The purpose of this paper is to focus on the antioxidant properties of two phenolic-rich varieties of Nigerian local rice and their anti-cholinesterase potential after in vitro-simulated gastrointestinal digestion, with the aim of establishing their actual antioxidant and nutraceutical potential after their passage through the gastrointestinal tract upon consumption.
Two local rice varieties, commonly referred to as “Gboko” and “Ofada” rice commonly grown in Benue State, a middle belt region of Nigeria and south western regions of Nigeria, respectively, were locally processed. Each of the processed grains were divided into two portions; one portion was left uncooked, while the second portion was boiled conventionally as eaten, dried and subsequently milled into powder. The milled samples of the raw and boiled rice were treated with acidified methanol to obtain the methanol extracts; another portion of each samples was subjected to in vitro enzyme digestion using standard methods to mimic human digestion; and the third portion was treated using the same scheme of in vitro digestion without the sets of enzyme which was used to serve as a control for enzyme treatment. The quali-quantitative phenolic profiles of the two local varieties were carried out with the aid of high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection (HPLC-DAD) method. The antioxidant potential and anti-cholinesterase action of the methanolic extracts, the simulated in vitro digested model and the enzyme-treated controls of the rice samples were determined using standard methods and data obtained were subjected to ANOVA; the differences of means were separated using Duncan’s multiple range test (DMRT).
The quali-quantitative assessment of phenolic compounds in the two studied local varieties revealed the presence of some phenolic acids and flavonoids, with a decreased level of most of the identified phenolic compounds after boiling. In vitro enzyme-digested rice for both raw and boiled rice samples showed significantly higher total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, ferric-reducing antioxidant power, 2, 2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS+) scavenging and NO− inhibitory activities than the aqueous-methanolic extracts and the enzyme-treated controls. The aqueous-methanolic extracts displayed a higher 1, 1 diphenyl-2-picrylhdrazyl radical scavenging activity and inhibited Fe2+-induced lipid oxidation in rat’s brain and liver homogenate than that displayed by the in vitro enzyme-digested samples. In vitro enzyme-digested and boiled “Gboko” and “Ofada” rice and raw “Ofada” rice have the potential of inhibiting acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity. While methanolic extracts of raw and boiled “Ofada” and “Gboko” rice exhibited the potential to inhibit butrylcholinesterase activity. The result of this paper indicates that the selected rice varieties possess antioxidant capacities which are better released after the simulated in vitro enzyme digestion; the result also showed the anti-cholinesterase potential of the studied rice grains and, therefore, they can be considered as nutraceutical health supplements.
The paper has demonstrated the antioxidant potentials of the phenolic-containing two Nigerian local rice varieties and established their anti-cholinesterase potential after simulated in vitro enzyme digestion.
Salawu, S.O., Alao, O.F., Faloye, O.F., Akindahunsi, A.A., Boligon, A.A. and Athayde, M.L. (2016), "Antioxidant potential of phenolic-rich two varieties of Nigerian local rice and their anti-cholinesterase activities after
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