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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2011

Simona Jevšnik, Zoran Stjepanovič, Lea Heikinheimo and Karl Gotlih

Enzyme treatment technologies are frequently applied in textile processing for the modification of fabric handle appearance and other surface characteristics in regard to…

Abstract

Purpose

Enzyme treatment technologies are frequently applied in textile processing for the modification of fabric handle appearance and other surface characteristics in regard to cotton and cotton blended fabrics. The purpose of this paper is to understand the impact of enzyme treatments on fabric preparation, dyeing, and finishing processes of woven fabrics. In particular, certain mechanical and surface properties of 100 percent cotton interlock knitted fabrics after treatment with a cellulase enzyme.

Design/methodology/approach

Interlock knitted fabrics were used for this research. These cotton fabrics were treated with experimental Trichoderma reesei cellulases containing different cellulase profiles and treatment was carried out under laboratory conditions. The effects of cellulase treatment on weft knitted fabric regarding mechanical and surface properties were evaluated using the KES‐FB Kawabata evaluation system. The influence of enzyme treatments, friction, and geometrical roughness on the face and reverse side of interlock knitted fabrics were discussed in comparison with untreated interlock knitted fabric.

Findings

After each of the enzyme treatments, the interlock knitted fabrics lost part of their weight and, therefore, they became thinner. Furthermore, the extension properties become higher in both directions with regard to the untreated knitted fabric for all used enzymes and carried out treatments.

Originality/value

The paper usefully analyzes changes in the extension and surface properties of enzyme‐treated interlock knitted fabrics by investigating the influence of whole or enriched endoglucanases celullases of Trihoderma reesei under different treatment conditions.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article
Publication date: 3 July 2017

Padma S. Vankar, Dhara Shukla, Samudrika Wijayapala and Asish Kumar Samanta

Natural dyes are mostly used for dyeing of natural fibre textiles to improve their eco-friendly features. For successful commercial use of natural dyes, the appropriate…

Abstract

Purpose

Natural dyes are mostly used for dyeing of natural fibre textiles to improve their eco-friendly features. For successful commercial use of natural dyes, the appropriate and standardized dyeing techniques need to be adopted. Appropriate scientific techniques or procedures need to be derived from scientific studies on dyeing methods, dyeing process variables, dyeing kinetics and compatibility of selective natural dyes with minimal use of hazardous chemicals.

Design/methodology/approach

In the present study, different enzymes (protease, amylase, xylanase, pectinase, phytase) were used efficiently with Rubia dye by using simultaneous and two-step processes; both the processes were developed with an aim for conservation of time and energy, for the ease of industrial use. The highlights of the study are twofold: eco-friendly natural dyeing by using enzyme replacing metal mordant and room temperature dyeing, which is a completely new concept.

Findings

Experiments showed that enzymatic treatment can give good colour strength to silk fabric using Rubia as a dye source and has good potential for commercial dyeing. It is a non-toxic dye. Use of enzymes were a deliberate attempt to avoid metal mordanting in silk dyeing, as it would make textile dyeing eco-friendlier. The order of reactivity of enzymes in one-step process was found to be protease > phytase > xylanase > amylase > pectinase. Similarly, for two-step dyeing process, the order of reactivity of enzymes observed was protease > amylase > xylanase = pectinase > phytase. Protease enzyme was the best option in both the cases. Overall, it can be concluded that in the case of enzymatic treatment, the two-step process was better in terms of larger K/S values, colour coordinate values and dye adherence.

Research limitations/implications

A new domain of room temperature dyeing technique has been introduced.

Originality/value

In the present study, different enzymes (protease, amylase, xylanase, pectinase, phytase) were used efficiently with Rubia dye by using simultaneous and two-step processes; both the processes were developed with an aim for conservation of time and energy, for the ease of industrial use. The highlights of the research are twofold: eco-friendly natural dyeing by using enzyme replacing metal mordant and room temperature dyeing, which is a completely new concept. Overall, the ease of use for industrial application. Rubia dye from Sri Lanka has been used in conjunction with different enzymes to show that metal mordanting can be easily replaced by the use of eco-friendly and biodegradable enzymes. The most attractive feature of this study is the low-temperature dyeing at 30-40°C. For any dyeing house, this process can be easily adapted on jigger, winch or even in continuous padding machine. Good fastness properties and dye adherence have been the other highlights of this study.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 46 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 14 March 2016

S. O. Salawu, O. F. Alao, O. F. Faloye, A. A. Akindahunsi, A. A. Boligon and M. L. Athayde

The purpose of this paper is to focus on the antioxidant properties of two phenolic-rich varieties of Nigerian local rice and their anti-cholinesterase potential after in

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to focus on the antioxidant properties of two phenolic-rich varieties of Nigerian local rice and their anti-cholinesterase potential after in vitro-simulated gastrointestinal digestion, with the aim of establishing their actual antioxidant and nutraceutical potential after their passage through the gastrointestinal tract upon consumption.

Design/methodology/approach

Two local rice varieties, commonly referred to as “Gboko” and “Ofada” rice commonly grown in Benue State, a middle belt region of Nigeria and south western regions of Nigeria, respectively, were locally processed. Each of the processed grains were divided into two portions; one portion was left uncooked, while the second portion was boiled conventionally as eaten, dried and subsequently milled into powder. The milled samples of the raw and boiled rice were treated with acidified methanol to obtain the methanol extracts; another portion of each samples was subjected to in vitro enzyme digestion using standard methods to mimic human digestion; and the third portion was treated using the same scheme of in vitro digestion without the sets of enzyme which was used to serve as a control for enzyme treatment. The quali-quantitative phenolic profiles of the two local varieties were carried out with the aid of high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection (HPLC-DAD) method. The antioxidant potential and anti-cholinesterase action of the methanolic extracts, the simulated in vitro digested model and the enzyme-treated controls of the rice samples were determined using standard methods and data obtained were subjected to ANOVA; the differences of means were separated using Duncan’s multiple range test (DMRT).

Findings

The quali-quantitative assessment of phenolic compounds in the two studied local varieties revealed the presence of some phenolic acids and flavonoids, with a decreased level of most of the identified phenolic compounds after boiling. In vitro enzyme-digested rice for both raw and boiled rice samples showed significantly higher total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, ferric-reducing antioxidant power, 2, 2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS+) scavenging and NO− inhibitory activities than the aqueous-methanolic extracts and the enzyme-treated controls. The aqueous-methanolic extracts displayed a higher 1, 1 diphenyl-2-picrylhdrazyl radical scavenging activity and inhibited Fe2+-induced lipid oxidation in rat’s brain and liver homogenate than that displayed by the in vitro enzyme-digested samples. In vitro enzyme-digested and boiled “Gboko” and “Ofada” rice and raw “Ofada” rice have the potential of inhibiting acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity. While methanolic extracts of raw and boiled “Ofada” and “Gboko” rice exhibited the potential to inhibit butrylcholinesterase activity. The result of this paper indicates that the selected rice varieties possess antioxidant capacities which are better released after the simulated in vitro enzyme digestion; the result also showed the anti-cholinesterase potential of the studied rice grains and, therefore, they can be considered as nutraceutical health supplements.

Originality/value

The paper has demonstrated the antioxidant potentials of the phenolic-containing two Nigerian local rice varieties and established their anti-cholinesterase potential after simulated in vitro enzyme digestion.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 46 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 19 September 2018

Amit Madhu and J.N. Chakraborty

Enzymatic desizing using α-amylase is the conventional and eco-friendly method of removing starch based size. Conventionally, enzymes are drained after completion of…

Abstract

Purpose

Enzymatic desizing using α-amylase is the conventional and eco-friendly method of removing starch based size. Conventionally, enzymes are drained after completion of process; being catalysts, they retain their activity after reaction and need to be reused. Immobilization allows the recovery of enzymes to use them as realistic biocatalyst. This study aims to recover and reuse of α-amylase for desizing of cotton via immobilization.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper investigates the application of α-amylase immobilized on Chitosan and Eudragit S-100 for cotton fabric desizing. A commercial α-amylase was immobilized on reversibly soluble-insoluble polymers to work out with inherent problems of heterogeneous reaction media. The immobilization process was optimized for maximum conjugate activity, and immobilized amylases were applied for grey cotton fabric desizing.

Findings

The desizing performance of immobilized amylases was evaluated in terms of starch removal and was compared to free enzyme. The immobilized amylases showed adequate desizing efficiency up to four cycles of use and were recovered easily at the end of each cycle. The amylase immobilized on Eudragit is more efficient for a particular concentration than chitosan.

Practical implications

Immobilization associates with insolubility and increased size of enzymes which lead to poor interactions and limited diffusion especially in textiles where enzymes have to act on macromolecular substrates (heterogeneous media). The selection of support materials plays a significant role in this constraint.

Originality/value

The commercial α-amylase was covalently immobilized on smart polymers for cotton fabric desizing. The target was to achieve immobilized amylase with maximum conjugate activity and limited constraints. The reversibly soluble-insoluble polymers support provide easy recovery with efficient desizing results in heterogeneous reaction media.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1987

Harry Ardeshir

Unwittingly man has used enzymes in the preparation of food and drink since the dawn of civilisation. Now we are aware of the enormous potential of enzymes in making the…

Abstract

Unwittingly man has used enzymes in the preparation of food and drink since the dawn of civilisation. Now we are aware of the enormous potential of enzymes in making the sophisticated food products to meet the demands of today's consumers

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 87 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 27 May 2014

Tian Yinghua, Liu Xiaolan, Zheng Xiqun and Wang Lu

The purpose of this paper is to study the optimum culture condition of flax-retting enzyme, and applying the enzyme liquors to retting. In addition to research the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the optimum culture condition of flax-retting enzyme, and applying the enzyme liquors to retting. In addition to research the structure of flax stem in enzyme retting using scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

Design/methodology/approach

The influence of cultural parameters such as moisture level, temperature, incubation time and inoculum size were evaluated with respect to polygalacturonase and xylanase yield. The structure of flax stem was revealed by SEM.

Findings

The flax was retted by dilute enzyme liquors (polygalacturonase/25 U/ml, xylanase/1 U/ml), and 24-h retting period was obtained. The SEM studies revealed the removal of a large amount of non-cellulosic gummy material of flax stem in enzyme retting.

Originality/value

First, flax-retting enzyme containing higher-yield polygalacturonase, lower-yield xylanase and no cellulose was yielded by SSF. Second, the composition of enzyme could meet flax retting and no damage cellulosic fibre. Finally, only low-cost wheat bran, citrus peel powder and mineral salt were employed in substrate, which could reduce the overall cost of enzyme production and flax retting.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 26 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1972

Language may be a treasured heritage of small comunities, all that is left to bind them together. It is often a matter of national or regional pride, keeping alive a…

Abstract

Language may be a treasured heritage of small comunities, all that is left to bind them together. It is often a matter of national or regional pride, keeping alive a tongue dead centuries past everywhere else; in an area of the Grisons forty thousand Swiss speak the Latin Romansch, the tongue spoken by the citizens of ancient Rome, and nowhere else in the world is it heard. There are so‐called official languages; in the councils of Europe, it has always been French, which is the official language of the European Economic Community; this means, of course, that all EEC Directives and in due course, judgments of its courts, will be first delivered in French.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 74 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 11 September 2017

Phisut Naknaen

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of concentrations of mixed enzymes (Rapidase EX Color and Accellerase) and incubation times on the release of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of concentrations of mixed enzymes (Rapidase EX Color and Accellerase) and incubation times on the release of biologically active compounds and the extraction efficiency of cantaloupe juice.

Design/methodology/approach

Different concentrations of the mixed enzymes (0.25-1.0 per cent) and incubation times (1-5 h) were used. The yield, clarity, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities were investigated.

Findings

The total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, β-carotene, ascorbic acid content and antioxidant capacities as evaluated by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl-radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power were approximately 6, 3.25, 3, 2.5, 3.5 and 3.0 times higher than the control samples after incubating with 0.5 per cent enzyme for 2 h (p < 0.05). This condition was recommended to promote the release of biologically active compounds and still provided a 32 per cent increase in the amount of the extracted juice.

Practical implications

Cantaloupe juice produced by enzymatic treatment could be claimed to be a source of health enhancing compounds. This work could be used as a guideline for the industry to develop high value-added functional drinks from cantaloupe.

Originality/value

This study evaluates for the first study on the application of Rapidase EX Color and Accellerase for improving the phytochemical compounds in cantaloupe juice. This technique could successfully extract the cantaloupe juice with biologically active nutrients containing beneficial health effects.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 47 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 30 October 2018

Ya Guo, Zhenhua Sun, Xiaoqing Guo, Yanfen Zhou, Liang Jiang, Shaojuan Chen and Jianwei Ma

At present, the enzyme washing process is widely used in hemp garment in the industry. However, it has many disadvantages. First, it is inefficient and labor-intensive…

Abstract

Purpose

At present, the enzyme washing process is widely used in hemp garment in the industry. However, it has many disadvantages. First, it is inefficient and labor-intensive, which can only be produced in small quantities and will take much time for workers to check. Second, its cost is high. The strength loss of the garment is up to 20 percent, with a bad damage. Presently, the enzyme washing process of the gray fabric is not industrialized. The purpose of this paper is to obtain a stable and efficient process for the enzyme washing of the gray fabric.

Design/methodology/approach

The whiteness, weight loss rate, strength, dyeing property and fabric style of enzyme washed gray fabrics were studied.

Findings

The results showed that the enzyme treated fabric has soft handle, smooth surface, good elasticity and high levelness, as well as low strength reduction rate under the optimized condition of bath ratio of 1:12, cellulase dosage of 0.3 percent, pectinase dosage of 1 g/L, treatment temperature of 55°C, treatment time of 80 min and pH of 6.

Originality/value

First, the process is environment friendly, green and sustainable and, second, it will make the industrialization of the enzyme washing process of gray fabrics, with a high commercial value.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 19 June 2019

İlker Polatoğlu and Fehime Cakıcıoglu Ozkan

This paper aims to present a novel and cost-effective optical biosensor design by simple preparation method for detection of “parathion-methyl,” which is a model pesticide…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present a novel and cost-effective optical biosensor design by simple preparation method for detection of “parathion-methyl,” which is a model pesticide pose to public health and the environment.

Design/methodology/approach

The optical enzyme biosensor (TCA) for detection of pesticide “parathion-methyl” was developed on the basis of immobilization of tyrosinase enzyme on chitosan film by adsorption technique. The analytic performance of TCA was investigated by measuring its activity with Ultraviolet (UV) visible spectrophotometer.

Findings

Uniform porous network structure and protonated groups of chitosan film provided a microenvironment for tyrosinase immobilization evident from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy analysis. TCA has a wide linear detection range (0-1.03 µM) with high correlation coefficient and it can detect the parathion-methyl concentration as low as 159 nM by noncompetitive inhibition kinetics. Using the TCA sensor both for ten times and at least 45 days without a significant loss in its activity are the indicators of its good operational and storage stability. Moreover, TCA can be applicable to tap water, providing a promising tool for pesticides detection.

Originality/value

This is the first time to use the in situ analytical technique that can improve the performance of optical enzyme sensor provided to control the pesticide residue better with respect to traditional techniques. The effect of organic solvents on the performance of optical enzyme biosensor was investigated. Inhibition kinetic of the solvents rarely encountered in literature was also studied besides the pH and temperature tolerance of the optical biosensor.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 39 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

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