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Article
Publication date: 11 March 2021

Yaping Liu, Huike Shi, Yinchang Li and Asad Amin

This study aims to explore the factors influencing the post-pandemic intentions of Chinese residents to participate in outbound travel. The mechanism by which residents'…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore the factors influencing the post-pandemic intentions of Chinese residents to participate in outbound travel. The mechanism by which residents' perception of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) influenced their outbound travel intentions are studied.

Design/methodology/approach

This study developed an extended theory of planned behavior (TPB) model and used structural equations to analyze data received from 432 questionnaires. Responses were obtained through a combination of online surveys and a traditional paper-based distribution of questionnaires.

Findings

Results showed that attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control and past outbound travel behavior have significant positive effects on post-pandemic outbound travel intentions. Although the perception of COVID-19 directly and negatively influences outbound travel intentions, it also has an indirect influence on outbound travel intentions through the mediating effect of non-pharmaceutical interventions. The authors also found that risk tolerance has a negative moderating effect on the direct impact of residents' perception of COVID-19 on their travel intentions.

Practical implications

The findings can serve as a reference for formulating appropriate tourism development policies by government agencies, tourism management departments and tourism enterprises in destination countries.

Originality/value

This study developed an extended TPB model by adding more constructs into the TPB model. Compared with the original TPB model, the extended TPB model has better explanatory power of post-pandemic travel intentions. The study also provides evidence for the applicability of the TPB model in studying travel intentions within the context of major public health emergencies and has expanded the application scope of the TPB model.

新冠肺炎疫情后中国居民出境旅游意愿的影响因素研究······································——基于疫情感知的扩展TPB模型

摘要

研究目的

本研究致力于探索新冠肺炎疫情后(以下简称“疫情”)中国居民出境旅游意愿的影响因素, 以及疫情感知对出境旅游意愿的作用机制。

设计/方法/手段

本文以TPB理论为基础, 通过构建扩展TPB模型, 并利用结构方程对432份问卷进行数据分析。问卷通过网络发放与传统纸质问卷调研相结合的方式获得。

研究发现

态度、主观规范、感知行为控制及过去出境旅游行为对中国居民疫情后出境旅游意愿具有显著正向影响; 疫情感知在直接负向影响出境旅游意愿的同时, 还通过非药物干预行为的中介作用间接影响出境旅游意愿; 在疫情感知对出境旅游意愿的直接影响中, 风险容忍度起着负向调节作用。

实际意义

研究结果对旅游目的地政府、旅游管理部门及旅游企业制定相应旅游发展政策具有一定前瞻性参考价值。

原创性/价值

本文通过在原始TPB模型的基础上加入更多变量, 进而构建了扩展TPB模型。与原始模型相比, 扩展TPB模型对疫情蔓延背景下中国居民疫情后出境旅游意愿有着更好的解释力和预测力。本文证实了在突发重大公共卫生事件背景下TPB模型对于研究旅游意愿的适用性, 扩展了TPB模型的应用范围。

Investigación sobre los factores que influyen en la voluntad de viajar al extranjero de los residentes chinos después de la nueva epidemia de neumonía coronaria: un modelo extendido de TPB basado en la percepción de la epidemia

Resumen

Propósito

Este estudio tiene como objetivo explorar los factores que influyen en las intenciones posteriores a la pandemia de los residentes chinos de participar en viajes al extranjero. Se estudia el mecanismo por el cual la percepción de los residentes sobre la enfermedad por coronavirus (COVID-19) influyó en sus intenciones de viajar al extranjero.

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

Este estudio tiene como objetivo explorar los factores que influyen en la intención de viaje de salida de los residentes chinos después de la pandemia, en particular el mecanismo por el cual la percepción de los residentes de COVID-19 influyó en sus intenciones de viaje de salida.

Hallazgos

Los resultados mostraron que la actitud, las normas subjetivas, el control conductual percibido y el comportamiento de viajes de ida y vuelta en el pasado tienen efectos positivos significativos sobre la intención de viajar de ida después de la pandemia. Si bien la percepción de COVID-19 influye directamente de forma negativa en la intención de viaje de ida, también influye indirectamente en la intención de viaje de ida a través del efecto mediador de las intervenciones no farmacéuticas. También encontramos que la tolerancia al riesgo tiene un efecto moderador negativo sobre el impacto directo de la percepción de los residentes sobre el COVID-19 en la intención de viaje.

Implicaciones prácticas

Nuestros hallazgos se pueden utilizar como referencia para las agencias gubernamentales, los departamentos de gestión del turismo y las empresas turísticas en los países de destino en la formulación de políticas de desarrollo turístico adecuadas.

Originalidad/valor

Este estudio desarrolló un modelo TPB extendido agregando más constructos en el modelo TPB. En comparación con el modelo TPB original, el modelo TPB extendido tiene un mejor poder explicativo de las intenciones de viaje posteriores a una pandemia en el contexto de una pandemia. Este estudio también proporcionó evidencia de la aplicabilidad del modelo TPB para estudiar las intenciones de viaje en el contexto de las principales emergencias de salud pública y amplió el ámbito de aplicación del modelo TPB.

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Book part
Publication date: 7 December 2016

Songshan (Sam) Huang

Laws, regulations, and policies, including specific intergovernmental visa agreements, exert significant influences on people’s mobility and cross-border travels. Such…

Abstract

Laws, regulations, and policies, including specific intergovernmental visa agreements, exert significant influences on people’s mobility and cross-border travels. Such forces are powerful in shaping the emerging Asian tourism market. This chapter provides a critical review and analysis of the laws and regulations that have shaped Chinese outbound tourism. It first reviews the evolution of China’s policies and government attitude toward outbound tourism. The three tourism administration regulations promulgated by the State Council are then reviewed and their implications for outbound tourism are discussed. The Tourism Law enacted in 2013 is reviewed and discussed separately due to its significance and supreme power in China’s legal system. Finally, the chapter discusses the impact of intergovernmental visa facilitation arrangements on Chinese outbound tourism.

Details

The World Meets Asian Tourists
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-219-1

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Article
Publication date: 20 November 2019

Davide Aloini, Valentina Lazzarotti, Luisa Pellegrini and Pierluigi Zerbino

The role of information and communication technologies (ICTs) and digital platforms in enabling connectivity and collaboration among actors is neglected when dealing with…

Abstract

Purpose

The role of information and communication technologies (ICTs) and digital platforms in enabling connectivity and collaboration among actors is neglected when dealing with outbound open innovation (OI). Moreover, the outbound OI process is not currently defined in a univocal way. Thus, this paper aims to outline the outbound OI phases and to explore role and capabilities of ICTs in supporting it.

Design/methodology/approach

Through a literature review approach, the authors specified the outbound OI process. Hence, the authors leveraged the similarities between the knowledge management process phases and the outbound OI phases for developing a conceptual framework that could match the outbound OI phases with acknowledged categories of ICT tools.

Findings

Through a process-view, the authors outlined outbound OI as a three-phase process. The authors developed a matrix-shaped framework in which the columns represent the three outbound OI process phases, while the rows are three ICT categories that could be suitable for supporting the outbound OI process.

Practical implications

The framework is designed to guide a deep understanding of how ICTs could support specific phases of the outbound OI process. In so doing, it could be useful for software developers interested in the preliminary design of an ICT platform for outbound OI.

Originality/value

The conceptual framework proposal as follows: specifies a detailed, process-oriented definition of the outbound OI; allows to identify the main ICT categories supporting the phases of the outbound OI process; and provides guidance for further exploration about the role of ICT in outbound OI.

Details

Measuring Business Excellence, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-3047

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2002

Göran Svensson

The reason for this research originates from the time‐ and functional dependencies between firms’ activities and resources in supply chains. These dependencies cause…

Abstract

The reason for this research originates from the time‐ and functional dependencies between firms’ activities and resources in supply chains. These dependencies cause vulnerability. The principal objective of this research is to conceptualize the construct of vulnerability in firms’ inbound and outbound logistics flows. The vulnerability construct of this research consists of two components: disturbance and the negative consequence of disturbance. This research is based upon a two‐phase process utilizing sequential triangulation. It is proposed that the vulnerability in the inbound logistics flows from sub‐contractors, and the vulnerability in the outbound logistics flows to customers, may be measured and evaluated by four principal dimensions, namely: service level, deviation, consequence and trend. In addition, a model of inbound and outbound vulnerability scenarios in supply chains is introduced for teaching and training purposes, as well as to position and compare the outcome of replication studies of vulnerability in firms’ inbound and outbound logistics flows.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. 32 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-0035

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 21 November 2018

Shen Kunrong and Jin Gang

The purpose of this paper is to comprehensively examine the influence of formal and informal institutional differences on enterprise investment margin, mode and result.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to comprehensively examine the influence of formal and informal institutional differences on enterprise investment margin, mode and result.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is based on 2,440 micro samples of large-scale outbound investment from 609 Chinese enterprises from the years 2005 to 2016.

Findings

The study has found that formal institutional differences have little impact on investment scale, but significantly affect investment diversification. In order to avoid the management risks brought by formal institutional differences, enterprises tend to a full ownership structure. However, the choice between greenfield investment and cross-border mergers and acquisitions is not affected by formal institutional differences. In contrast, the impact of informal institutional differences is more extensive. Both formal and informal institutional differences significantly increase the probability of investment failure. Further research found that the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) bridges the formal institutional differences.

Originality/value

The study concludes that developing the BRI, especially cultural exchanges with countries alongside the Belt and Road, will help enterprises to “go global” faster and better.

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2003

Göran Svensson

This research applies the construct of bullwhip effect in a non‐traditional context. It is explored in intra‐organisational echelons. It is argued that the bullwhip effect…

Abstract

This research applies the construct of bullwhip effect in a non‐traditional context. It is explored in intra‐organisational echelons. It is argued that the bullwhip effect in a company's inventory management of inbound and outbound logistics flows depends in part upon the gap between the degree of speculation and postponement of business activities. It is also argued that the bullwhip effect is caused by the value adding of business activities in supply chains. The study shows that there is a potential bullwhip effect between companies’ inbound and outbound logistics flows, i.e. two internal stocking levels. A see‐saw model of the bullwhip effect, and a typology of the bullwhip effect in intra‐organisational echelons, are introduced. The term “reversed bullwhip effect” is also introduced. Finally, a model of the bullwhip effect‐scenarios in a dynamic business environment positions these contributions in a wider theoretical and managerial context.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. 33 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-0035

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Article
Publication date: 12 December 2016

Rob Law, Sunny Sun, Davis Ka Chio Fong, Lawrence Hoc Nang Fong and Hui Fu

This paper aims to identify the changes of researched destinations along with the Approved Destination Status scheme to investigate the development of research problems…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to identify the changes of researched destinations along with the Approved Destination Status scheme to investigate the development of research problems, and to track the changes of research topics in the context of the development of China’s outbound tourism. The research methods and applied theories are also identified and analyzed.

Design/methodology/approach

Three large databases, namely, ScienceDirect, EBSCOhost and Google Scholar, were selected to search for published articles (i.e. 107 empirical articles and 15 review/policy articles) related to China’s outbound tourism. Thereafter, the retrieved articles were categorized and analyzed. Finally, a theoretical framework was provided for future studies on China’s outbound tourism.

Findings

The major findings indicated that the main topics related to China’s outbound tourism included market segmentation, travel motivation and travel behavior. One or two theories are generally applied to investigate a certain topic. The most common research methods are interviews and a questionnaire survey.

Research limitations/implications

Future studies are suggested to apply more theories to investigate one topic. A single theory can also be applied to investigate different topics. Adopting different and innovative research methods, such as online interaction observation, can also be considered.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the literature through an in-depth qualitative assessment of China’s outbound tourism literature, comparing researched destinations with the Approved Destination Status policies, and reviewing articles based on research.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 28 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2001

Don Qun and Dou Jie

This paper gives a preliminary analysis of the development of mainland China's outbound tourism market, including national policy, classifications, main destinations…

Abstract

This paper gives a preliminary analysis of the development of mainland China's outbound tourism market, including national policy, classifications, main destinations, tourism source regions and so on. It also includes case studies from Hong Kong and Guangdong Province. Finally, it briefly outlines the problems of the market and the new policy in this field.

Details

Tourism Review, vol. 56 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

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Article
Publication date: 7 June 2011

Douglas G. Pearce and Christian Schott

This paper seeks to analyze the extent to which New Zealand domestic and outbound travelers' book components of their trip in advance or at their destination and to…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to analyze the extent to which New Zealand domestic and outbound travelers' book components of their trip in advance or at their destination and to explore the factors that influence this. Furthermore, the paper compares the distribution channels used by domestic and outbound travelers to purchase different travel products and to examine why these channels have been selected.

Design/methodology/approach

The study involves the collection and analysis of data on the profiles, trip characteristics and distribution behavior of domestic and outbound travelers based on a nationwide telephone survey of 1,000 respondents.

Findings

Little variation was found in the profile characteristics of domestic and outbound travelers but significant differences occurred in terms of the trip characteristics, the extent of booking in advance and at the destination, reasons why advance bookings were not made, how bookings were made and the channels used all exhibited significant differences according to domestic or outbound travel. This pattern was less consistent with regards to the factors influencing how the bookings were made and the factors affecting channel choice.

Research and practical implications

The findings illustrate the complexity of travel decision‐making issues, underline the need to take account of differences between domestic and outbound travel and across trip components, and to examine the factors that underlie distribution related behavior.

Originality/value

The value and originality of this paper lie in the systematic comparison of the booking and channel choice behavior of domestic and outbound travelers, the search for factors influencing this behavior and a sectoral approach that differentiates transport to and at the destination.

Details

International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6182

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2003

Göran Svensson

This research is based on a mail survey in the Swedish vehicle industry. It is concluded that the sub‐contractor and customer sourcing in the firms’ inbound and outbound

Abstract

This research is based on a mail survey in the Swedish vehicle industry. It is concluded that the sub‐contractor and customer sourcing in the firms’ inbound and outbound logistics flows differ from each other. Furthermore, that there is no association between the sub‐contractor and customer sourcing in the firms’ inbound and outbound logistics flows. Finally, there is in part an association between the sub‐contractor and customer sourcing, and the occurrence of quantitative and qualitative disturbances in firms’ inbound and outbound logistics flows.

Details

Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-8546

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