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Book part
Publication date: 4 August 2014

Rodrigo Murillo

This chapter analyzes the tourism industry from national and regional perspectives, in order to understand the past and current trends in Costa Rica’s positioning and…

Abstract

This chapter analyzes the tourism industry from national and regional perspectives, in order to understand the past and current trends in Costa Rica’s positioning and branding attributes and strategies for tourism development. The intent here is not to provide an exhaustive comprehensive literature review of academic research on country branding; and so it is by all means a case study as it describes the evolution of the tourism industry in Costa Rica – including the transformative stages the country went through since the 1980s – as planned tourism national management programs evolved toward reaching the target of creating a nature-based tourism brand. The medical industry and then medical tourism industries are analyzed in a global basis and the US market is examined in detail because of its potential to develop a new complementary niche for Costa Rica’s tourism industry. The chapter intends to asses Costa Rica’s potential to become a country brand in medical tourism, leveraged on its natural tourism destination branding status quo.

Details

Tourists’ Perceptions and Assessments
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-618-7

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 April 2022

Ferdos Abbaspour, Sanaz Soltani and Aaron Tham

This paper aims to examine whether medical tourism can be a frontrunner in terms of post-pandemic recovery for the industry

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine whether medical tourism can be a frontrunner in terms of post-pandemic recovery for the industry

Design/methodology/approach

A mixed-method analysis of 17 interviews and 210 questionnaires involving medical tourists to Iran was applied.

Findings

Medical tourists perceived the risks posed by COVID-19 as a temporal one, and attitudes toward post pandemic visitation intentions remained strong. In addition, these tourists can mostly be classified into responsive individuals, who demonstrate not only high risk but also high efficacy levels to negotiate the threats posed by the pandemic. No gender differences were located between male and female medical tourists in terms of post-COVID-19 travel intentions to Iran.

Originality/value

This research extends the application of the risk perception attitude framework to a medical tourism context. Furthermore, medical tourists are uncovered as another segment of crisis-resistant tourists.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 January 2022

Ilhan Sağ, Ferhat Devrim Zengul and Keziban Avcı

This paper aims to explore the public’s attitude toward medical tourism activities by developing a measurement instrument in Turkey, an emerging medical tourism destination.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the public’s attitude toward medical tourism activities by developing a measurement instrument in Turkey, an emerging medical tourism destination.

Design/methodology/approach

During the development phase of the scale, 24 question pools were created. After the pilot study, data from a 20-question survey were collected from a study group consisting of Turkish citizens who received services from hospitals in the city of Ankara. Data were collected through convenience sampling of 221 study participants as they were walking in the Square of Kızılay, one of the most important centers and junction points in Turkey, between November 25, 2017, and December 27, 2017.

Findings

The content validity of the scale was assessed by expert opinion. The scale reliability is high with Cronbach’s α (0.908). A factor analysis was performed to assess the factor structure of the scale. The Kaiser–Meyer–Olkin measure of sampling adequacy (0.895) and Bartlett’s test (χ2 = 2,020.967; p = 0.001) were applied to determine the conformity of the scale of factor analysis. Exploratory factor analysis with Varimax rotation was performed to determine the factor structure of the scale. The 20 questions loaded under three factors: “contribution to the country,” “anxiety in getting services” and “service justice”. These factors explained approximately 55% of the total variance. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed with goodness-of-fit index (0.877), Bentler comparative fit index (0.909) and root mean square error of approximation index (0.069) to determine the validity of the factor structure, and the results indicated that the three-factor model is an acceptable level. All the results show that this new scale is valid and reliable in measuring the public’s attitude toward the development of medical tourism in Turkey.

Originality/value

The public’s attitudes on the medical tourism scale show that, as a measurement tool, it can be used validly and reliably in determining the public’s attitudes toward medical tourism.

Details

International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6123

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 2021

Ai Na Seow, Chee Keong Choong, I-Chi Chen and Yuen Onn Choong

Medical tourism has grown to become a formidable multinational industry to generate revenue. This phenomenon has also increased impact on the healthcare sector as well as…

Abstract

Purpose

Medical tourism has grown to become a formidable multinational industry to generate revenue. This phenomenon has also increased impact on the healthcare sector as well as strategies development opportunities. The present study emphases on the international tourists' behavioural intention for medical tourism in Malaysia. A research framework is derived from the exceptional component of fear appeal in protection motivation theory (PMT).

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected with a sample of 501 respondents and analysed via structural equation modelling approach. Both measurement model and structural model were assessed to generate the result.

Findings

The outcomes have shown a good backing on the use of adapted PMT theoretical model. There is a higher predictive power on health coping than health threats. Coping alternatives can be served as the linkage between the PMT appraisals and behavioural intention.

Research limitations/implications

The study confirmed the effectiveness of using a theoretical framework in predicting international tourists' behavioural intention for medical tourism. It is suggesting that risk adaptive behaviour does offer a valuable proposition in contributing to the reception of medical tourism.

Practical implications

The present study argues the need for greater clarity in understanding the emergent implications for health policy and healthcare delivery for future medical tourism development.

Originality/value

The fundamental theories and current literature do not incorporate the component of fear appeal in explaining decision making. The study findings demonstrate that protection motivation theory has provide another promising theoretical model in explaining international tourists' behaviour intention for medical tourism.

Details

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Insights, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9792

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 March 2021

Hamed Dabaghi, Saeid Saieda Ardakani and Seyed Mohammad Tabataba’i-Nasab

The purpose of this paper is to focus on the emerging phenomenon of medical tourism in the context of Iran from a customer experience management perspective and benchmark…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to focus on the emerging phenomenon of medical tourism in the context of Iran from a customer experience management perspective and benchmark of their judgment including positive or negative, of the experience they have achieved of the Iranian health (medical) experience (CE) and suggest scenarios for the improvement of the Iranian customer experience management (CEM).

Design/methodology/approach

The research methodologies and research methods that are used in this descriptive-analytical research are based on an inspection of the remarkable literature related to medical tourism and customer experience management. The data gathering instrument is a researcher-made questionnaire based on the variables in the conceptual model extracted from the research literature. The study was conducted from May to August 2019. The population cohort of this study was the foreign patients calling selected Iranian hospitals and the sampling method was a purposive and snowball sample of prospective medical tourists. As the study was conducted throughout Iran, some important hospitals in Iran were selected by stratified sampling Yang et al. (2020b). The sample size and data saturation were 500 participants Lv and Song (2019). The collected data using the questionnaire were analyzed by SPSS software and statistical tests.

Findings

According to the results, the customer experience management statistical significance in the task aspect is (p = 0.0523), in the mechanical aspect is (p = 0.0563), in the human aspect is (p = 0.0544). The study showed positive customer experience among the patients who had been treated in the Iranian hospitals.

Originality/value

There is a lack of study that focuses on medical tourism and customer experience management in Iran. Therefore, based on the results of this study, the experience of medical tourists in Iran proved to be positive and satisfying. As little research has been conducted in the area of customer experience management (CEM) in Iranian medical tourism, future researchers can use these valuable results precisely and in more detail to benchmark more accurately the customer experience in all areas of medical and health tourism and other research areas in different aspects of CEM in Iran.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 December 2020

Haşim Çapar

This study aims to examine the use of cryptocurrencies and transactions in medical tourism and to discuss how this use provides advantages to healthcare institutions and…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the use of cryptocurrencies and transactions in medical tourism and to discuss how this use provides advantages to healthcare institutions and states that provide medical tourism services.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is a descriptive, cross-sectional, correlational and methodological quantitative research. Data were collected through a questionnaire with 555 potential medical tourists. Data were analyzed with Pearson correlation and hierarchical regression using STATA.

Findings

The correlation results showed a statistically significant high and positive correlation between the use of cryptocurrencies and transactions in medical tourism and the medical tourist's intention. The variables that contributed to the medical tourist's intention were monetary risk minimization, access-security and malpractice-civil trial in the highest order of contribution. Accordingly, the monetary risk minimization was the most contributing to the medical tourist's intention.

Originality/value

This study provides a piece of initial empirical evidence on the contribution of using cryptocurrencies and transactions in medical tourism.

Details

Journal of Economic and Administrative Sciences, vol. 37 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1026-4116

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 July 2018

Vineet Jain and Puneeta Ajmera

Medical tourism encourages the traveling of patients, expert healthcare professionals and promotes cross-border trade in healthcare services. The Indian medical tourism

Abstract

Purpose

Medical tourism encourages the traveling of patients, expert healthcare professionals and promotes cross-border trade in healthcare services. The Indian medical tourism sector is facing new challenges as well as certain ethical and legal issues because of continuous market changes and patient’s requirements while at the same time advancements in current health services have also been observed. It is therefore very important to understand and address the issues of the medical tourists. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the important factors which can make India an affordable medical tourism destination.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, the factors influencing Indian medical tourism sector have been explored by conducting literature review, they are ranked according to the results of a questionnaire-based survey and further analyzed by using the interpretive structural modeling (ISM) approach. The mutual relationships between these factors were identified to develop an ISM model so as to find out the important factors which can make India an affordable place for medical tourism.

Findings

The results of the survey and the model show that cost of medical procedures, facilitation, and care, the infrastructure of Indian hospitals, clinical excellence and the competence of doctors and staff are the top level factors.

Practical implications

It is very important to address the concerns of the patients coming to a developing country like India for availing medical services. This research has evaluated the important factors which can make India an affordable medical tourism destination.

Originality/value

This research assesses the effects of globalization on delivery of healthcare services in India by conducting critical analysis of the medical tourism industry by collecting original data from the international patients coming to India for different types of medical procedures so that a comprehensive model can be prepared which will help the hospitals and policymakers to improve the processes related to medical tourism.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 25 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2018

Mohammad Mehdi Kalantarzadeh and Mukaddes Fasli

This study investigates the relationship between medical tourism and city branding as the main purpose. To this end, two measurement scales (questionnaires) were designed…

Abstract

This study investigates the relationship between medical tourism and city branding as the main purpose. To this end, two measurement scales (questionnaires) were designed and validated. The data obtained through the questionnaires was analyzed using descriptive statistics, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses as well as structural equation modeling via SPSS and LISREL. The study was done in the city of Shiraz which is a famous tourist destination worldwide and has high capacities in medical tourism as well. Participants included scholars and managerial staff in the fields of medical tourism and city branding. The results confirmed that the four underlying factors of medical tourism include medical facilities and services, doctors and staff, tourism factors and costs. Furthermore, city branding was confirmed to be comprised of three underlying factors including place and facilities, opportunities, and residents and culture. Finally, according to the findings from Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) method of assessment branding in shiraz it was found that medical tourism affects directly on city branding.

Details

Open House International, vol. 43 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 September 2020

Md. Shahed Mahmud, Md. Mahbubar Rahman, Reshma Pervin Lima and Esmat Jahan Annie

The objective of the study is to measure outbound medical tourists' satisfaction and loyalty based on medical tourists' experience from a developing country's perspective.

Abstract

Purpose

The objective of the study is to measure outbound medical tourists' satisfaction and loyalty based on medical tourists' experience from a developing country's perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

The medical tourists taken medical services from India constituted the population of this study. By applying a purposive and snowball sampling techniques, samples were selected. Based on the expectation confirmation theory (ECT) and a modified medical tourism experience model, this study empirically analyzed the research hypotheses by applying the partial least square–structural equation modeling (PLS–SEM) technique.

Findings

The empirical result revealed that the experience of service quality, medical tourism infrastructure and experience of medical tourism expenses has a direct impact on medical tourists' satisfaction. Furthermore, destination appeal and culture has a significant moderating effect on the relationship between medical tourists' satisfaction and destination loyalty. Multigroup analysis (MGA) was performed to examine group differences of the model. The MGA results revealed that, based on age, the research model remains undifferentiated between groups. In contrast, based on income, the only relationship, medical tourism infrastructure and medical tourists' satisfaction significantly differ between groups, while others remain identical from each other.

Practical implications

The study results will contribute both theoretically and practically. Theoretically, the study will be a helpful instrument to figure out medical tourists' behavior through the lens of ECT in a developing country’s perspective. Furthermore, practically this study results will assist policymakers and practitioners of medical tourism in formulating strategies and making future decisions effectively.

Originality/value

The study has uniqueness in two aspects. First, the study empirically revealed Bangladeshi medical tourists' experience and behavioral intention to Indian medical tourism destinations. Second, the study’s findings exposed quantifiable insights into the Bangladesh–India medical tourism phenomenon.

Details

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Insights, vol. 4 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9792

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 October 2013

Bikash Ranjan Debata, Kumar Sree, Bhaswati Patnaik and Siba Sankar Mahapatra

The purpose of this paper is to develop a comprehensive framework to identify and classify key medical tourism enablers (MTEs) and to study the direct and indirect effects…

2134

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a comprehensive framework to identify and classify key medical tourism enablers (MTEs) and to study the direct and indirect effects of each enabler on the growth of medical tourism in India.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, an integrated approach using interpretive structural modeling (ISM) and Fuzzy Matrice d'Impacts Croisés Multiplication Appliquée á un Classement (FMICMAC) analysis has been developed to identify and classify the key MTEs, typically identified by a comprehensive review of literature and expert opinion. The key enablers are also modeled to find their role and mutual influence.

Findings

The key finding of this modeling helps to identify and classify the enablers which may be useful for medical tourism decision makers to employ this model for formulating strategies in order to overcome challenges and to become a preferred medical tourism destination. Integrated model reveals enablers such as medicine insurance coverage, international healthcare collaboration, and efficient information system as dependent enablers. No enabler is found to be autonomous enablers. The important enablers like healthcare infrastructure facilities and global competition are found as the linkage enablers. Research in medicine and pharmaceutical science, medical tourism market, transplantation law, top management commitment, national healthcare policy, competent medical and para-medical staffs are found as the independent enablers. Integrated model also establishes the direct and indirect relationship among various enablers.

Originality/value

The research provides an integrated model using ISM and FMICMAC to identify and classify various key enablers of medical tourism in India. In conventional cross-impact matrix multiplication applied to classification analysis, binary relationship of various enablers is considered. FMICMAC analysis helps to establish possibility of relationship among various enablers so that low-key hidden factors can be identified. The low-key hidden factors may initially exhibit marginal influence but they may show significant influence later on during analysis. The uncertainty and fuzziness of relationship among various enablers can be conveniently handled by FMICMAC and expert opinions can easily be captured. This research will help medical tourism decision makers to select right enablers for the growth of medical tourism in India.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 20 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

Keywords

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