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Article
Publication date: 22 May 2020

Brian Kee Mun Wong and Sarah Alia Sa’aid Hazley

The technological advances in the Industrial Revolution (IR) 4.0 era escalate the advancement of the healthcare industry, including the health tourism phenomenon. Based on…

Abstract

Purpose

The technological advances in the Industrial Revolution (IR) 4.0 era escalate the advancement of the healthcare industry, including the health tourism phenomenon. Based on the current trend in connected health care (e.g. mobile healthcare technology; digital health, etc.), this paper aims to propose that the distance between healthcare providers around the globe and its potential patients can be vastly reduced to almost on a real time basis.

Design/methodology/approach

A secondary literature review is conducted to identify the key development of IR 4.0 technologies in the healthcare industry and its possible trend leading the health tourism sector.

Findings

The adoption of IR 4.0 technologies is expected to make seeking treatments overseas more affordable, accessible and health records readily available on a real-time and secured basis. However, it is worth to note that the growth of health tourism raises the eyebrows of society from the security, social and economic perspectives.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to our understanding that the emergence of IR 4.0 technologies changes the landscape of the health care and health tourism industry. Continuous technology advancement is expected to further shape the future trend and escalate the commercialization aspect of the health tourism industry.

Details

Journal of Tourism Futures, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2055-5911

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Book part
Publication date: 22 February 2021

Andrew Spencer and Peter Tarlow

Abstract

Details

Tourism Safety and Security for the Caribbean
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-318-5

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Article
Publication date: 25 February 2020

Ahmed Kamassi, Noor Hazilah Abd Manaf and Azura Omar

This paper aims to address and identify the major stakeholders in the medical tourism industry, based on their participation in medical tourism activities and their…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to address and identify the major stakeholders in the medical tourism industry, based on their participation in medical tourism activities and their support for medical tourism development.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper systematically reviews the content of medical tourism studies from literature to identify key stakeholders and address the roles they play in the medical tourism industry.

Findings

This study shows that the key stakeholders in the medical tourism industry are eight, namely, medical tourists, health-care providers, government agencies, facilitators, accreditation and credentialing bodies, health-care marketers, insurance providers and infrastructure and facilities. These stakeholders strongly influence medical tourists’ decision-making process in seeking medical treatment abroad. Besides, a successful medical tourism development depends greatly on the excellent partnership between all stakeholders.

Practical implications

This paper sheds light on the crucial role of these stakeholders that can be an important consideration in medical tourists’ decision-making process and industry growth. The study can facilitate policymakers in designing and developing policies to improve medical tourism practices.

Originality/value

This paper expands the knowledge about medical tourism literature by identifying and explaining the significant role of each stakeholder in the industry. The results of this paper are quite revealing to all practitioners in terms of the potential strategies and medical tourism growth. The study establishes a foundation for future medical tourism research in the rapidly growing industry.

目的

本文旨在根据医疗旅游的参与及其对医疗旅游发展的支持, 来确定医疗旅游的主要利益相关者。

设计/方法/方法

本文系统地回顾了文献中的医疗旅游研究内容, 以识别关键的利益相关者并探讨他们在医疗旅游行业中所扮演的角色。

结果

这项研究表明, 医疗旅游的主要利益相关者有八个:医疗游客, 医疗保健提供者, 政府机构, 促进者, 资格认证机构, 医疗保健营销人员, 保险提供者以及基础设施。这些利益相关者强烈影响医疗旅游游客在国外寻求医疗服务的决策过程。此外, 医疗旅游业的成功发展很大程度上取决于所有利益相关者之间的良好伙伴关系。

实际含义

本文阐明了这些利益相关者的关键作用, 这是医疗游客决策过程和行业增长的重要考虑因素。该研究可以帮助决策者设计和制定改善医疗旅游实践的政策。

创意/价值

本文通过确定和解释每个利益相关者在行业中的重要作用, 扩展了对医疗旅游文献的了解。本文的结果在潜在策略和医疗旅游的增长方面对所有从业者都颇具启发性。该研究为快速发展的医疗旅游行业的未来方向研究奠定了基础。

Propósito

Este artículo, tiene como objetivo abordar e identificar, los principales actores en la industria del turismo médico, en función de su participación en actividades de turismo médico y su apoyo al desarrollo del turismo médico.

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

El trabajo revisa sistemáticamente, la literatura y el contenido de los estudios de turismo médico para identificar a las partes interesadas, elementos clave y abordar los roles que desempeñan en la industria del turismo médico.

Resultados

Este estudio muestra que los actores clave en la industria del turismo médico son ocho: turistas médicos, proveedores de atención médica, agencias gubernamentales, facilitadores, organismos de acreditación y acreditación, comercializadores de atención médica, proveedores de seguros e infraestructura e instalaciones. Estos actores, influyen de forma notable, en el proceso de toma de decisiones de los turistas médicos, al buscar tratamiento en el extranjero. Además, un desarrollo exitoso del turismo médico depende en gran medida de una excelente asociación entre todas las partes interesadas.

Implicaciones prácticas

Este documento arroja luz sobre el papel crucial de estos actores y puede ser una consideración importante en el proceso de toma de decisiones de los turistas médicos y el crecimiento de la industria. El estudio puede facilitar, en el diseño y desarrollo de políticas para mejorar las prácticas de turismo medico, a los responsables políticos.

Originalidad/valor

Este documento amplía el conocimiento sobre la literatura de turismo medico, identificando y explicando el papel importante de cada actor en la industria. Los resultados de este documento son bastante reveladores para todos los profesionales, en términos de estrategias potenciales y crecimiento del turismo médico. El estudio establece una base para futuras investigaciones sobre turismo médico en la industria de rápido crecimiento.

Content available
Article
Publication date: 23 August 2019

Lorena Androutsou and Theodore Metaxas

Under the Directive 2011/24/EU, medical tourism and cross-border health are interrelated terms regarding the freedom to move to get the most accessible medical treatment…

Abstract

Purpose

Under the Directive 2011/24/EU, medical tourism and cross-border health are interrelated terms regarding the freedom to move to get the most accessible medical treatment into EU Member State within the defined procedures for reimbursement. Little known empirically regarding the efficiency of the cross-border health/medical tourism industry. This study aims to measure its efficiency in Europe for the years 2010-2014, by using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA).

Design/methodology/approach

Data obtained from OECD and the European Core Health Indicators (ECHI), which is collecting the data through Eurostat. Eurostat collects data on health-care activities and provides data on hospital discharges, including the hospital discharges of non-residents and these include hospital discharges of in-patients and day care patients. The analysis uses “DEA.P, 2.1 for windows” by Coelli (1996).

Findings

The results show that the Members States health systems were very efficient in handling non-residents in-patients; however, when managing day cases/outpatients, the efficiency scores dropped.

Practical implications

The findings would have significant associations affecting intentions to revisit clinics and the destination country. In addition, will be useful to those seeking a better understanding of the cross-border health and medical tourism industry efficiency.

Originality/value

Extending the findings of the European Commission report (2015c) by examining how well medical tourists are informed about the decision they are making, would be of perceived value. These are important indicators at European level by helping each Member State to measure its medical tourism services.

Details

Journal of Tourism Analysis: Revista de Análisis Turístico, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2254-0644

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Article
Publication date: 16 March 2012

Susanne Hofer, Franziska Honegger and Jonas Hubeli

This paper's purpose is to give an overview of current research regarding the concept of “health tourism” with a focus on Switzerland, and to determine whether a consensus…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper's purpose is to give an overview of current research regarding the concept of “health tourism” with a focus on Switzerland, and to determine whether a consensus on this concept and its embedding in existing/future markets can be found.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is an explorative study combining literature review, questionnaires and qualitative interviews. Grounded theory was employed.

Findings

A service from the field of health care must have been provided prior to health tourism, allowing it to be classified under the health care system. Thus, health tourism is classified under the market for the sick and not under tourism which targets the healthy. Furthermore a new market for the healthy is emerging, which needs to be defined. As an example health(i)ness could help to clarify the terminology, to be seen as a gatekeeper of health and as a cultural paradigm change from cure to prevention.

Research limitations/implications

Further research is needed, regarding the positioning and development of health tourism and its synergies, as the cost pressures in health care increase and will continue to have a sustainable impact on health tourism.

Practical implications

The paper provides better knowledge of the term health tourism, its general classification, and particular reference to Switzerland, and information about upcoming changes in health care.

Originality/value

The findings add to the knowledge of how health tourism is embedded into health care and tourism, and show potential within the market for the healthy. It provides information to members of the tourism and health care market.

Details

Journal of Health Organization and Management, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7266

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2017

Gökhan Aydin and Bilge Karamehmet

Health-care tourism has become a major industry in the past decade. Following the increasing activity in health-care tourism, the decision-making process of consumers in…

Abstract

Purpose

Health-care tourism has become a major industry in the past decade. Following the increasing activity in health-care tourism, the decision-making process of consumers in choosing an international health-care facility has become increasingly important to the related parties. The present study aims to offer a holistic model of international health-care facility choice that incorporates the important dimensions by assessing the growth drivers and the alternative factors proposed in the literature and by validating them via a survey study.

Design/methodology/approach

The factors deemed important in the existing literature were used as the basis of a study in Turkey. In total, 65 structured interviews were conducted with health-care professionals and international health tourists to understand the perspective of the two important parties that affect policymaking.

Findings

The findings of the study support the significance of the majority of the variables proposed as important factors affecting international health-care facility choice.

Research limitations/implications

The study was carried out in four large hospital chains in Turkey; however, this creates a limitation in scope and may have limited representativeness of the overall market. The model has yet to be tested on a larger scale.

Practical implications

There are significant differences in the opinions of professionals and international health-care tourists in terms of choice criteria. This indicates problems with health professionals’ understanding of the consumer decision process.

Originality/value

The study provides a model that can be used to gain insights on the consumer decision process and also provides the policymakers and stakeholders of the international health-care industry with a sound theoretical foundation to build further studies upon. Only a limited number of studies was carried out in Turkey that focus on international health-care tourism, and the present study will fill a substantial research gap.

Details

International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6123

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Article
Publication date: 10 May 2011

C. Michael Hall

The major purpose of this introduction to the special issue of Tourism Review on health and medical tourism is to outline some of main issues that exist in the academic…

Abstract

Purpose

The major purpose of this introduction to the special issue of Tourism Review on health and medical tourism is to outline some of main issues that exist in the academic literature in this rapidly developing field.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper reviews relevant health and medical tourism and cognate literature.

Findings

The paper identifies some of the interrelationships between different areas of health and medical tourism, including wellness and wellbeing tourism, dental tourism, stem‐cell tourism, transplant tourism, abortion tourism, and xeno‐tourism. Key to defining these areas are the relationships to concepts of wellness and illness and the extent to which regulation encourages individuals to engage in cross‐border purchase of health services and products. Key themes that emerge in the literature include regulation, ethics, the potential individual and public health risks associated with medical tourism, and the relative lack of information on the extent of medical tourism.

Social implications

The development of international medical tourism is demonstrated to have potentially significant implications for global public health.

Originality/value

The paper covers an extensive range of academic literature on international medical tourism which indicates the different approaches and emphases of research in different disciplines as well as the ideological and philosophical differences that exist with respect to health medical tourism. The paper also notes that some of the individual and public health risks of medical tourism are not usually incorporated into assessments of its potential economic benefits.

Details

Tourism Review, vol. 66 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2015

Joohyun Lee and Hong-bumm Kim

– The purpose of this paper is to delineate a clear definition of health tourism, and to explain it in two sub-categories, namely, medical tourism, and wellness tourism.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to delineate a clear definition of health tourism, and to explain it in two sub-categories, namely, medical tourism, and wellness tourism.

Design/methodology/approach

Grounded theory approach through an in-depth literature review and practical data from three different cities were researched to support the study.

Findings

Determinants of travelers’ decision making for the destination of health tourism, such as distance, cost, language, economy, competency of medical technology, and culture, in each classification of health tourism, were identified.

Originality/value

This study suggests an inductive research model to synthesize and structure a logical relationship of determinants that affect health tourists’ decision to visit specific health tourism destinations. The results of this study are quite revealing to governments, industrial practitioners, and potential customers of health tourism in terms of the context of health tourism and the behavior of health tourists.

Details

International Journal of Tourism Cities, vol. 1 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-5607

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Article
Publication date: 21 August 2020

Ferika Ozer Sari and Murat Nazli

The purpose of this research is to explore and understand the effects of excessive tourism growth on public health, local people and the ecosystem. The secondary purpose…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to explore and understand the effects of excessive tourism growth on public health, local people and the ecosystem. The secondary purpose of the study is to link excessive tourism growth to social exchange theory, in terms of interchanging key resources of tourism destinations.

Design/methodology/approach

This is an exploratory study where qualitative research methods are employed. Telephone interview technique is used to obtain data from academicians who work at various universities in Turkey. Content analysis and thematic analysis with an inductive approach are made by use of MAXQDA software program.

Findings

Findings reveal that the satisfaction of local people is an important gain in terms of the economy, but the destruction of the ecosystem due to the excessive crowd, in a sense, overtourism, garbage and too much waste is striking disadvantage based on the responses. Risk of contagious disease, effects on the natural environment and wastes are stated to have huge impacts on the public health and ecosystem.

Practical implications

The study identifies some implications in terms of imbalance and unfairness among the locals who face with excessive crowds. Managing the effects of excessive tourism growth on vulnerable destinations and local people, controlling the carrying capacity in destinations with anxiety, fear, depression, health problems and low living standards should be taken under consideration. Additionally, finding ways to get rid of infectious diseases (such as increasing health checkpoints at borders, investigating the carrying capacity of destinations) is important for tourism spots.

Originality/value

As a major theoretical contribution, this study links excessive tourism growth to social exchange theory and reveals that the degree of exchanging valuable resources in the destination and the level of interaction between locals and tourists are the most critical points for the well-being of the local community and ecosystem.

Details

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Insights, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9792

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Article
Publication date: 5 May 2020

Caroline Alexis-Thomas

The purpose of this paper was to examine the issues related to the ability of the tourism sector in Tobago to contribute towards the health and well-being of the nation in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper was to examine the issues related to the ability of the tourism sector in Tobago to contribute towards the health and well-being of the nation in support of the sustainable development goal from the perspective of the tourism providers.

Design/methodology/approach

Qualitative research methodology using semi-structured interviews was used to collect data from 29 tourism providers in Tobago. The sociological perspective of symbolic interactionism guided the study with a grounded theory approach for data analysis.

Findings

The results revealed that the dominant themes that came out of the study were issues related to the process of knowledge acquisition, social production of vulnerability, controversies and challenges and collective capacity action that articulated the connection between the tourism sector in Tobago and health and well-being as a sustainable development goal. The study recommended the creation of a formal platform for discussion and knowledge sharing, support for key tourism providers involved in health and wellness activities, infrastructure development and the creation of a reporting mechanism that would facilitate the framing of the sustainability strategy for the tourism sector in Tobago.

Practical implications

The paper contributed to the ongoing discourse on tourism and sustainable development with special emphasis on tourism contributing to realizing the health and well-being as a sustainable development goal for Tobago.

Originality/value

The findings provided the original views of tourism providers based on their experiences, feelings and opinions concerning the tourism sector in Tobago and its ability to contribute to health and well-being as a sustainable development goal by 2030.

Details

Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4217

Keywords

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