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Article
Publication date: 2 September 2019

Abdelraouf Mostafa Galal

This paper aims to examine the hypotheses of main international theories (realism, liberalism and constructivism) and the development of these theories toward the behavior…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the hypotheses of main international theories (realism, liberalism and constructivism) and the development of these theories toward the behavior of foreign policy of small states in the developing world. The theories of international relations, especially the realistic theory, face a theoretical debate and a fundamental criticism. The hypotheses of these theories are not able to explain the external behavior of some small states, especially those in the developing world such as Qatar. In particular, these small states do not have the elements of physical power through which they can play this role. However, they are based on the internal determinants (such as political leadership and the variable of perception) and non-physical dimensions of power to play an effective and influential external role.

Design/methodology/approach

This topic sheds light on the hypotheses of theories of main international relations, which explain the behavior of foreign policy of small states. This is due to the increased number of such states after the disintegration of Soviet Union, the practice of some countries an effective foreign role and the transformation of the concept of power from the hard power to soft power, and then to smart power

Findings

The theories of international relations, especially the realistic theory, face a theoretical debate and a fundamental criticism. The hypotheses of these theories are not able to explain the external behavior of some small states, especially those in the developing world such as Qatar. In particular, these small states do not have the elements of physical power through which they can play this role. However, they are based on the internal determinants (such as political leadership and the variable of perception) and non-physical dimensions of power to play an effective and influential external role.

Originality/value

The importance of the study comes from its interest in small countries in general and the Qatar situation in particular. The small country emerged as a player independent of the Gulf Cooperation Council, unlike what prevailed before, which led to the discussion of a regional role for Qatar despite its small power compared to the strength and size of other factions in the region such as Turkey, Israel and Iran.

Details

Review of Economics and Political Science, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2356-9980

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2006

Jaleel Ahmad

Much of the literature on strategic trade policy deals with industries and sectors characterized by international rivalry for market shares, and the struggle to capture…

Abstract

Much of the literature on strategic trade policy deals with industries and sectors characterized by international rivalry for market shares, and the struggle to capture “rents” over and above normal factor rewards. The present paper explores the validity and implications of strategic trade policy for smallstates” and small firms that are not major players in international markets. The smallness of the firms may, in fact, be an advantage rather than a hindrance. The implications of smallness for strategic behavior are examined in the framework of a simple game-theoretic framework. These insights become sharper when extended to intra-industry trade in differentiated products. The desirable policy interventions for small countries and firms are quite different from those for large firms.

Details

Value Creation in Multinational Enterprise
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-475-1

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2003

Mikko Mattila

In this article, fiscal redistribution in the European Union (EU) of 15 member states and the enlarged EU is analyzed. Specifically, net fiscal transfers between EU member…

Abstract

In this article, fiscal redistribution in the European Union (EU) of 15 member states and the enlarged EU is analyzed. Specifically, net fiscal transfers between EU member states are analyzed, i.e. which countries are net beneficiaries, which are net contributors and what factors affect countries' net fiscal balances. The results show that, at present, fiscal transfers among EU member states are partly explained by differences in countries' relative economic prosperity and partly by institutional features that systematically favor smaller EU member states. Small member states can use their overrepresentation in the Council votes to obtain more benefits than their level of economic development alone would justify. If the pre-enlargement level of redistribution is extended to include the new member states, the net costs could amount to 60 billion euros. This means that the net fiscal balance of the current member states would decrease significantly. Furthermore, the Treaty of Nice does not change the malapportionment of Council votes and European Parliament seats, which gives an advantage to small member states in bargaining for transfers

Details

International Journal of Organization Theory & Behavior, vol. 7 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1093-4537

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Abstract

Details

Government and Public Policy in the Pacific Islands
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-616-8

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2007

Yuliya V. Ivanova

The purpose of this article is to study how two different managerial environments of the state‐controlled economy in Belarus – “private small business management” and …

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to study how two different managerial environments of the state‐controlled economy in Belarus – “private small business management” and “state or privatized large enterprise management” – influence middle managers' implementation of decisions. Two kinds of data are analyzed: “should” option or presented data, and “would” option or managers' preferred in reality option of activity.

Design/methodology/approach

The research was completed in two stages: survey research based on open‐ended questions and face‐to‐face structured interviews based on the principle of controllable projection. A total of 193 decisions are analyzed.

Findings

Managers of large and state enterprises should present an appearance of active tactics, but in reality they would prefer tactics of delay or no‐action. Managers of small private businesses should present all varieties of tactics except a tactic of inaction. In reality, they would prefer to act directly, or less often, to wait or not act at all.

Research limitations/implications

The effect of other organizational factors than the size and form of ownership should be subjects of future research. The comparison of decision implementation tactics of mid‐level managers in large and small organizations, in state‐owned and private companies in countries with different economies should also be studied.

Practical implications

The findings of this paper have managerial implications for companies willing to open subsidiaries or establish partnership with enterprises from countries with a state‐controlled economy.

Originality/value

The paper is original research that proves the influence of the business environment and characteristics of a company on a middle manager's behavior.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 22 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2003

Ozay Mehmet and M. Tahiroglu

Globalization is rapidly integrating markets, universalizing Western materialism, and weakening the capacity of national states to safeguard local values and institutions…

Abstract

Globalization is rapidly integrating markets, universalizing Western materialism, and weakening the capacity of national states to safeguard local values and institutions. While some, principally the World Bank (1999) regard integrating world markets as an efficiency‐driven process, spreading the benefits of technical innovation and information technologies around the world, many are skeptical. Skeptics include in particular social scientists writing from a Non‐Western and Islamic perspective (Ismail 1999, Rajee 2000). If globalization is indeed a threat to the Nation‐State, then it would follow that small states would be the most vulnerable. At a minimum, it is significant to inquire whether globalization threatens the survival and sustainability of small states.

Details

Humanomics, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0828-8666

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2011

Anne S. Kelly and J. Burdeane Orris

Public education accountability rests almost exclusively with schools rather than governments. This paper explores its three dimensions: economy, efficiency, and…

Abstract

Public education accountability rests almost exclusively with schools rather than governments. This paper explores its three dimensions: economy, efficiency, and effectiveness. Performance indicators of these dimensions were developed which facilitated testing of significant differences in means over time using analysis of variance. Only salary and wage expenditures per instruction personnel exhibited greater economy. Instructional equipment per pupil was related to increased efficiency. Several indicators suggested enhanced effectiveness. Student/teacher ratio declined and top performers in public schools improved in achievement. Graduation rate, an indicator of achievement and participation, significantly rose in recent years. In summary, several effectiveness indicators revealed encouraging trends with school accountability. The absence of government accountability was associated with limited progress in the remaining dimensions of economy and efficiency.

Details

Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting & Financial Management, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1096-3367

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Abstract

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The Political Economy of Antitrust
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-44453-093-6

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Article
Publication date: 13 June 2016

Mika Nieminen, Torsti Loikkanen and Antti Pelkonen

The purpose of this paper is to explore and discuss possible future pathways of the Finnish science, technology and innovation (STI) system. The paper sketches three…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore and discuss possible future pathways of the Finnish science, technology and innovation (STI) system. The paper sketches three speculative pathways for the Finnish STI system.

Design/methodology/approach

Theoretical considerations behind the pathways are based on analyses of the determinants and behaviour of small open economies, their innovation systems and governance. The empirical background of the paper is in the current trends of the Finnish economy and STI system. The analysis of pathways is based on three dimensions: institutionalized policy environment and economy, domestic interest groups and policy and STI institutions and funding. Changes in these dimensions are analysed by paying special attention to two variables: the position of the nation state and the general economic development.

Findings

The first future pathway outlined is based on an optimistic view by setting Finland on the basis of past success factors as an European and global STI hotspot. The second pathway is based on the assumption that the Finnish STI system will be increasingly subordinated to international structures and decision-making. The third one is geared around the assumption that the Finnish STI system will be dominated by industries.

Research limitations/implications

While Finland has been seen as a European showpiece of innovation since the early 2000s, currently the country’s national economy and STI system are undergoing a critical period. The paper sheds light on this transformation and its potential future outcomes and attempts to raise debate on the options policy makers may face in the increasingly complex global environment in small countries.

Originality/value

The paper introduces potential future avenues for the Finnish STI system and provides a contribution to the debate of the future of small countries’ STI systems and innovation policies by emphasising the limited space of the STI policy choices and how the development paths and space for policy making evolve from the interaction of socio-economic factors between domestic and wider international context.

Content available
Article
Publication date: 25 September 2017

Godfrey Baldacchino

This paper offers a critical review of climate change related initiatives in small island states, including Small Island Developing States (SIDS), which can end up as…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper offers a critical review of climate change related initiatives in small island states, including Small Island Developing States (SIDS), which can end up as ontological traps: fuelled and supported by external donor agencies, thwarting out-migration and shifting scarce and finite resources away from other, shorter-term and locally spawned development trajectories and objectives.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is based on a selective literature review. It clusters important themes found in published research and policy documents.

Findings

The results identify a burgeoning critical voice in regards to resilience and its legitimation of climate change driven projects in SIDS. This paper recommends a more nuanced approach which also privileges migration.

Originality/value

This paper provided a critical overview and synthesis of the immobility implicit in much climate change related work, through the critical lens of island studies and post-colonial studies.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

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