Values, meanings, and attitudes are deep motivators and controllersof human feelings, thinking, speech and action. In management by values,the primary focus is on…
Values, meanings, and attitudes are deep motivators and controllers of human feelings, thinking, speech and action. In management by values, the primary focus is on developing, maintaining, and ensuring that the organization members have healthy and productive values. In other words the pivotal strategy is to ensure that the culture is strong. The idea is that once this criterion has been satisfied, the empowered employees will be self‐managing and intrinsically motivated to make sure they serve the customers well, productivity and quality are high, and the economic results are sound. Presents a case study of the service company Manpower Scandinavia, where this concept has been implemented practically since 1984. Shows this has led to sustainable practical benefits in terms of a considerable long‐term growth in gross turnover, high customer satisfaction, low employee turnover, virtually nil control in the traditional sense, and high market share. Several of these factors have a direct positive bearing on productivity.
Scandinavian research in systems development can be grouped into three major traditions, based on quite different ideologies and theories: the systems theoretical school…
Scandinavian research in systems development can be grouped into three major traditions, based on quite different ideologies and theories: the systems theoretical school, the socio‐technical school and the critical school. The differences between these schools are closely related to the historical and social contexts in which they developed. External political, economic and cultural factors have strongly influenced research in this field. In particular, the basic theoretical differences between the schools reflect their different interpretations of the relationship between capital and labour.
The application of new technology to Scandinavian libraries has not differed greatly from country to country, except for Iceland, where library automation was introduced…
The application of new technology to Scandinavian libraries has not differed greatly from country to country, except for Iceland, where library automation was introduced later. The Nordic Council for Scientific Information and Research Libraries (NORDINFO) has actively encouraged interlibrary co‐operation at both national and international level. Chief amongst such initiatives has been the National Technological Library of Denmark's computerized location and on‐line ordering system ALIS. Many libraries now make their holdings available on‐line. Scandinavian libraries receive 50% of their international loans from BLDSC, and take advantage wherever possible of its technological facilities for automated request transmission. If system interface were improved, the existing DOCLINE link between Chalmers University Library, TIB and BLDSC could be extended in scope. New technology is increasing library co‐operation across Scandinavia.
This paper presents some aspects of branding the Scandinavian snow tourism product. The authors argue that the Scandinavian suppliers to the non‐Nordic market need a…
This paper presents some aspects of branding the Scandinavian snow tourism product. The authors argue that the Scandinavian suppliers to the non‐Nordic market need a stronger image and more distinct differentiation, and that a Scandinavian umbrella brand might be helpful to serve the purpose of increasing the combined market share of Scandinavian suppliers in non‐Nordic markets. In support of their views empirical observations are presented which confirm the rational for a Scandinavian umbrella brand and a potential for differentiation not yet utilised. Branding is discussed within the context of a strategic alliance between Scandinavian suppliers. These suppliers are conceptualised as a strategic group. The conceptual and managerial complexity of branding a product associated with three different countries is noted. The paper concludes by indicating areas for future research.
This chapter reviews the sociology of sport as a subdiscipline in the Scandinavian countries of Norway, Sweden, and Denmark. The review is based on analyses of central documents, scholarly contributions, as well as interviews with some key scholars in the field. The review describes both similarities and differences across the three countries. The sociology of sport as a subdiscipline and research field is a relatively new area. Among the decisive factors that prompted the field to grow were the expansion of higher education and the institutionalization of sport studies as an academic field during the 1970s. Each country today has approximately 15–20 scholars who identify themselves as sport sociologists. None of the Scandinavian countries have special research programs for research funding in the social sciences of sport, and the main funding derives mostly from the research resources linked to the scholars’ professorships/scholarships and external funding. The research trajectories of the field are mostly concentrated around areas like youth sport, participation studies, sport politics, and team sports. Besides scholars involved in gender studies and body culture, most of the key contributors also belong to these areas. Scholars make use of multifaceted theoretical and methodological approaches. One of the main future challenges of the research field is to maintain and strengthen its critical traditions against the strong influence from neoliberal sport management discourses.
Many recent studies have highlighted the importance of quality of governance and institutions for economic performance. According to New Institutional Economics, the…
Many recent studies have highlighted the importance of quality of governance and institutions for economic performance. According to New Institutional Economics, the quality of governance and institutions is a fundamental precondition for sustained increases in prosperity, well-being, and territorial cohesion. The quality of governance influences people’s health, their access to basic services, social trust, and political legitimacy. Governance encompasses the traditions and institutions by which authority in a country is exercised, and its performance can be measured. In this chapter we use the World Bank’s measure Worldwide Governance Indicators (WGI). The aim of the chapter is to highlight the variation of the quality of government between regions of Scandinavia and South East Europe and to analyse recent changes in South East Europe. Not surprisingly, Scandinavian regions outperform all other EU regions in quality of government, and the situation has been stable over time. In South East Europe, the situation has improved, although at a slow pace. Whereas the rule of law and government efficiency seem to be steadily increasing, the fight against corruption has been less successful.
Gender diversity and equality vary tremendously among countries. This is a particular challenge for foreign subsidiaries, when the level of gender diversity and equality…
Gender diversity and equality vary tremendously among countries. This is a particular challenge for foreign subsidiaries, when the level of gender diversity and equality differs between the home and host country. Various indicators such as a low-gender pay gap or a high ratio of females in managerial positions suggest that Scandinavia is ahead in terms of gender diversity and equality, whereas those indicators suggest that the level in Japan is currently lower. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how executives leading Scandinavian subsidiaries operating in Japan perceive this situation, and whether and what kind of actions they take to initiate change.
This study is based on a qualitative analysis of 20 in-depth interviews with executives of Scandinavian subsidiaries in Japan.
Findings reveal that executives of Scandinavian subsidiaries respond to the major differences in gender equality between Scandinavia and Japan with three strategies of change: resistance and rigid change, compromise and moderate change, and adaptation and maintaining status quo. Moreover, the findings indicate that the strategy of change varies depending on individual differences of the executives, e.g., nationality, and organizational differences, e.g., subsidiary size.
Due to the small sample size, the generalizability of the findings is limited. Given the paucity of research on this topic, this approach provides first insights for building a basis for future studies.
This study contributes to the scarce literature on gender diversity and equality in multinational enterprises by identifying strategies of how gender equality can be fostered in a non-Western context from a top executive perspective.
A survey of developments in interlibrary co‐operation in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Various possibilities for closer co‐operation between countries or between…
A survey of developments in interlibrary co‐operation in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Various possibilities for closer co‐operation between countries or between libraries are discussed, as is the possibility of a Scandinavian international lending library or a Swedish national library. Mention is made of the Scandia‐plan and of LIBRIS
This paper explores some social‐psychological aspects of South Asian young adults in Denmark, including identity processes through social relations across geographical…
This paper explores some social‐psychological aspects of South Asian young adults in Denmark, including identity processes through social relations across geographical borders and psychological diaspora consciousness, and is a follow‐up of a project conducted in the mid‐nineties, in Denmark (N = 14). Diasporic conceptualisations focusing on human‐centredness and processes in migration, combined with a lifecourse perspective, provide the theoretical framework for this study. The method used is in‐depth interviews, analysed through condensation and meaningful categorisation of the narratives. The young adults are perceived as active actors in relation to their life situation. The results show the young adults', as well as the parental generations', re‐interpretation of the self, other and home. They also show that the young adults' diasporic identities involve the countries of origin as well as the Scandinavian welfare societies. However, the myth of return is not supported, although the countries of residence have adopted increasingly restrictive migration policies in the past years.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the European transnational migration of poverty in a regional context, specifically focusing on homelessness among the migrant poor…
The purpose of this paper is to examine the European transnational migration of poverty in a regional context, specifically focusing on homelessness among the migrant poor in Norway and Sweden. Gathering insight from individuals who routinely assist with social care, this research seeks to find out if the liberal provision of welfare and supportive services attracts poor migrants to this region from other parts of Europe.
Qualitative in-depth interviews with individuals who provide social care assistance to homeless migrants in Oslo and Stockholm.
The influx of people experiencing homelessness in these areas is comprised mainly of two distinct sub-populations. One group migrated in search of employment opportunities but struggled with tenuous working and living arrangements. A second more transient group appeared to be motivated by perceptions of Scandinavian benevolence and charity. Both groups lacked familiarity with the social welfare system but were generally uninhibited by cultural differences between their destination and country of origin.
The intent of this study is not to generalize to a broader population but to develop an in-depth exploration of homelessness and migration from the perspective of social care workers. Purposive sampling is used to gather insights from key informants that work closely with homeless migrants; however the findings can be limited by the unique experiences of each individual.
In the public discourse on homelessness it is a mistake to group all homeless migrants together. Additionally it is important to distinguish between the needs of migrants and non-migrants, as these two homeless populations generally do not struggle with the same issues.
With a better understanding of this issue, governments will be able to provide more adequate assistance and develop more effective initiatives to combat and prevent homelessness.