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Book part
Publication date: 25 January 2021

Desalegn Abraha and Akmal S. Hyder

In this chapter, we have presented four case studies of the firms which are operating in the medium complete adapting countries. The four cases are Arvidsson Textile Share…

Abstract

In this chapter, we have presented four case studies of the firms which are operating in the medium complete adapting countries. The four cases are Arvidsson Textile Share Company in Estonia, Partec Rockwool in Lithuania, Accel Share Company in Lithuania and Ragn-Sells in Estonia. The case studies are prepared following the structure of the theoretical framework applied in this book. We have found out that the performance of Arvidsson Textile Share Company is successful as it matches the expectations if the partners and it has remained to be more or less the same since its establishment. The performance of Partec Rockwool was also successful from the very beginning until it was replaced by the fully owned firm. Accel Share Company's operations in Lithuania was successful from the very beginning as it found the right people with the right competence in the local market. In the case of Ragn-Sells in Estonia, the alliance was successful but not up to the full expectation.

Details

Transformation of Strategic Alliances in Emerging Markets, Volume II
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-748-7

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Book part
Publication date: 2 December 2013

Lehte Alver, Jaan Alver and Liis Talpas

The chapter shows how globalization and the IFRSs have affected the development of financial accounting and reporting in Estonia. This is interpreted through institutional theory.

Abstract

Purpose

The chapter shows how globalization and the IFRSs have affected the development of financial accounting and reporting in Estonia. This is interpreted through institutional theory.

Design/methodology/approach

The theoretical framework takes into account the prior papers published using institutional theory for defining pressures affecting the development of financial reporting model. The discussion part is presented in three sub-sections. Coercive institutional pressure is analyzed using Estonian accounting legislation from 1990–2012 and normative pressure by focusing on the impact of Big 4 audit companies in the Estonian context. The authors also give an overview of mimetic institutional pressures. As a methodological technique literature review and document analysis are used.

Findings

In the context of coercive institutional pressure the development of accounting legislation in Estonia has been mostly influenced by the IFRSs and European Union. In the light of recent events it seems that Estonia has the opportunity to follow its own way deciding which accounting principles should be applied to SMEs. Mimetic institutional pressure affecting Estonian accounting system is International Accounting Standards Board (IASB), which practices Estonian Accounting Standards Board (EASB) copies. Normative institutional pressures influencing the development of the Estonian accounting system are the Big 4 audit firms.

Originality/value

Although using institutional theory to interpret the development of financial reporting framework is not new its application is underexplored in the context of post-Soviet countries such as Estonia. The chapter potentially contributes to the accounting reforms evidence in emerging economies.

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Article
Publication date: 30 March 2010

Paul Gordon Dickinson

This paper seeks to examine academic literature and business regulation for land acquisition in Estonia in relation to small and medium enterprises (SMEs). The objective…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to examine academic literature and business regulation for land acquisition in Estonia in relation to small and medium enterprises (SMEs). The objective of the paper is to give information beneficial for the enhancement of the business environment, for SMEs. Furthermore, to assist foreign SMEs decision making related to land acquisition within Estonia, an important country within the “Northern Dimension” of the expanded European Union (EU).

Design/methodology/approach

This exploratory paper makes use of World Bank Surveys, primary business law sources together with an interview from a business within the country assessed giving a grass‐roots perspective.

Findings

The investigation reaffirms the importance of SMEs within former economies from a Soviet background such as Estonia. It also emphasises the correlation between economic growth, land acquisition and business law and identifies the significance and “key” aspects of land acquisition for an SME. Furthermore, it assesses Estonia's exemption from the movement of free capital within the EU affecting land acquisition by a foreign SME. It shows it is slightly more difficult for an SME from another EU Member State to acquire land (including a size restriction on agricultural land). Additionally, the notarisation process could be reformed in Estonia which would quicken and cheapen the procedure for land acquisition by SMEs. It emphasises that overall a very positive progression has been made by Estonia within its business law environment conducive to land acquisition by SMEs.

Practical implications

This research demonstrates the reality of Estonian land acquisition regulation and its positive progression. It shows that for an entity from another EU state (other than Estonia) it is restricted from acquiring certain types of land. Additionally, unofficial costs, a legacy from the Soviet period are almost non‐existent within the Estonian land registration system. Some of the gaps within the World Bank Surveys are filled by the interview, although further evaluation is needed from other academics.

Originality/value

The research highlights the importance of land acquisition for SMEs, a new EU Member State's exemption from the free movement of capital and the reality of land acquisition regulation for an SME in Estonia.

Details

Journal of International Trade Law and Policy, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-0024

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Article
Publication date: 21 October 2013

Tatjana Volkova and Inga Jakobsone

The purpose of this paper is to identify the dominant strategy and business models of companies and to analyse the awareness of design and the stage of design application…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the dominant strategy and business models of companies and to analyse the awareness of design and the stage of design application in business in its broader sense from the perspective of business executives in the manufacturing sector and professional designers in the design industry that lead to creating successful business models in Latvia and Estonia.

Design/methodology/approach

The questionnaire was used with two target groups – business executives (based on NACE 2, B-E sections, i.e. manufacturing companies) and professional designers in the design industry (NACE 2, M 74.10 section). In the first target group, 374 responses of business executives in Latvia and 371 responses of business executives in Estonia were received; in the second target group, 85 respondents in Latvia and 42 respondents in Estonia providing professional design services were analysed to identify the level of design awareness and its application in business in the respective countries.

Findings

There are national and regional specifics in Latvia and Estonia based on the development level of micro and macro factors that influence the entire innovation ecosystem. When comparing both countries in these terms, both target groups specify that design is applied more frequently in the processes of product development in Estonia, thus leading to new forms of innovation, than it is in Latvia. Conversely, in Latvia, many business managers still focus on short-term business solutions and cost-reduction as a sole challenge, with limited awareness of management approaches based on the broader application of design as a powerful innovation source for product development, improvement, and renewal of business models.

Research limitations/implications

A suggestion for further research is to replicate the study in Lithuania and explore the perspective of other stakeholders.

Practical implications

The results of this research demonstrate the necessity to change the thinking patterns of business managers in order to develop their skills and capabilities to recognize emerging new driving forces of innovation unfolding through awareness of design and opportunities for its extended application that create successful business models for continuous value generation.

Originality/value

This paper makes a contribution to understanding the current stage of awareness of design and its application in the manufacturing sector in the Baltic States.

Details

Baltic Journal of Management, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5265

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2005

Ruth Alas and Christopher J. Rees

The main aim of this paper is to explore the general impact of post‐Soviet transition on the experiences of women managers in Estonia. Using survey data the paper reviews…

Abstract

Purpose

The main aim of this paper is to explore the general impact of post‐Soviet transition on the experiences of women managers in Estonia. Using survey data the paper reviews women's responses to organisation change in a transition context. The paper focuses specifically on economic and social changes that are occurring in Estonia following its reassertion of independence from the Soviet Union.

Design/methodology/approach

A contextual background to transition is provided and the recent history of Estonia is charted in relation to the demise of the Soviet Union and events in the recent post‐Soviet era. The paper discusses the issue of whether women have, in general terms, benefited from Estonia's move away from the Soviet Union and into the independent European State of Estonia. Estonia's membership of the European Union is highlighted as a key factor that is likely to influence the experiences of women managers in the future. The results of a comparative survey (n=682) into the attitudes of Estonian women managers towards various change management issues at the organisation level are presented.

Findings

The results of the study suggest that many women face cultural barriers to advancement in the workplace, and that women are seeking out opportunities in response to economic and social change. Recent legislation changes suggest however, that Estonia's institutional framework will assist women's career development and position in the economic sphere.

Research implications

There is a need for more focused gender‐based management research relating to Estonia. Such research could, in part, be based on information gathered from the further development of formal gender‐specific employment monitoring practices at both organisational and governmental levels in Estonia.

Originality/value

Because there is a dearth of gender‐focused research across Central and Eastern Europe, this paper provides valuable insights into the effects of independence on the experiences of women in Estonia.

Details

Women in Management Review, vol. 20 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-9425

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Article
Publication date: 10 April 2007

Daniel Nilsson

The aim of this paper is to investigate cross‐cultural variations in the demographics of consumers using self‐service technologies (SSTs).

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to investigate cross‐cultural variations in the demographics of consumers using self‐service technologies (SSTs).

Design/methodology/approach

Questionnaires were randomly distributed to individuals in Sweden and Estonia to analyze their SST usage and demographic characteristics. Sweden and Estonia were chosen because of their cultural differences – Sweden represents an established Western European market, whereas Estonia, a former Soviet republic, is considered an emerging market.

Findings

Data analysis revealed that the demographics of Swedish and Estonian SST users are quite different. Swedish users are demographically heterogeneous, whereas Estonian users can be segmented according to age, gender, education, and income.

Research limitations/implications

A larger study conducted in several cultures would add to our knowledge of a culture's influence on an individual's SST usage.

Practical implications

As this study shows, business models used in Western markets may not be applicable to emerging markets because of cultural differences. Therefore, it is important that Western firms intending to expand into emerging markets must become aware of cultural differences.

Originality/value

Because the world economy is becoming increasingly cross‐cultural, it is imperative to conduct international consumer research to further the understanding of SST usage from a global perspective. This paper provides a thorough examination of which, if any, demographical segments of consumers use SSTs and if the demographics of users vary amongst different cultures.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 41 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2006

Sinikka Vanhala, Tõnu Kaarelson and Ruth Alas

The purpose of this paper is to participate in the convergence‐divergence debate related to the trends in European human resource management (HRM). The paper evaluates the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to participate in the convergence‐divergence debate related to the trends in European human resource management (HRM). The paper evaluates the converging vs diverging implications in Estonia and Finland by comparing HR strategies, policies and practices between the two countries in the context of HRM in the Nordic and EU‐15 countries.

Design/methodology/approach

The research is part of a large international comparative HRM project (CRANET), which covers over 30 countries. Empirical data were collected by a survey questionnaire mailed to large private and public organisations employing over 200 employees. The Estonian survey data involve 69 organisations and the Finnish data 269. The data cover private companies and public sector organisations.

Findings

The comparison of HRM in Estonia and Finland revealed a few interesting empirical observations: First, in spite of Estonia's short history as an independent Baltic state, HRM has stabilised its position at both strategic and policy level's as well as in HR practices. Second, there is a converging (directional) trend between Estonian and Finnish HRM. Third, the Estonian HRM matches with the EU‐15 HRM; Estonia does not increase diversity in the European HRM.

Research limitations/implications

The main limitation of the study is related to survey methodology. In further research longitudinal data as well as case studies and triangulation are needed to open country‐level trends in the convergence‐divergence debate.

Practical implications

Estonian companies and public organisations might need to pay more attention to equality/diversity policy. Special attention should be paid to HRM in public organisations.

Originality/value

The main value of the paper is related to the contribution to the convergence debate in HRM.

Details

Baltic Journal of Management, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5265

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Article
Publication date: 16 May 2008

Paul Gordon Dickinson

The purpose of this paper is to examine academic literature and business regulation for company formation in Estonia in relation to small to medium‐sized enterprises…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine academic literature and business regulation for company formation in Estonia in relation to small to medium‐sized enterprises (SMEs). It is an example of a country which is a new member of the expanded European Union (EU) and its regulation.

Design/methodology/approach

This exploratory paper makes use of World Bank Surveys, primary business law sources together with an interview from a business within the country assessed giving a grass‐roots perspective.

Findings

The investigation reaffirms the importance of SMEs within transitional economies from a Soviet background such as Estonia because of the Socialist black hole. It also emphasizes the correlation between SME development and business law and the significance and key aspects of company formation for an SME. Furthermore, transition economies like Estonia have complied with EU directives for company formation and advanced within the regulation process quickly. However, it is still more difficult for a person or entity from another EU Member State to form a company in Estonia.

Practical implications

This research demonstrates that compliance on EU regulation for company formation by a new EU member has been provided for within the regulation of the wording. It also indicates that for an entity from another EU state (other than Estonia) it is slightly more difficult to form a company. Unofficial costs, a legacy from the Soviet period are almost non‐existent within the Estonian company registration system. Some of the gaps within the World Bank Surveys are filled by the interview, although further evaluation is needed from other academics.

Originality/value

The research highlights the importance of company formation for SMEs, the compliance of a new EU Member State with EU directives, and the reality of company formation regulation for an SME in Estonia.

Details

International Journal of Law and Management, vol. 50 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-243X

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Article
Publication date: 14 March 2017

Anna Kurowska

The purpose of this paper is to solve the puzzle of the disproportionately lower employment rate of mothers of toddlers with relation to the employment rate of mothers of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to solve the puzzle of the disproportionately lower employment rate of mothers of toddlers with relation to the employment rate of mothers of preschool and school-age children in Estonia.

Design/methodology/approach

The research is based on the Most Similar System Design and compares Estonia with Lithuania. The applied methods include inferential statistics and microsimulation techniques, employing the OECD Benefits and Wages Calculator, the OECD Family Support Calculator and EUROMOD – the European tax-benefit microsimulation model.

Findings

The comparison revealed that the overwhelming majority of the crucial aspects of socio-cultural, economic and institutional conditions were more favourable for maternal employment in Estonia than in Lithuania. This explains the higher maternal employment rates both for mothers of pre-schoolers and school-age children in Estonia. However, one particular element of the institutional context targeted to the mothers of toddlers – the unconditional parental benefit – had an entirely opposite character. This particular feature of the parental leave scheme was the only factor that could explain why the employment rate of mothers of toddlers is disproportionately lower than the employment rate of mothers of older children in Estonia and much lower than the employment of mothers of toddlers in Lithuania.

Originality/value

This study complements previous research by providing evidence on the relative importance of universal parental benefit schemes in the context of other country-specific conditions for maternal employment, including the availability of institutional childcare. Furthermore, the results presented show that childcare regime typologies, at least those that characterise Eastern European countries, should be more sensitive to children’s age.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 37 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Article
Publication date: 4 July 2016

Maie Kitsing, Alan Boyle, Hasso Kukemelk and Jaan Mikk

Estonia’s results in programme for international student assessment (PISA) studies between 2006 and 2012 showed both high-level attainment and social equity. The…

Abstract

Purpose

Estonia’s results in programme for international student assessment (PISA) studies between 2006 and 2012 showed both high-level attainment and social equity. The combination of excellence and equity makes Estonia stand out from other countries. The purpose of this paper is to explore the wide range of factors that influence Estonian students’ performance in these tests and note how professional capital fits into the overall picture.

Design/methodology/approach

First the authors present a brief analysis of the outcomes in terms of the PISA results. Then the authors describe a wide range of contextual factors in Estonia such as: the country’s general level of human development; historical and cultural factors; demographics and social factors. These are the inputs to the education system. Finally the authors explore the interplay between features of the education system itself – the schooling processes – and note the impact of professional capital.

Findings

The authors judge that the interplay between professional capital with other factors that work in harmony explains why the system is highly effective. This coherence is not accidental; it is the outcome of a series of deliberate reforms and investment over a single generation.

Originality/value

Between 2009 and 2012 Estonia increased its share of top performers in PISA tests while, at the same time, reduced the proportion of low performers. This is commonly referred to as “raising the bar and closing the gap”. Individual schools struggle to close attainment gaps between different groups of students. Estonia is one of a very small number of countries to achieve both excellence and equality across the whole national system.

Details

Journal of Professional Capital and Community, vol. 1 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-9548

Keywords

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