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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2012

Andrei Bologa, Hanns‐Rudolf Paur, Helmut Seifert, Klaus Woletz and Tobias Ulbricht

The aim of the paper is to present the results of investigations of fine particle generation by small biomass combustion and the possibility of reducing the emissions by…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of the paper is to present the results of investigations of fine particle generation by small biomass combustion and the possibility of reducing the emissions by electrostatic precipitation.

Design/methodology/approach

The grains, wood‐logs, wood‐, mixed‐ and straw‐pellets were combusted in two stoves and two boilers. The set‐ups were operated according to DIN‐4702. Particle number concentration in the gas flow was measured by Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer and particle mass concentration was measured according to the Guidelines VDI‐2066 upstream and downstream a novel space charge electrostatic precipitator (ESP). The ESP consists of an ioniser and a grounded brush inside of a tube form grounded collector electrode.

Findings

The ESP ensures stable operation at gas temperatures up to 350°C. The use of sharp‐points high voltage electrode ensures effective particle charging at high particle number concentrations. The combustion of woodpellets is characterized by lower particle mass concentrations. The highest particle mass concentrations were observed by the straw‐pellets combustion. The ESP ensures particle collection with mass collection efficiency 87±3% for wood‐logs and 82±2% for woodpellets combustion.

Practical implications

The novel ESP is recommended for exhaust gas cleaning from small scale biomass combustion facilities and domestic heating units. The use of the ESP would reduce the emissions of fine aerosol into the atmosphere and improve the air quality.

Originality/value

The paper presents the comparative analysis of particle size distribution and particle mass concentrations in the exhaust gas from small‐scale combustion units for different types of biomass. The study confirms the possibility to reduce particle emissions by electrostatic precipitation. The originality of the technology and apparatus is patently protected.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 April 2012

Olle Olsson, Bengt Hillring and Johan Vinterbäck

In the Baltic Sea area, wood fuels have been traded internationally on a relatively large‐scale since the 1990s, with trade flows primarily from the Baltic States to…

Abstract

Purpose

In the Baltic Sea area, wood fuels have been traded internationally on a relatively large‐scale since the 1990s, with trade flows primarily from the Baltic States to Sweden and Denmark. This has been driven by strong demand for renewable energy in Scandinavia, inexpensive wood resources in the Baltic States and relatively low costs of sea transport. The purpose of this paper is to clarify if this trade has contributed to integration between the wood fuel markets of Sweden and Estonia.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use co‐integration analysis of quarterly price series data from 1998 to 2010, in order to determine whether there are interconnections between wood fuel prices in the two countries. As wood fuels generally are rather bulky, transport costs often have an important impact on price levels. For this reason the analysis is expanded to include estimated transport costs from Estonia to Sweden.

Findings

It is concluded that wood fuel prices in Sweden and Estonia are not co‐integrated, regardless of whether the transportation costs are taken into account or not. In other words, the wood fuel markets in the two countries cannot be considered integrated, which could be seen as a sign that international wood fuel markets still are far from fully developed.

Research limitations/implications

There are some uncertainties about data quality and lack of information on market structure – in terms of, for example, fuel delivery contract specifications and shipping arrangements.

Practical implications

Lack of market integration implies a lack of market efficiency in the international wood fuel market.

Originality/value

Co‐integration analysis has been applied to many commodity markets, but there are only very few studies of international wood fuel markets.

Details

International Journal of Energy Sector Management, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6220

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 September 2013

Erik Trømborg, Torjus F. Bolkesjø and Birger Solberg

Second-generation biofuel is regarded as a sustainable alternatives to fossil energy in transportation where electricity is not feasible. The main purpose of this study is…

1266

Abstract

Purpose

Second-generation biofuel is regarded as a sustainable alternatives to fossil energy in transportation where electricity is not feasible. The main purpose of this study is to analyze how large-scale second-generation biofuel based on wood may affect the competitiveness of more mature bioenergy technologies such as bioheat through competition in the biomass market. The impacts on forest industries are also included.

Design/methodology/approach

An economic model for the energy and forest sectors based on partial equilibrium modeling is used to quantify the impacts of four different locations of biofuel production in Norway.

Findings

The results show that there are regional variations in biomass price effects depending on local raw material availability and costs of transport and import. Technologies allowing for a larger variety of wood biomass qualities will face lower biomass prices than technologies using only one species as raw material, causing less reduction in the production of bioheat and forest industrial products. For Norway specifically, the paper concludes that even if there is a potential for both increased bioheat generation and large-scale biofuel production, the production of second-generation biofuels based on domestic wood resources will cause a 5-20 percent reduction in bioheat generation depending on the scale of biofuel production.

Research limitations/implications

This study demonstrates how impacts on biomass markets from establishment of biofuel production vary quite substantially with location, production level and choice of feedstock. One main finding is the quite large biomass cost impact that is seen in the model runs when introducing large-scale biofuel production. Increased biomass costs reduce the profitability and this must be taken into account when establishing a biofuel installation.

Originality/value

The originality of the paper is the analyses of biofuel impacts with a detailed model for biomass supply as the bioenergy and forest sectors.

Details

International Journal of Energy Sector Management, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6220

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 December 2021

Ramin Azargohar, Ajay Dalai, Ebrahim Hassanpour and Saeed Moshiri

Lignite coal-fired power plants are the main electricity generators in the province of Saskatchewan, Canada. Although burning lignite coal to generate power is economical…

Abstract

Purpose

Lignite coal-fired power plants are the main electricity generators in the province of Saskatchewan, Canada. Although burning lignite coal to generate power is economical, it produces significant greenhouse gases making it a big challenge to Canada’s international commitment on emission reduction. However, abundant agricultural crops and sawdust produced in Saskatchewan put the province in a good position to produce and use agri-pellets as an alternative fuel to generate electricity. This study aims to conduct an economic and environmental analysis of the replacement of lignite coal by agri-pellets as the fuel for Saskatchewan’s coal-fired power plants.

Design/methodology/approach

The study estimates the economic and environmental costs and benefits of two alternative fuels for power plants. The economic analysis is based on the pellet production and transportation costs from farms to production sites and from the production sites to power plants. In the production process, biomass precursors are densified with and without additives to produce fuel agri-pellets with appropriate mechanical durability and high heating value per volume unit. The environmental analysis involves estimation of greenhouse gas emissions and their social costs for lignite coal and different types of agri-pellets under different scenarios for pellet production and transportation.

Findings

The results show that although the total cost of electricity is lower for coal than agri-pellets, the gap shrinks when social costs and specifically a carbon price of $50/tonne are included in the model. The cost of electricity in lignite coal-fired power plants would also be on par with agri-pellets-fired power plants if the carbon price is between U$68 and $78 per tonne depending on the power plant locations. Therefore, a transition from coal to agri-pellet fuels is feasible if a high-enough price is assigned to carbon. The method and the results can be generalized to other places with similar conditions.

Research limitations/implications

There are a few caveats in this study as follows. First, the fixed costs associated with the transformation of the existing coal-fired power plants to pellet-fired plants are not considered. Second, the technological progress in the transportation sector, which would favor the net benefits of using pellets versus coal, is not included in the analysis. Finally, the study does not address the possible political challenges facing the transition in the context of the Canadian federal system.

Practical implications

The study results indicate that the current carbon price of $50 per tonne is not sufficient to make the agri-pellets a feasible source of alternative energy in Saskatchewan. However, if carbon pricing continues to rise by $15 annually starting in 2022, as announced, a transition from coal to agri-pellets will be economically feasible.

Social implications

Canada is committed to reduce its emission according to the Paris agreement, and therefore, needs to have a concrete policy to find alternative energy sources for its coal-fired power plants. This study examines the challenges and benefits of such transition using the existing agri-pellet resources in Saskatchewan, a province with abundant agricultural residues and coal-fired power plants. The findings indicate that a significant emission reduction can be achieved by using agri-pellets instead of coal to produce electricity. The study also implies that the transition to renewable energy is economical when social costs of carbon (carbon tax) is included in the analysis.

Originality/value

As far as the authors know, this is the first study providing a socio-economic analysis for a possible transition from the coal-fired power plants to a more clean and sustainable renewable energy source in one of the highest carbon dioxide (CO2) producer provinces in Canada: Saskatchewan. The study builds upon the technical production of three agri-pellets (oat hull, canola hull and sawdust) and estimates the economic and environmental costs of alternative fuels under different scenarios.

Details

International Journal of Energy Sector Management, vol. 16 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6220

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 15 July 2009

Philip Sloan, Willy Legrand, Heli Tooman and Joachim Fendt

It is widely recognised that hotels, as important members of the global tourism value chain, have negative impacts on the environment. Many hoteliers feel the adoption of…

Abstract

It is widely recognised that hotels, as important members of the global tourism value chain, have negative impacts on the environment. Many hoteliers feel the adoption of environmental measures is expensive, with little commercial benefit. A further obstacle to improving hotels' green credentials is the perception that adapting staff attitudes and management operations to become more environmentally friendly is too complicated and produces only negligible results. The present study aims to create a snapshot of best practices in sustainability in the hospitality industry adopted by eleven hotels in Germany and Estonia. It also aims to contrast the development of sustainable management systems in these two European countries with different economies and cultures.

Details

Advances in Hospitality and Leisure
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-675-1

Article
Publication date: 5 April 2013

Martin Svanberg and Árni Halldórsson

One way of overcoming logistics barriers (poor transportation, handling and storage properties) towards increased utilisation of biomass is to introduce a pre‐treatment…

Abstract

Purpose

One way of overcoming logistics barriers (poor transportation, handling and storage properties) towards increased utilisation of biomass is to introduce a pre‐treatment process such as torrefaction early in the biomass‐to‐energy supply chain. Torrefaction offers a range of potentially beneficial logistics properties but the actual benefits depend upon how the supply chain is configured to address various elements of customer demand. Hence, the aim of this paper is to develop a framework for torrefaction configuration in a supply chain perspective for different types of customers.

Design/methodology/approach

Sophisticated pre‐treatment processes are yet to reach the commercialisation phase. Identification of possible supply chain configurations is in this paper done through a conceptual approach by bringing together knowledge from related research fields such as unrefined forest fuel, pellets and coal logistics with prescriptions for configuration derived from the subject area of supply chain management (SCM).

Findings

A framework that explicates different elements of supply and demand of torrefaction is proposed, and exemplified by three distinct supply chains. Depending on demand, torrefaction serves different purposes, bridging gaps in place, time, quality and ownership. Furthermore, different supply chain configurations will pose different requirements on torrefaction in terms of producing different product quality, durability, energy density and hydrophobicity of the pellets.

Research limitations/implications

The proposed framework entails a set of propositions, but requires further development through empirical studies using complementary research methods such as interviews or surveys and quantification through techno‐economical or optimisation from a supply chain perspective.

Practical implications

This paper provides a framework that can inform decisions makers in biomass‐to‐energy supply chains, in particular at torrefaction plants, on upstream and downstream implications of their decisions.

Originality/value

The findings have implications for biomass‐to‐energy supply chains in general, and in particular, the paper provides a supply chain perspective of pre‐treatment processes, where previous research has focused primarily on technical aspects of torrefaction.

Details

International Journal of Energy Sector Management, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6220

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 5 June 2007

Stephen Todd

145

Abstract

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 25 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

Article
Publication date: 4 September 2017

Milos Milovancevic, Vlastimir Nikolic, Nenad T. Pavlovic, Aleksandar Veg and Sanjin Troha

The purpose of this study is to establish a vibration prediction of pellet mills power transmission by artificial neural network. Vibration monitoring is an important task…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to establish a vibration prediction of pellet mills power transmission by artificial neural network. Vibration monitoring is an important task for any system to ensure safe operations. Improvement of control strategies is crucial for the vibration monitoring.

Design/methodology/approach

As predictive control is one of the options for the vibration monitoring in this paper, the predictive model for vibration monitoring was created.

Findings

Although the achieved prediction results were acceptable, there is need for more work to apply and test these results in real environment.

Originality/value

Artificial neural network (ANN) was implemented as the predictive model while extreme learning machine (ELM) and back propagation (BP) learning schemes were used as training algorithms for the ANN. BP learning algorithm minimizes the error function by using the gradient descent method. ELM training algorithm is based on selecting of the input weights randomly of the ANN network and the output weight of the network are determined analytically.

Details

Assembly Automation, vol. 37 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-5154

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 November 2009

Aija Tapaninen, Marko Seppänen and Saku Mäkinen

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the criteria influencing the adoption of innovation in the empirical context of renewable residential energy solutions…

1069

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the criteria influencing the adoption of innovation in the empirical context of renewable residential energy solutions, particularly the wood pellet heating system.

Design/methodology/approach

The study carried out an extensive literature review on Rogers’ characteristics of innovation theory and then complemented it with a content analysis on empirically perceived characteristics of wood pellet heating systems.

Findings

The literature review shows that most of the previous studies employ the characteristics of innovation but do not confirm the usability of the Rogers framework as a whole. In addition, our empirical results demonstrate that relative advantage is the predominant characteristic in the adoption of residential energy systems.

Research limitations/implications

The limitations of the literature review and the biases of empirical findings are discussed. For instance, there are limitations that the study is based on single country data and its theoretical approach relies on only one theory, Rogers’ characteristics of innovation.

Practical implications

In order to achieve sustainable strategic advantage, firms providing renewable energy solutions should attempt to communicate clearly the relative advantages instead of attempting to, for instance, offer an opportunity for trialling such green energy systems.

Originality/value

The paper highlights the use of characteristics of innovation and further empirically examines the perceived characteristics of an innovation considering green investments in residential heating systems. Owing to the exploratory nature of the study, the results provide a gateway to a number of possible avenues for future research.

Details

Journal of Systems and Information Technology, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1328-7265

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Land Use and Transport
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-08-044891-6

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