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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1993

N.S. Ong, L.E.N. Lim and K.T. Yeo

The cost of manufacturing a product must be estimated accurately atthe concept design stage to help decision making. Examples of suchdecisions are the economic feasibility…

Abstract

The cost of manufacturing a product must be estimated accurately at the concept design stage to help decision making. Examples of such decisions are the economic feasibility of a product and the economic trade‐offs between alternative designs. An accurate estimating technique would include the cost of materials and all activities that incur cost. Presents a number of cost models for the manufacturing cost for an electrical interconnect design. All activities and material usage are allocated into three bases; unit‐level cost, batch‐level cost and product‐level cost. The unit product cost is the summation of these three costs. An example is presented to show the application of the cost models developed.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 20 October 2021

Tomi Solakivi, Ain Kiisler and Olli-Pekka Hilmola

This research analyzes the development of logistics outsourcing market in two countries, Estonia and Finland, with different paths as members of the single European…

Abstract

Purpose

This research analyzes the development of logistics outsourcing market in two countries, Estonia and Finland, with different paths as members of the single European market. The purpose of this paper is to examine whether the two markets have become more similar or whether their logistics costs and logistics markets have developed differently over time.

Design/methodology/approach

The development of the logistics market is addressed through two survey-based variables. Logistics costs are used to measure the size of the logistics market, whereas logistics outsourcing is analyzed to measure the development phase as well as the market potential for logistics service provision.

Findings

Estonian logistics outsourcing market was found to be underdeveloped and small compared to the Finnish market. At the same time, the logistics costs of Finnish companies are high and rising, whereas the costs of Estonian firms are declining.

Research limitations/implications

The results imply that the level of outsourcing might explain the visibility of logistics costs, which should be taken into account when making estimates on logistics costs both at the firm as well as on country level.

Social implications

Logistics sector is an important source of national competitiveness and employment. This research identifies subareas for the two countries on how to develop competitiveness through the logistics market.

Originality/value

This research provides a unique method to estimate the size of logistics outsourcing market in these two countries. It also represents as one of the rare works to provide multiyear comparison between countries in logistics costs.

Details

Journal of Global Operations and Strategic Sourcing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-5364

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Article
Publication date: 13 October 2021

Jae-Seob Lee

The purpose of the paper is to develop a method to integrate the schedule-based analysis with a productivity-based analysis to prove and support the result of the damages…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to develop a method to integrate the schedule-based analysis with a productivity-based analysis to prove and support the result of the damages calculation.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, a “cost and schedule impact integration” (CSI2) model is proposed to objectively show and estimate lost productivity due to changes in construction projects.

Findings

A schedule-based analysis to include separate tracking of change order costs can be used to predict productivity due to the delay and disruption; changes in construction projects almost always result in delay and disruption. However, the schedule-based analysis needs to be integrated with a productivity-based analysis to prove and support the result of the damages calculation.

Practical implications

The results of this study expand upon construction practices for proving and quantifying lost productivity due to changes in construction projects.

Originality/value

The contribution of the paper is summarized as the introduction of a “schedule impact analysis” into a “cost impact analysis” technique to assess the damages, as well as to demonstrate the labor productivity impact due to delay and disruption in construction projects.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

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Article
Publication date: 19 October 2021

Wucheng Zi, Guodong Li, Xiaolin Li and JiaYu Zhou

This study explores how collaborative cost sharing between the buyer and the supplier in cold chain equipment and marketing and advertising affects the performance of a…

Abstract

Purpose

This study explores how collaborative cost sharing between the buyer and the supplier in cold chain equipment and marketing and advertising affects the performance of a fresh agricultural produce supply chain (FAP-SC).

Design/methodology/approach

We use a contingency approach to modeling different scenarios and analyzing how fairness perception, interplaying with corporative–retailer cost sharing., influences the performance of fresh agricultural produce cold chains.

Findings

The findings of the research highlight the crucial role of the retailer's fairness concern. When the retailer's fairness concern is absent, cost sharing (in cold chain equipment and marketing and advertising) is found to help boost demand and enhance the profits of members of the supply chain; bilateral cost sharing is found to have a more significant impact than unilateral cost sharing. When the retailer's fairness concern is taken into account, however, cost sharing is found to reduce demand at a lower level of fairness coefficient but increases demand at a higher level of fairness coefficient; bilateral cost sharing boosts both demand and profit of the supply chain when the retailer is in a “high concern, high anger” state.

Originality/value

The findings of the research highlight the important role of the buyer's farness perception when supply chain partners adopt collaborative cost sharing programs. This study contributes significantly to research and practice in supply chain collaboration and agricultural cold chain performance.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 30 September 2021

Wooje Cho, Woojung Chang and Dongryul Lee

In responding to competitors' strategic choices, firms must choose whether to allocate their customer relationship management (CRM) resources primarily to retaining…

Abstract

Purpose

In responding to competitors' strategic choices, firms must choose whether to allocate their customer relationship management (CRM) resources primarily to retaining existing customers or to acquiring new customers. To address this critical but understudied question, the authors examine the strategic choices of two competing firms between retention- and acquisition-focused strategies in consideration of switching costs, technological advancement level, and market share.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors develop and analyze a game-theoretic model to investigate the strategic choices of two competing firms between retention- and acquisition-focused strategies.

Findings

When switching costs are high, findings show that when the degree of technological advancement is high (low), both firms should employ acquisition-focused (retention-focused) strategies to maximize their profits. When switching costs are low and there are a low degree of technological advancement and asymmetric market shares, the firms choose retention-focused strategies in equilibrium, but only the firm with the higher market share can maximize its profit. When switching costs are low, technological advancement levels are high, and the market shares are asymmetric, the firm with the higher market share chooses a retention-focused CRM strategy, while the rival with lower market share adopts an acquisition-focused strategy in equilibrium. However, neither firm can maximize its profits.

Originality/value

Prior research focused on a single firm's price discrimination decision without considering a competitor's strategic choice. To address this research gap, the authors examine where firms should assign their CRM resources (retention vs. acquisition) in response to a competitor's CRM strategy. This study provides guidance for optimal decision-making regarding a firm's CRM resource allocation in a duopoly market.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 11 October 2021

Rashid Amiri Ara, Klara Paardenkooper and Ron van Duin

This paper aims to propose a new blockchain system design to improve engineering, procurement and construction (EPC) companies’ supply chain for constructing oil and gas…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to propose a new blockchain system design to improve engineering, procurement and construction (EPC) companies’ supply chain for constructing oil and gas infrastructure, by mitigating cost and time inefficiencies.

Design/methodology/approach

A case study analyses the supply chain of a sample EPC company. First, a literature review is conducted to explore the subject in academic literature. Second, information flows are mapped using responsible, accountable, consulted and informed analysis and cross-functional process mapping. Third, inefficiencies are identified. Fourth, the root causes of the inefficiencies are pinpointed using fishbone and five-times-why analysis. Fifth, a comparison is made between the linear and the blockchain information system via force-field analysis. Sixth, a specific blockchain system design is identified based on three external expert interviews. Finally, the new system is designed and a cost-benefit analysis is conducted.

Findings

Major cost and time inefficiencies in oil and gas infrastructure developments are caused by a poor information flow in the supply chain. The new blockchain system design is a feasible solution, reducing cost inefficiencies by 12.4% and operation lead-times by 36.5%.

Research limitations/implications

The confidentiality of the sample EPC company’s information represents a limitation.

Originality/value

The research introduces a new blockchain system design, reducing cost and time inefficiencies in the project-development supply chain, including implementation processes.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

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Book part
Publication date: 9 September 2020

Fanhua Zeng, Yangfen Wu and Wei-chiao Huang

The market is a complex organism that has rich implications and essential stipulations. From the property right perspective, the market is a series of property rights…

Abstract

The market is a complex organism that has rich implications and essential stipulations. From the property right perspective, the market is a series of property rights, rules, and system arrangements (an aggregation of rights), which are constructed, owned, operated, and managed by the state and from which the government can benefit. The market property right is owned by the government (state). The costs of market property right include tangible (explicit) cost, system cost, human cost, and other cost components. The study on the cost components of market property right is conducive to establishing the principle of matching investment with ownership, matching investment with income, and integrating (unifying) cost with efficiency.

Details

Advances in Pacific Basin Business, Economics and Finance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-363-5

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Book part
Publication date: 30 September 2019

Martin E. Persson

Abstract

Details

Harold Cecil Edey: A Collection of Unpublished Material from a 20th Century Accounting Reformer
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-670-0

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Book part
Publication date: 13 January 2021

Michael Oyelere and Temitope Oyelere

After reading this chapter you should be able to:

  • Understand what is meant by relocation cost.
  • Explain the management and disbursement of relocating costs.
  • Critically…

Abstract

Learning Objectives

After reading this chapter you should be able to:

  • Understand what is meant by relocation cost.

  • Explain the management and disbursement of relocating costs.

  • Critically evaluate the calculation of relocation costs.

  • Reflect on the role of human resource managers in relation to the future of the costs of relocation.

Understand what is meant by relocation cost.

Explain the management and disbursement of relocating costs.

Critically evaluate the calculation of relocation costs.

Reflect on the role of human resource managers in relation to the future of the costs of relocation.

Details

Financial and Managerial Aspects in Human Resource Management: A Practical Guide
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-612-9

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Book part
Publication date: 28 September 2016

Corinne Mulley and Geoffrey Clifton

This chapter demonstrates how the ‘golden rule’ can be applied by operators of flexible transport services to improve investment and pricing decisions.

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter demonstrates how the ‘golden rule’ can be applied by operators of flexible transport services to improve investment and pricing decisions.

Design/methodology/approach

The chapter explains why an appropriate decision making framework is particularly important for operators of flexible transport services and compares the traditional economic framework of fixed versus variable costs to the decision-oriented approach that analyses the activities of a firm in terms of costs that are avoidable (i.e. specific to a particular activity) and costs that are shared amongst a number of activities. The chapter introduces the ‘golden rule’ of decision making and discusses issues in implementing the rule.

Findings

An economic framework for decision making is particularly important for smaller scale transport operations (such as flexible transport services) because ‘lumpy’ investment costs are more significant than for larger operators. The traditional economic approach divides costs into fixed costs and those which vary by patronage. A better framework for decision making divides costs into those which are specific to a particular activity and, therefore, avoidable if that activity ceases, and those costs which are common to more than one activity.

Practical implications

Using this framework allows operators to apply the ‘golden rule’ in pricing their services so that the avoidable costs of each activity are recovered and the enterprise covers its shared costs overall.

Originality/value

This chapter will be useful to operators of flexible transport services who are new to the industry or are reacting to changes in the funding environment.

Details

Paratransit: Shaping the Flexible Transport Future
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-225-5

Keywords

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