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Article
Publication date: 22 June 2021

Jolanta Aidukaite and Inga Blaziene

The article seeks to contribute to a better understanding of older people's situation in the labour market in three Baltic countries – Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. Three…

Abstract

Purpose

The article seeks to contribute to a better understanding of older people's situation in the labour market in three Baltic countries – Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. Three Nordic countries are taken as a reference point to compare the countries in order to better understand the situation from a comparative point of view. The article asks the questions: Does a longer working life for older people contribute to their better economic situation? How satisfied are they with a longer working life and their working conditions? Do they experience any discrimination in the labour market because of their age?

Design/methodology/approach

In order to understand the situation of older people in the labour market, the authors employ welfare state models and the Active Ageing Index. The welfare state models help us to understand the context in which the working life of older people is taking place. The Active Ageing Index helps to gain a better understanding of the employment domain of active ageing. The analysis is based on several Europe-wide data sources: statistics on earnings from Eurostat database, information on income, job prospects, occupational safety and health, training, working life perspectives from the European Working Conditions Survey as well as a special survey, conducted by the authors, of Lithuanian, Latvian and Estonian residents aged 50 years and older.

Findings

Analysis conducted reveals that in the Baltic countries older employees, although actively participating in the labour market, face unfavourable material, physical and psychological situation in the labour market more frequently than their younger colleagues. The findings show that the most important factors influencing older employees' decision to stay longer in the labour market in the Baltic countries are linked mostly to welfare state-related issues, i.e. financial benefits, healthcare, possibility to reconcile work and family obligations. These welfare state-related issues are even more important for those who are going to stay longer in the labour market after reaching the retirement age.

Originality/value

This article contributes to a better understanding of older (50+) people's situation in the labour market. It suggests that, while the increasing employment of older people increases the Active Ageing Index and is generally viewed positively, in some countries with less developed welfare states high employment rates of older employees, although providing them with an additional means of livelihood, do not ensure a higher quality of life and, on the contrary, act as a factor reducing the quality of work and, at the same time, the quality of life.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 11 June 2021

Agita Livina, Galina Bukovska, Ilgvars Abols and Gavinolla Mahender Reddy

Purpose: The COVID-19 pandemic has created shock and turbulence for the tourism industry in Baltic states such as Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. To recover from the…

Abstract

Purpose: The COVID-19 pandemic has created shock and turbulence for the tourism industry in Baltic states such as Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. To recover from the situation, tourism service providers had to act accordingly to maintain and sustain the tourism sector during and after the pandemic. The objective of the study is to analyse strategies adopted by Baltic states during and post pandemic times to recover the tourism industry.

Design/Methodology/Approach: The qualitative research method is based on survey and expert opinion of stakeholders of tourism in Baltic states. Further authors used content analysis of country and industry statements, articles, video stories, lectures and meetings.

Findings: Conclusion shows that there are several similarities in the recovery tactics of tourism by the government and other stakeholders amid the COVID-19 pandemic which include opening of borders among three countries for travellers, ability to jointly seek a solution for transformation, a common understanding between various tourism service providers. Non-governmental organisations demonstrated their power in influencing political decisions to adopt recovery strategies of tourism.

Originality/Value: This study provides a greater understanding of the state of tourism in Baltic states during the pandemic in general and the role of stakeholders in the process of recovery of tourism. The study provides the basement for continuing deeper research of COVID-19 influence on tourism in the Baltic states.

Details

Tourism Destination Management in a Post-Pandemic Context
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-511-0

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Article
Publication date: 5 January 2015

Jorma Antero Larimo and Huu Le Nguyen

– The purpose of this paper is to analyse investment strategies and performance of Finnish firms in their international joint ventures (IJVs) established in Baltic States.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse investment strategies and performance of Finnish firms in their international joint ventures (IJVs) established in Baltic States.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper analyse performance of IJVs in Baltic States based on the IJV theory, international business literature, and foreign direct investments in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) literature. The analysed factors include firm, investment, and inter-partner relationship-specific factors. To examine the propositions the paper used ten IJVs established by Finnish firms in various Baltic States between the period 1991 and 2005.

Findings

The results show that the level of uncertainties in the countries and the differences between partners are not related to firms’ commitments and the entry mode choice. Several Finnish firms preferred cost leadership to compete with other firms in the local markets. In most cases there was a positive relationship between the level of partners’ equity share, commitment to the IJV, and the level of trust between partners. The results indicated differences in the IJV performance depending on parent firms’ objectives, their competitive strategies, mode of entry, age of IJVs, control strategies, level of trust, and commitment between partners, as well as depending on the performance measures used.

Practical implications

This study suggests four observations that managers may need to take into consideration to improve IJV performance in the Baltic States. First, cost leadership strategy help to increase IJV performance in terms of sales. Second, social control mechanisms and narrow control leaded to better performance than formal and wide control. Third, minority ownership by Finnish firms in IJVs leaded to better performance based on sales, productivity and total performance whereas majority ownership had leaded to better performance in terms of total costs. Finally, the results confirmed that commitment to the IJV operation and trust on the other partner are very essential factors to IJV performance.

Originality/value

The study is the first one to analyse in more detail based on several cases the IJV strategies and performance of Finnish firms in the Baltic States. The analysed factors include several such factors which have not been analysed related to IJV operations in Baltic States (some also limitedly in the CEE context).

Details

Baltic Journal of Management, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5265

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Article
Publication date: 2 May 2017

Darius Kulikauskas

This paper aims to use the user costs approach to identify the periods of over- and under-valuation in the Baltic residential real estate markets.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to use the user costs approach to identify the periods of over- and under-valuation in the Baltic residential real estate markets.

Design/methodology/approach

Three alternative estimates of the user costs of homeownership in the Baltics are computed: one that does not discriminate between the leveraged and unleveraged parts of a house and the other that takes loan-to-value ratios into account.

Findings

The approach successfully identifies the overheating that took place in the Baltic real estate markets prior to the crisis of 2009 and shows that there is significant upward pressure for the housing prices in the Baltics in the low interest rate environment that became prevalent ever since.

Research limitations/implications

The paper uses only the current values of the fundamentals to compute the user costs. The framework could be augmented to account for the expected future developments of the fundamentals.

Practical implications

The macroprudential policy makers should monitor the developments in the Baltic residential real estate markets closely and be ready to act because an increase in the price-to-rent ratios might seem sustainable, given the current low interest rates, but could potentially bring harmful volatility when the monetary policy normalises.

Originality/value

This paper builds a novel data set on the real estate markets of the Baltic countries and is the first to derive the user costs of homeownership in the region. It is also among the first to identify periods of housing price misalignments from their fundamental values in the Baltic States.

Details

Journal of European Real Estate Research, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-9269

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1999

Peter A. Manning and Tatyana Poljeva

One of the most important transitions going on in the newly independent nations of the former Soviet Union involves training managers and their associates who are working…

Abstract

One of the most important transitions going on in the newly independent nations of the former Soviet Union involves training managers and their associates who are working to establish a free market‐based economy within a pluralistic democratic setting. This article highlights the problems and prospects of this transformation, using the Baltic states as an example. Its purpose is twofold. It presents insight for those who want to understand the changes better. It supports the efforts of those who plan and implement managerial development programs in these settings.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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Book part
Publication date: 28 May 2013

Jaanika Meriküll, Tairi Rõõm and Karsten Staehr

Purpose — The chapter assesses the linkages between unreported economic activities and different individualistic and non-individualistic motives as perceived by firm…

Abstract

Purpose — The chapter assesses the linkages between unreported economic activities and different individualistic and non-individualistic motives as perceived by firm management.Design/methodology/approach — The empirical research is based on a survey of the management of firms operating in the Baltic States. The survey contains information on the perceived extent of unreported activities and on a large number of firm-, sector-, and country-specific factors. A principal component analysis identifies clusters of motives for unreported activity. Regression analyses ascertain the importance of motives individually and as principal components on the extent of unreported activities.Findings — Both individualistic and non-individualistic motives are important for the prevalence of unreported activities. The individualist motives refer to the management being solely profit-oriented and self-interested. Among possible non-individualist motives, measures of government performance and perceptions of reciprocity towards the government appear to play important roles for the extent of unreported activities, but broader societal norms may also play a role.Research limitations/implications — The study considers the perceptions that managers have of unreported activities and other features. These perceptions are subjective and subject to substantial uncertainty. All results should be interpreted in light of the subjective nature of the survey answers.Social implications — Taken literally, the results suggest that stronger government performance is associated with a reduction in unreported activities, at least as perceived by the management. Broader societal developments may also be of importance.Originality/value — The inclusion of variables capturing individualistic as well as non-individualistic motives gives a comprehensive picture of factors behind unreported activities. We employ principal component analysis which allows us to cluster individual survey answers and to produce composite measures of different explanatory factors.

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Book part
Publication date: 11 November 2016

Indre Genelyte

At a time when migration policy has moved to the centre of national and European policy agendas, the three Baltic states are taking their first steps towards building a…

Abstract

At a time when migration policy has moved to the centre of national and European policy agendas, the three Baltic states are taking their first steps towards building a cohesive policy response to emigration. This is especially important in the wake of the global financial crisis, which generated an increased outflow from the Baltic states.

The Baltic states are facing variety of challenges in part caused by this movement of mainly working-age men and women: demographic issues related to an ageing society, labour market challenges and social security system sustainability. Within this context, the discussion of human resource losses is growing in the public sphere in the Baltic states.

Based on interviews with experts in labour and migration in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania and a review of key national policy documents, this article analyses the commonalities among and differences between these three countries’ national responses.

Despite some variations in the characteristics and extent of emigration from the three countries, the interviewed experts agree that the European Union’s policy of free mobility is socially and economically problematic. As the interviews indicate, there have been strong calls in Latvia and Lithuania for a more cohesive intra-European migration management policy to address current imbalances between EU member states and ensure that the loss of human resources in sending countries is accounted for in the recruitment policies of receiving countries. On another hand, Estonia experiences more circular movement patterns and demonstrates a rather liberal view towards migration issues, seeing a virtue in the (regional) open market.

Details

Labour Mobility in the Enlarged Single European Market
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-442-6

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Article
Publication date: 29 April 2020

Olli-Pekka Hilmola, Weidong Li and Andres Tolli

For decades, it was emphasized that manufacturing and trading companies should aim to be lean with very small inventories. However, in the recent decade, time-significant…

Abstract

Purpose

For decades, it was emphasized that manufacturing and trading companies should aim to be lean with very small inventories. However, in the recent decade, time-significant change has taken place as nearly all of the “old west” countries have now low interest rates. Holding inventories have been beneficial for the sake of customer service and for achieving savings in transportation and fixed ordering costs.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, inventory management change is examined in publicly traded manufacturing and trade companies of Finland and three Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania) during the years 2010–2018.

Findings

Inventory efficiency has been leveled off or falling in these countries and mostly declining development has concerned small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). It is also found that inventory efficiency is in general lower in SMEs than in larger companies. Two companies sustaining in inventory efficiency are used as an example that lean has still significance, and higher inventories as well as lower inventory efficiency should not be the objective. Two companies show exemplary financial performance as well as shareholder value creation.

Research limitations/implications

Work concerns only four smaller countries, and this limits its generalization power. Research is one illustration what happens to private sector companies under low interest rate policies.

Practical implications

Continuous improvement of inventory efficiency becomes questionable in the light of current research and the low interest rate environment.

Originality/value

This is one of the seminal studies from inventory efficiency as the global financial crisis taken place in 2008–2009 and there is the implementation of low interest rates.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. 70 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

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Article
Publication date: 2 January 2009

Jelena Barbir, Walter Leal Filho and Jovanka Spiric

This paper aims to describe some trends on climate change in the Baltic Sea region, along with current and future expected actions to cope with climate change in the region.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to describe some trends on climate change in the Baltic Sea region, along with current and future expected actions to cope with climate change in the region.

Design/methodology/approach

The elements that influence climate change in the Baltic Region countries are analysed and co‐operation efforts among the Baltic countries as well as their individual policy and political decisions considering this issue are described.

Findings

Climate change is one the biggest problems faced today and a major threat to society. There is a need for political measures as well as a change in socio‐economic trends in order to meet the challenges of climate change in the Baltic Sea Region.

Originality/value

Climate change is a matter of common concern in the 11 Northern European countries, which either are on the Baltic Sea coast or are influenced by the Baltic Sea by being in the catchment area. The importance of international co‐operation is outlined and some recommendations and possible solutions are provided.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

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Expert briefing
Publication date: 8 February 2017

Survey evidence on Baltic Russophones’ attitudes to the EU and NATO.

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