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Book part
Publication date: 15 September 2016

Elaine Y.T. Chew and Stephanie Onggo

The aim of this chapter is to understand the nature of business collaboration between healthcare service providers and tourism agencies in Malaysia. Interviews with 17…

Abstract

The aim of this chapter is to understand the nature of business collaboration between healthcare service providers and tourism agencies in Malaysia. Interviews with 17 healthcare service providers in Malaysia reveal that most of the collaboration between healthcare service providers and tourism agencies in Malaysia is informal or loose, despite their intention to leverage on medical tourism for business expansion. Close and tight collaborations are rare. The findings point towards the main reasons behind the rare collaboration which are the high customer orientation of healthcare service providers, the strategic move of business and support for government agenda.

Details

Tourism and Hospitality Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-714-4

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 April 2022

Ferdos Abbaspour, Sanaz Soltani and Aaron Tham

This paper aims to examine whether medical tourism can be a frontrunner in terms of post-pandemic recovery for the industry

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine whether medical tourism can be a frontrunner in terms of post-pandemic recovery for the industry

Design/methodology/approach

A mixed-method analysis of 17 interviews and 210 questionnaires involving medical tourists to Iran was applied.

Findings

Medical tourists perceived the risks posed by COVID-19 as a temporal one, and attitudes toward post pandemic visitation intentions remained strong. In addition, these tourists can mostly be classified into responsive individuals, who demonstrate not only high risk but also high efficacy levels to negotiate the threats posed by the pandemic. No gender differences were located between male and female medical tourists in terms of post-COVID-19 travel intentions to Iran.

Originality/value

This research extends the application of the risk perception attitude framework to a medical tourism context. Furthermore, medical tourists are uncovered as another segment of crisis-resistant tourists.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 February 2022

Sunita Guru, Anamika Sinha and Pradeep Kautish

The study aims to facilitate the medical tourists visiting emerging countries for various kinds of ailments by ranking the possible destinations to avail medical treatments.

Abstract

Purpose

The study aims to facilitate the medical tourists visiting emerging countries for various kinds of ailments by ranking the possible destinations to avail medical treatments.

Design/methodology/approach

A Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchical Process (FAHP) with a mixed-method approach is applied to analyze data collected from patients and substantiate it with medical tour operators in India to gain managerial insights on the choice-making patterns of the patients.

Findings

India is a preferred emerging market location due to the low cost and high medical staff quality. India offers value for money, whereas Singapore and Thailand are preferred destinations for quality and technology.

Research limitations/implications

The study will facilitate the emerging markets' governments, hospitals and medical tourists to understand the importance of various determinants responsible for availing medical treatment outside their country.

Practical implications

The study recommends that cost and quality care are the patients' prime focus; government policies must provide clear guidelines on what the hospitals and country environment can offer and accordingly align the marketing strategies.

Originality/value

This study is the first attempt to rank various factors affecting medical tourism using the FAHP approach.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 January 2022

Ilhan Sağ, Ferhat Devrim Zengul and Keziban Avcı

This paper aims to explore the public’s attitude toward medical tourism activities by developing a measurement instrument in Turkey, an emerging medical tourism destination.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the public’s attitude toward medical tourism activities by developing a measurement instrument in Turkey, an emerging medical tourism destination.

Design/methodology/approach

During the development phase of the scale, 24 question pools were created. After the pilot study, data from a 20-question survey were collected from a study group consisting of Turkish citizens who received services from hospitals in the city of Ankara. Data were collected through convenience sampling of 221 study participants as they were walking in the Square of Kızılay, one of the most important centers and junction points in Turkey, between November 25, 2017, and December 27, 2017.

Findings

The content validity of the scale was assessed by expert opinion. The scale reliability is high with Cronbach’s α (0.908). A factor analysis was performed to assess the factor structure of the scale. The Kaiser–Meyer–Olkin measure of sampling adequacy (0.895) and Bartlett’s test (χ2 = 2,020.967; p = 0.001) were applied to determine the conformity of the scale of factor analysis. Exploratory factor analysis with Varimax rotation was performed to determine the factor structure of the scale. The 20 questions loaded under three factors: “contribution to the country,” “anxiety in getting services” and “service justice”. These factors explained approximately 55% of the total variance. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed with goodness-of-fit index (0.877), Bentler comparative fit index (0.909) and root mean square error of approximation index (0.069) to determine the validity of the factor structure, and the results indicated that the three-factor model is an acceptable level. All the results show that this new scale is valid and reliable in measuring the public’s attitude toward the development of medical tourism in Turkey.

Originality/value

The public’s attitudes on the medical tourism scale show that, as a measurement tool, it can be used validly and reliably in determining the public’s attitudes toward medical tourism.

Details

International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6123

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 March 2021

Hamed Dabaghi, Saeid Saieda Ardakani and Seyed Mohammad Tabataba’i-Nasab

The purpose of this paper is to focus on the emerging phenomenon of medical tourism in the context of Iran from a customer experience management perspective and benchmark…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to focus on the emerging phenomenon of medical tourism in the context of Iran from a customer experience management perspective and benchmark of their judgment including positive or negative, of the experience they have achieved of the Iranian health (medical) experience (CE) and suggest scenarios for the improvement of the Iranian customer experience management (CEM).

Design/methodology/approach

The research methodologies and research methods that are used in this descriptive-analytical research are based on an inspection of the remarkable literature related to medical tourism and customer experience management. The data gathering instrument is a researcher-made questionnaire based on the variables in the conceptual model extracted from the research literature. The study was conducted from May to August 2019. The population cohort of this study was the foreign patients calling selected Iranian hospitals and the sampling method was a purposive and snowball sample of prospective medical tourists. As the study was conducted throughout Iran, some important hospitals in Iran were selected by stratified sampling Yang et al. (2020b). The sample size and data saturation were 500 participants Lv and Song (2019). The collected data using the questionnaire were analyzed by SPSS software and statistical tests.

Findings

According to the results, the customer experience management statistical significance in the task aspect is (p = 0.0523), in the mechanical aspect is (p = 0.0563), in the human aspect is (p = 0.0544). The study showed positive customer experience among the patients who had been treated in the Iranian hospitals.

Originality/value

There is a lack of study that focuses on medical tourism and customer experience management in Iran. Therefore, based on the results of this study, the experience of medical tourists in Iran proved to be positive and satisfying. As little research has been conducted in the area of customer experience management (CEM) in Iranian medical tourism, future researchers can use these valuable results precisely and in more detail to benchmark more accurately the customer experience in all areas of medical and health tourism and other research areas in different aspects of CEM in Iran.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 June 2021

Mahdi Nakhaeinejad, Mohammad Hosein Moeinzadeh, Seyed Aliasghar Tabatabaei Bafrouei and Afarin Akhavan

Tourism industry is a profitable resource for countries and considered one of the main sources of income and job creation for economic development. Among the various types…

Abstract

Purpose

Tourism industry is a profitable resource for countries and considered one of the main sources of income and job creation for economic development. Among the various types of tourism, medical tourism and its subsets are of great significance owing to their capabilities and competitive advantages. In this regard, the purpose of this research is to provide a framework to categorize customers based on the Zeithaml pyramid and then identify and provide strategies to create loyalty and attract customers of this industry.

Design/methodology/approach

This study proposed a framework for medical tourists' satisfaction and loyalty. First, by studying the literature and data gathering from Yazd (one of the cities of Iran), the effective factors on the loyalty and attraction of medical tourists were identified. These factors have been prioritized for the medical tourists who are in the platinum category by the Pareto technique and Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) method. Next, the strategies provided by experts for loyalty and attraction of medical tourists were examined. Finally, the house of quality (HOQ) as the first matrix in quality functional deployment (QFD) was used to provide operational strategies for medical tourism satisfaction. The statistical population of this research consists of medical tourists, academic experts and active physicians of medical tourism in Yazd, one of the cities of Iran.

Findings

The study results indicate the importance of “hospital reputation” in medical tourists' satisfaction. Also, “achieving international standards”, “periodic customer satisfaction assessment” and “paying attention to social responsibilities” are recognized as the most important strategies to achieve the loyalty of the most profitable group of customers, namely platinum.

Practical implications

This study covers both theoretical and practical aspects. Theoretically, this study developed a new framework for medical tourists' satisfaction by the Zeithaml matrix, TOPSIS, Pareto technique and QFD method. Furthermore, practically this study helps practitioners of medical tourism in medical tourists' satisfaction and loyalty.

Originality/value

In this study, in addition to identifying the effective factors on the loyalty and attracting medical tourists, a new framework was developed for medical tourists' satisfaction by segmentation the tourism by the Zeithaml matrix and providing operational strategies by the QFD technique.

Details

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Insights, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9792

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2018

Mohammad Mehdi Kalantarzadeh and Mukaddes Fasli

This study investigates the relationship between medical tourism and city branding as the main purpose. To this end, two measurement scales (questionnaires) were designed…

Abstract

This study investigates the relationship between medical tourism and city branding as the main purpose. To this end, two measurement scales (questionnaires) were designed and validated. The data obtained through the questionnaires was analyzed using descriptive statistics, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses as well as structural equation modeling via SPSS and LISREL. The study was done in the city of Shiraz which is a famous tourist destination worldwide and has high capacities in medical tourism as well. Participants included scholars and managerial staff in the fields of medical tourism and city branding. The results confirmed that the four underlying factors of medical tourism include medical facilities and services, doctors and staff, tourism factors and costs. Furthermore, city branding was confirmed to be comprised of three underlying factors including place and facilities, opportunities, and residents and culture. Finally, according to the findings from Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) method of assessment branding in shiraz it was found that medical tourism affects directly on city branding.

Details

Open House International, vol. 43 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 October 2013

Bikash Ranjan Debata, Kumar Sree, Bhaswati Patnaik and Siba Sankar Mahapatra

The purpose of this paper is to develop a comprehensive framework to identify and classify key medical tourism enablers (MTEs) and to study the direct and indirect effects…

2134

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a comprehensive framework to identify and classify key medical tourism enablers (MTEs) and to study the direct and indirect effects of each enabler on the growth of medical tourism in India.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, an integrated approach using interpretive structural modeling (ISM) and Fuzzy Matrice d'Impacts Croisés Multiplication Appliquée á un Classement (FMICMAC) analysis has been developed to identify and classify the key MTEs, typically identified by a comprehensive review of literature and expert opinion. The key enablers are also modeled to find their role and mutual influence.

Findings

The key finding of this modeling helps to identify and classify the enablers which may be useful for medical tourism decision makers to employ this model for formulating strategies in order to overcome challenges and to become a preferred medical tourism destination. Integrated model reveals enablers such as medicine insurance coverage, international healthcare collaboration, and efficient information system as dependent enablers. No enabler is found to be autonomous enablers. The important enablers like healthcare infrastructure facilities and global competition are found as the linkage enablers. Research in medicine and pharmaceutical science, medical tourism market, transplantation law, top management commitment, national healthcare policy, competent medical and para-medical staffs are found as the independent enablers. Integrated model also establishes the direct and indirect relationship among various enablers.

Originality/value

The research provides an integrated model using ISM and FMICMAC to identify and classify various key enablers of medical tourism in India. In conventional cross-impact matrix multiplication applied to classification analysis, binary relationship of various enablers is considered. FMICMAC analysis helps to establish possibility of relationship among various enablers so that low-key hidden factors can be identified. The low-key hidden factors may initially exhibit marginal influence but they may show significant influence later on during analysis. The uncertainty and fuzziness of relationship among various enablers can be conveniently handled by FMICMAC and expert opinions can easily be captured. This research will help medical tourism decision makers to select right enablers for the growth of medical tourism in India.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 20 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 June 2016

Swati Gola

The present paper aims to analyse who actually benefits from the policies to promote international trade in healthcare services through medical tourism in India. It also…

Abstract

Purpose

The present paper aims to analyse who actually benefits from the policies to promote international trade in healthcare services through medical tourism in India. It also assesses the implications of unfettered and unchecked medical tourism for public health policy-making.

Design/methodology/approach

The research methodology adopted in this paper is inter-disciplinary (socioeconomic and legal) and includes a mix of doctrinal and empirical qualitative research.

Findings

The present paper argues that in the absence of any baseline data in the public domain on inbound traffic of tourists visiting India on medical tourism, it is difficult to assess and evaluate the private sector claims and that the absence of any format for data collection, management and analysis results in questionable accountability and institutional fragmentation and non-coordination. Furthermore, it results in asymmetrical policy-making in areas like international trade, which may have unintended negative effects for public health.

Research limitations/implications

The research findings of the present paper will also assist other developing countries considering to promote medical tourism to learn lessons from India’s experiences.

Originality/value

The present paper uses the qualitative empirical research conducted by the author to analyse the state of affair of medical tourism in India.

Details

Journal of International Trade Law and Policy, vol. 15 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-0024

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 February 2020

Ahmed Kamassi, Noor Hazilah Abd Manaf and Azura Omar

This paper aims to address and identify the major stakeholders in the medical tourism industry, based on their participation in medical tourism activities and their…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to address and identify the major stakeholders in the medical tourism industry, based on their participation in medical tourism activities and their support for medical tourism development.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper systematically reviews the content of medical tourism studies from literature to identify key stakeholders and address the roles they play in the medical tourism industry.

Findings

This study shows that the key stakeholders in the medical tourism industry are eight, namely, medical tourists, health-care providers, government agencies, facilitators, accreditation and credentialing bodies, health-care marketers, insurance providers and infrastructure and facilities. These stakeholders strongly influence medical tourists’ decision-making process in seeking medical treatment abroad. Besides, a successful medical tourism development depends greatly on the excellent partnership between all stakeholders.

Practical implications

This paper sheds light on the crucial role of these stakeholders that can be an important consideration in medical tourists’ decision-making process and industry growth. The study can facilitate policymakers in designing and developing policies to improve medical tourism practices.

Originality/value

This paper expands the knowledge about medical tourism literature by identifying and explaining the significant role of each stakeholder in the industry. The results of this paper are quite revealing to all practitioners in terms of the potential strategies and medical tourism growth. The study establishes a foundation for future medical tourism research in the rapidly growing industry.

目的

本文旨在根据医疗旅游的参与及其对医疗旅游发展的支持, 来确定医疗旅游的主要利益相关者。

设计/方法/方法

本文系统地回顾了文献中的医疗旅游研究内容, 以识别关键的利益相关者并探讨他们在医疗旅游行业中所扮演的角色。

结果

这项研究表明, 医疗旅游的主要利益相关者有八个:医疗游客, 医疗保健提供者, 政府机构, 促进者, 资格认证机构, 医疗保健营销人员, 保险提供者以及基础设施。这些利益相关者强烈影响医疗旅游游客在国外寻求医疗服务的决策过程。此外, 医疗旅游业的成功发展很大程度上取决于所有利益相关者之间的良好伙伴关系。

实际含义

本文阐明了这些利益相关者的关键作用, 这是医疗游客决策过程和行业增长的重要考虑因素。该研究可以帮助决策者设计和制定改善医疗旅游实践的政策。

创意/价值

本文通过确定和解释每个利益相关者在行业中的重要作用, 扩展了对医疗旅游文献的了解。本文的结果在潜在策略和医疗旅游的增长方面对所有从业者都颇具启发性。该研究为快速发展的医疗旅游行业的未来方向研究奠定了基础。

Propósito

Este artículo, tiene como objetivo abordar e identificar, los principales actores en la industria del turismo médico, en función de su participación en actividades de turismo médico y su apoyo al desarrollo del turismo médico.

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

El trabajo revisa sistemáticamente, la literatura y el contenido de los estudios de turismo médico para identificar a las partes interesadas, elementos clave y abordar los roles que desempeñan en la industria del turismo médico.

Resultados

Este estudio muestra que los actores clave en la industria del turismo médico son ocho: turistas médicos, proveedores de atención médica, agencias gubernamentales, facilitadores, organismos de acreditación y acreditación, comercializadores de atención médica, proveedores de seguros e infraestructura e instalaciones. Estos actores, influyen de forma notable, en el proceso de toma de decisiones de los turistas médicos, al buscar tratamiento en el extranjero. Además, un desarrollo exitoso del turismo médico depende en gran medida de una excelente asociación entre todas las partes interesadas.

Implicaciones prácticas

Este documento arroja luz sobre el papel crucial de estos actores y puede ser una consideración importante en el proceso de toma de decisiones de los turistas médicos y el crecimiento de la industria. El estudio puede facilitar, en el diseño y desarrollo de políticas para mejorar las prácticas de turismo medico, a los responsables políticos.

Originalidad/valor

Este documento amplía el conocimiento sobre la literatura de turismo medico, identificando y explicando el papel importante de cada actor en la industria. Los resultados de este documento son bastante reveladores para todos los profesionales, en términos de estrategias potenciales y crecimiento del turismo médico. El estudio establece una base para futuras investigaciones sobre turismo médico en la industria de rápido crecimiento.

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