, Apple, Facebook, Amazon and Microsoft (or the “GAFAM”) exercise over platforms within society, highlights the alt-right’s use of GAFAM sites and services as a platform for hate, and examines GAFAM’s establishment and use of hate content moderation apparatuses to de-platform alt-right users and delete hate content. Approach – Drawing upon a political economy of communications approach, this chapter demonstrates GAFAM’s power in society. It also undertakes a reading of GAFAM “terms of service agreements” and “community guidelines” documents to identify GAFAM hate content moderation apparatuses. Findings – GAFAM are among the most powerful platforms in the world, and their content moderation apparatuses are empowered by the US government’s cyber-libertarian approach to Internet law and regulation. GAFAM are defining hate speech, deciding what’s to be done about it, and censoring it. Value – This chapter probes GAFAM’s hate content moderation apparatuses for Internet platforms, and shows how GAFAM enable and constrain the alt-right’s hate speech on their platforms. It also reflexively assesses the politics of empowering GAFAM to de-platform the alt-right.

Details

Media and Law: Between Free Speech and Censorship
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-729-9

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 October 2018

Ferdy Novianto, Sumartono, Irwan Noor and Lely Indah Mindarti

This paper aims to examine the effect of communication, resources, disposition and bureaucratic structure to the success of energy subsidy policy, to examine the effect of…

1828

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the effect of communication, resources, disposition and bureaucratic structure to the success of energy subsidy policy, to examine the effect of moderation of variable scenario of renewable energy policy on the influence of communication, resources, disposition and bureaucracy structure on the success of energy subsidy policy.

Design/methodology/approach

This study was purposively (based on specific objectives) conducted in Jakarta, which is associated with the implementation and subsidy policy scenario, the study focused on the center of government, namely, the capital city, Jakarta. Collection of data in this research survey was conducted in June-August 2017. The sampling technique was proportional stratified random sampling that took up most of the 770 members of Masyarakat Peduli Energi dan Lingkungan and Masyarakat Energi Terbarukan Indonesia using a representative sample of results that have the ability to be generalized. Based on the formula Slovin (Solimun and Fernandes, 2017), a sample of 145 respondents was obtained. The research approach used was a quantitative with the analysis tool called the generalized structure component analysis.

Findings

This paper exhibited that all relationships between variables have a p-value of 0.05 except the third moderation and fourth moderation relationship. So it can be said that all relationships between variables are significant except the relationship between the variables of moderation to the relationship between the disposition variable (X3) on the successful implementation of subsidy policy (Y) and the relationship between the moderation variable to the relationship between bureaucracy structure variable (X4) to the successful implementation of subsidy policy.

Originality/value

The originality of the research refers to the following: The Policy Theory described by Edwards III (1980), and reinforced by the findings of Ratminto and Winarsih (2005), and Bloom et al. (2009), that communication, resources, dispositions and bureaucratic structures affect the success of the energy subsidy policy. This becomes the formulation of a hypothesized research problem whether communication, resources, disposition and bureaucratic structure affect the success of the energy subsidy policy. In fact, the conditions in Indonesia are quite different from the Western world, and the system in Indonesia has embraced subsidies. Therefore, this study also examines the moderating effects of renewable energy policy scenarios in the relationship between communication, resources, dispositions and bureaucratic structures on the success of the subsidy policy energy. Given that there is no strong theory that examines the effects of moderation of these four factors on the success of the energy subsidy policy. Therefore, as the development of Edward III Theory, this study examines the proposition of whether renewable energy policy scenarios reinforce or weaken (moderation effects) on the effects of communication, resources, dispositions and bureaucratic structures on the success of energy subsidy policies.

Details

foresight, vol. 20 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6689

Keywords

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