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Article
Publication date: 1 November 1987

Mayday

A means to alert the flightcrew of an aircraft's potentially unsafe low fuel quantity was the subject of a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) issued earlier this year…

Abstract

A means to alert the flightcrew of an aircraft's potentially unsafe low fuel quantity was the subject of a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) issued earlier this year. It was emphasised that there have been several recent fuel depletion incidents involving loss of power or thrust on all engines that could have resulted in forced landings and injury or loss of life. Most of these incidents resulted from improper fuel management techniques and this proposal from the FAA would require new transport category aircraft designs to incorporate a low fuel quantity alert to the flightcrew that would allow either correction of certain fuel management errors or the opportunity to make a safe landing prior to engine fuel starvation.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 59 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

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Article
Publication date: 20 October 2020

Ibrahim Yildiz and Hakan Caliskan

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the energy and exergy prices and carbon emission equivalents of the jet kerosene (Jet A-1) fuel considering 12 months data for an…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the energy and exergy prices and carbon emission equivalents of the jet kerosene (Jet A-1) fuel considering 12 months data for an air craft used in the air transport sector in Turkey.

Design/methodology/approach

In the selection of the energy resources, one of the most important factors besides the need is the price of the energy resources. To use and save the energy resources efficiently, the prices should be evaluated in terms of exergy too. In this context, the exergy prices and carbon emission equivalents of the jet kerosene fuel have been examined.

Findings

According to analysis results, after January 2020, a steady decline in energy prices has been obtained until April 2020. In this regard, directly proportional changes have been obtained in exergy prices. The minimum exergy price of the fuel is calculated as 74.36 US cents/kWh for April 2020, while the maximum exergy price of the fuel is calculated as 150.02 US cents/kWh for September 2019. The minimum exergy price based carbon emission equivalents for the jet kerosene fuel is determined as 1,099.98 US cents/kg for April 2020, while the maximum exergy price based carbon emission equivalents for the jet kerosene fuel is found to be 2,219.29 US cents/kg for September 2019.

Originality/value

The new contribution has been made to the open literature by examining the energy and exergy prices of the jet kerosene fuel. In addition, the carbon emission equivalents of the jet kerosene fuel have been determined not only energy but also exergy methods.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 93 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

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Article
Publication date: 11 November 2020

Booma Devi, Venkatesh S., Rakesh Vimal and Praveenkumar T.R.

This paper aims to investigate the effect of additives in Jet-A fuel blends, especially on performance, combustion and emission characteristics.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the effect of additives in Jet-A fuel blends, especially on performance, combustion and emission characteristics.

Design/methodology/approach

Jet-A fuel was formed by using Kay’s and Gruenberg–Nissan mixing rules by adding additive glycerol with TiO2. While measuring the combustion performance, the amount of oxygen content present in fuel and atomization are the key factors to consider. As such, the Jet-A fuel was created by adding additives at different proportion. A small gas turbine engine was used for conducting tests. All tests were carried out at different load conditions for all the fuel blends such as neat Jet-A fuel, G10T (glycerol 10% with 50 ppm TiO2 and Jet-A 90%), G20T (glycerol 10% with 50 ppm TiO2 and Jet-A 90%) and G30T (glycerol 10% with 50 ppm TiO2 and Jet-A 90%).

Findings

From tests, the G20T and G10T produced better results than other blends. The thermal efficiency of the blends of G20T and G10T are 22% and 14% higher than neat Jet-A fuel. Further, the improved static thrust with less fuel consumption was noticed in G20T fuel blend.

Originality/value

The G20T blends showed better performance because of the increased oxygenated compounds in the fuel blends. Moreover, the emission rate of environmentally harmful gases such as NOx, CO and HC was lower than the neat Jet-A fuel. From the results, it is clear that the rate of exergy destruction is more in the combustion chamber than the other components of fuel.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 93 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

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Article
Publication date: 7 September 2021

Joseph Elasu, Bright Richard Richard and Muyiwa S. Adaramola

This study explores the economic and sociodemographic factors that influence households' decisions on the type of fuel used for cooking in urban areas in Uganda.

Abstract

Purpose

This study explores the economic and sociodemographic factors that influence households' decisions on the type of fuel used for cooking in urban areas in Uganda.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, two cross-section data surveyed by the Uganda Bureau of Statistics (UBOS) in 2012/13 and 2016/17 were used to analyze consumption of energy for cooking purposes in urban areas of Uganda. This paper employed a multinomial probit regression model and the corresponding marginal effects to analyze cooking fuel choices, which are biomass, electricity and gas and kerosene combined.

Findings

The results showed that household expenditure was statistically significant for the choice of cooking fuel chosen. Furthermore, kitchen type, dwelling type and apartment tenure type are found to be significantly influence the choice of household cooking fuel decisions.

Originality/value

This study takes into consideration the combined influence of the kitchen type, dwelling and tenure type as explanatory variables for the choice of cooking fuel for households in urban areas in Uganda. These factors have not been considered in previous studies done in Uganda, especially within the context of urban households when making choices for cooking fuel.

Details

International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-4708

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Article
Publication date: 19 August 2021

Yong Li, Feifei Han, Xinzhe Zhang, Kai Peng and Li Dang

In this paper, with the goal of reducing the fuel consumption of UAV, the engine performance optimization is studied and on the basis of aircraft/engine integrated…

Abstract

Purpose

In this paper, with the goal of reducing the fuel consumption of UAV, the engine performance optimization is studied and on the basis of aircraft/engine integrated control, the minimum fuel consumption optimization method of engine given thrust is proposed. In the case of keeping the given thrust of the engine unchanged, the main fuel flow of the engine without being connected to the afterburner is optimally controlled so as to minimize the fuel consumption.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, the reference model real-time optimization control method is adopted. The engine reference model uses a nonlinear real-time mathematical model of a certain engine component method. The quasi-Newton method is adopted in the optimization algorithm. According to the optimization variable nozzle area, the turbine drop-pressure ratio corresponding to the optimized nozzle area is calculated, which is superimposed with the difference of the drop-pressure ratio of the conventional control plan and output to the conventional nozzle controller of the engine. The nozzle area is controlled by the conventional nozzle controller.

Findings

The engine real-time minimum fuel consumption optimization control method studied in this study can significantly reduce the engine fuel consumption rate under a given thrust. At the work point, this is a low-altitude large Mach work point, which is relatively close to the edge of the flight envelope. Before turning on the optimization controller, the fuel consumption is 0.8124 kg/s. After turning on the optimization controller, you can see that the fuel supply has decreased by about 4%. At this time, the speed of the high-pressure rotor is about 94% and the temperature after the turbine can remain stable all the time.

Practical implications

The optimal control method of minimum fuel consumption for the given thrust of UAV is proposed in this paper and the optimal control is carried out for the nozzle area of the engine. At the same time, a method is proposed to indirectly control the nozzle area by changing the turbine pressure ratio. The relevant UAV and its power plant designers and developers may consider the results of this study to reach a feasible solution to reduce the fuel consumption of UAV.

Originality/value

Fuel consumption optimization can save fuel consumption during aircraft cruising, increase the economy of commercial aircraft and improve the combat radius of military aircraft. With the increasingly wide application of UAVs in military and civilian fields, the demand for energy-saving and emission reduction will promote the UAV industry to improve the awareness of environmental protection and reduce the cost of UAV use and operation.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 93 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

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Article
Publication date: 30 August 2021

Lucas Rodrigues, Luciano Rodrigues and Mirian Rumenos Piedade Bacchi

Fuel demand forecast is a fundamental tool to guide private planning actions and public policies aim to guarantee energy supply. This paper aims to evaluate different…

Abstract

Purpose

Fuel demand forecast is a fundamental tool to guide private planning actions and public policies aim to guarantee energy supply. This paper aims to evaluate different forecasting methods to project the consumption of light fuels in Brazil (fuel used by vehicles with internal combustion engine).

Design/methodology/approach

Eight different methods were implemented, besides of ensemble learning technics that combine the different models. The evaluation was carried out based on the forecast error for a forecast horizon of 3, 6 and 12 months.

Findings

The statistical tests performed indicated the superiority of the evaluated models compared to a naive forecasting method. As the forecast horizon increase, the heterogeneity between the accuracy of the models becomes evident and the classification by performance becomes easier. Furthermore, for 12 months forecast, it was found methods that outperform, with statistical significance, the SARIMA method, that is widely used. Even with an unprecedented event, such as the COVID-19 crisis, the results proved to be robust.

Practical implications

Some regulation instruments in Brazilian fuel market requires the forecast of light fuel consumption to better deal with supply and environment issues. In that context, the level of accuracy reached allows the use of these models as tools to assist public and private agents that operate in this market.

Originality/value

The study seeks to fill a gap in the literature on the Brazilian light fuel market. In addition, the methodological strategy adopted assesses projection models from different areas of knowledge using a robust evaluation procedure.

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Article
Publication date: 5 August 2021

Sushanth Bavirisetti and Mithilesh Kumar Sahu

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the performance of the gas turbine cycle integrated with solid oxide fuel cell technology. In the present work, intermediate…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the performance of the gas turbine cycle integrated with solid oxide fuel cell technology. In the present work, intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell has been considered, as it is economical, can attain an activation temperature in a quick time, and also have a longer life compared to a high-temperature solid oxide fuel cell, which helps in the commercialization and can generate two ways of electricity as a hybrid configuration.

Design/methodology/approach

The conceptualized cycle has been analyzed with the help of computer code developed in MATLAB with the help of governing equations. In this work, the focus is on the performance investigation of a Gas turbine intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell hybrid cycle. The work also analyzes the performance behavior of the proposed cycle with various design and operating parameters.

Findings

It is found that the power generation efficiency of the IT-SOFC-GT hybrid system reaches up to 60% (LHV) for specific design and operating conditions. The cycle calculations of an IT-SOFC-GT hybrid system and its conceptual design have been presented in this work.

Originality/value

The unique feature of this work is that IT-SOFC has been adopted for integration instead of HT-SOFC, and this work also provides the performance behavior of the hybrid system with varying design and operating parameters, which is the novelty of this work. This work has significant scientific merit, as the cost involved for the commercialization of IT-SOFC is comparatively lower than HT-SOFC and provides a good option to energy manufacturers for generating clean energy at a low cost.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1967

J.D. Smith

The effects of a number of metals and alloys on the thermal stability of Avtur 50 have been evaluated from ASTM‐CRC and high temperature coker tests. The materials tested…

Abstract

The effects of a number of metals and alloys on the thermal stability of Avtur 50 have been evaluated from ASTM‐CRC and high temperature coker tests. The materials tested are used in current aircraft fuel systems or are possible alternatives for fuel systems of supersonic aircraft where they will be in contact with hot fuel. The alloys currently used in aircraft fuel systems have been classified and their probable effects on the stability of hot fuel listed. A number of the materials affected stability adversely, particularly alloys containing significant amounts of copper, and the use of these should be avoided. The pick‐up of copper by Avtur 50 at ambient temperature from alloys such as brass and gun‐metal has also been investigated. The results indicated that sufficient copper to affect thermal stability adversely is readily picked up from these alloys.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 39 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2006

Changduk Kong, Myoung‐cheol Kang, Chang‐ho Lee and Dong‐ju Han

To set‐up a specific design procedure for the smart unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) fuel supply system which has been developed by Korean Aerospace Research Institute, and…

Abstract

Purpose

To set‐up a specific design procedure for the smart unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) fuel supply system which has been developed by Korean Aerospace Research Institute, and to design it preliminarily with the fuel system requirement and target reliabilities.

Design/methodology/approach

The fuel system layout and fuel tank were determined through consideration of total fuel volume, fuel flow rate, reliability, weight, centre of gravity, etc. In sizing of components such as booster pumps, jet pumps, piping system, vent subsystem, refuelling and defuelling subsystem, engine fuel flow requirement, pressure loss, component failure rate, weight and centre of gravity were considered. Finally, the reliability analysis of the preliminary designed fuel system was carried out.

Findings

According to the reliability analysis and weight estimation results, it was confirmed that the proposed fuel system agreed well with the design specifications and target reliabilities required by the vehicle system.

Research limitations/implications

In current preliminary design phase, the most important consideration is the reliability of the fuel system. Therefore, the weight estimation of the designed fuel system to meet this reliability requirement could not meet partially the system's requirements. In the next design step, the proper fuel system for weight reduction will be performed through an optimization process between weight and reliability.

Originality/value

A specific design procedure components' sizing to meet system requirement target reliability for UAV vertical take‐off/landing was proposed.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 78 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

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Article
Publication date: 12 September 2016

De-Xing Peng

This paper aims to evaluate the effect of biodiesel additive in fuel system of diesel engines to reduce wear characteristics. Biofuels are environmentally friendly and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to evaluate the effect of biodiesel additive in fuel system of diesel engines to reduce wear characteristics. Biofuels are environmentally friendly and renewable alternatives to mineral-based fuels and cause low pollution; thus, they can be used to comply with future emission regulations to safeguard environmental and human health.

Design/methodology/approach

Two types of diesel fuel, pure petrodiesel and soybean oil, were compared for their fuel properties and tribological performance. The ball-on-disk wear testing method was used as an analytical tool for this purpose. The lubricating efficiency of the fuels was estimated using a photomicroscope to measure the average diameter of the wear scar produced on the test ball.

Findings

The wear experiments showed that the wear scar diameters were 1.13 and 0.94 mm for lubrication of the pure petro-diesel and soybean oil, respectively. However, fatty acids containing biodiesel typically have thicker molecular layers than mineral pure petro-diesel, and thus can reduce the wear rate of the sliding metals. This improved the boundary lubrication conditions and the lubricity of the fuel. Biodiesel fuels are effective lubricity enhancers and have greater lubricity enhancing properties than petro-diesel.

Originality/value

The ability of biodiesel to be highly biodegradable and its superior lubricating property when used in compression ignition engines make it an excellent fuel. Biofuel is an attractive alternative fuel to various energy sectors, particularly the transportation sector. Biofuel has immense potential for use in a sustainable energy mixture in the future.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 68 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

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