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Article
Publication date: 24 February 2021

Mikhail A. Elesin, Nikolay A. Mashkin, Boris V. Krutasov and Natalia V. Karmanovskaya

The purpose of the study is to show an improvement in resistance (permeability) and durability (residual strength) of modified wood compared to natural wood.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the study is to show an improvement in resistance (permeability) and durability (residual strength) of modified wood compared to natural wood.

Design/methodology/approach

A relevance way to increase the durability and resistance of wood is processing with polymers. Novosibirsk State Technical University, Novosibirsk State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (Sibstrin) and the Norilsk State Industrial Institute researched the resistance of elements of mine treatment plants made of wood modified with synthetic polymers. The study was carried out according to V.A. Kucherenko. Modification of such species as birch and pine can significantly increase wood resources by extending its service life and improving its physical and mechanical properties. Latex-organosilicon modifier was used as a modifier.

Findings

Latex clogs the capillaries of wood, preventing the penetration of aggressive solutions into it, and potassium methyl silicate interacts with hydrophilic OH groups, increasing the water-repellent properties of the surface of cells and wood capillaries.

Originality/value

The results of long-term and predictive tests of modified wood in aggressive environments of treatment facilities are presented. As a result, diffusion of aggressive media into the wood becomes more difficult and its resistance and durability increase.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 October 2004

Stig Lande, Mats Westin and Marc H. Schneider

This paper aims to show the potential decay resistance of furfurylated wood and investigate possible eco‐toxicity of such materials produced. This paper deals with the…

1255

Abstract

This paper aims to show the potential decay resistance of furfurylated wood and investigate possible eco‐toxicity of such materials produced. This paper deals with the environmental aspects and durability of furfurylated wood, both laboratory and field tests are included in the investigations. Results from several decay tests, emission analysis studies and ecotox tests are presented. The results show that furfurylated wood is highly decay resistant. Furthermore, no significant increase in eco‐toxicity of leaching water was found and degradation through combustion does not release any volatile organic compounds or poly‐aromatic hydrocarbons above normal levels for wood combustion. Durability enhancement by furfurylation of wood is not believed to be harmful to the environment. Wood modified with furfuryl alcohol, “furfurylated wood”, is currently being marketed as a non‐toxic alternative to traditional preservative treated wood (wood impregnated with biocides). This paper summarises much of the long term exposure of furfurylated wood ever caried out, and present the first eco‐tox tests on such material ever done.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 15 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 October 2017

Srdjan Jovic, Zoran Golubovic and Jovan Stojanovic

The paper aims to present an investigation of wood bonding strength as a very important indicator for effective using in further manufacturing processes.

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to present an investigation of wood bonding strength as a very important indicator for effective using in further manufacturing processes.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, the wood bonding strength sensitivity was estimated based on grain orientation, feed speed, heating time and temperature, temperature and type of adhesive. Artificial intelligence methods were applied for this analysis because it is strongly a nonlinear process.

Findings

It was shown that the artificial intelligence tools could be useful, reliable and effective for the wood bonding strength sensitivity estimation. Afterwards the power consumption in in solid wood machining process is analyzed and estimated by the artificial intelligence tools.

Originality/value

Results shown that the wood bonding strength is the most sensitive for type of adhesive. Thus, the results of the present research can be successfully applied in the wood industry to reduce the time, energy and high experimental costs.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 37 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 November 2008

H.T. Sahin

The objective of this study is to evaluate the water repellent efficiency of some oil modified solvent‐type alkyd resins, as wood protective formulations (WPs). It was…

Abstract

Purpose

The objective of this study is to evaluate the water repellent efficiency of some oil modified solvent‐type alkyd resins, as wood protective formulations (WPs). It was done by surface treating of pine and cedar woods with the five leading brand of alkyd resins that are available in Turkey.

Design/methodology/approach

For effective water repellency, various formulations were made by incorporating different concentrations of varnish resin, pigment, solvent, and a substance that repels water. The impact and adhesive strengths of the five different solvent‐type alkyd resins were characterised by using a very simple experimental design.

Findings

The swelling variations of unmodified pine and cedar woods were determined in water. Next, the water repellent efficiency of the five different alkyd resin formulations was evaluated. The modification of pine and cedar woods using alkyd resins showed various level enhancement of resistance against water over the unmodified samples. The modification caused a chemical linkage between surface and resin that led to ensuring the intrinsically chemical bonds across the wood/resin matrix interface, which was the main cause to the improved water resistance. However, some WPs were less compatible, hence, had less bonding potential to both woods.

Practical implications

The method developed provided a simple and practical solution to selecting WPs (brands) for pine and cedar woods.

Originality/value

The method for evaluating adhesive strengths of the five different brand solvent‐type alkyd resins to pine and cedar woods were novel and could find numerous applications in surface coating.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 37 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 2005

N.A. Fadl and A.H. Basta

To investigate the effects of acetylation process as a chemical treatment method to improve the dimensional stability of wood, or as a pre‐treatment step to enhance the…

Abstract

Purpose

To investigate the effects of acetylation process as a chemical treatment method to improve the dimensional stability of wood, or as a pre‐treatment step to enhance the dimensional stability of wood by impregnates.

Design/methodology/approach

Esterification of two species of wood were carried out by vapour and liquid phase acetylation processes. With the vapour phase acetylation process, wood with different acetyl contents were obtained by changing the length of time of treatment. With the liquid phase acetylation, different acetyl content were obtained by changing the acetylating mixture or by activating wood with acetic acid for different periods of time and at different temperatures prior to the acetylation processes. The acetyl content and the conditions of impregnation improving the dimensional stability were modelled and optimised. The success of acetylation process for improving the affinity of wood towards the impregnation was also demonstrated.

Findings

Vapour phase acetylation process was preferable over liquid phase acetylation for improving both water resistance and dimensional stability of wood species examined. Liquid acetylating of wood, as a pre‐treatment step enhanced the effect of impregnates, especially the linseed oil to improve relevant wood properties. The greater improvement was obtained at 3 h impregnation time and 190°C curing temperature for 1 h.

Research limitations/implications

Despite the success in improving the affinity of wood species to novolac by pre‐acetylation, increasing the curing time and curing temperature led to deterioration of the water resistance and dimensional stability.

Practical implications

Pre‐acetylation of the wood provided a practical solution to rendering the natural wood greater water resistance property using commercial impregnates.

Originality/value

The method for acetylation of wood prior to impregnation was novel and could be used for inhibiting wood against moisture absorption during storage.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 34 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 2000

Saila Jämsä, Pirjo Ahola and Pertti Viitaniemi

Heat treatment reduces hygroscopicity and accompanying dimensional changes in wood. Prior to coating, pine and spruce boards were heat treated at 225°C for six hours under…

Abstract

Heat treatment reduces hygroscopicity and accompanying dimensional changes in wood. Prior to coating, pine and spruce boards were heat treated at 225°C for six hours under steam, in order to achieve dimensional stability and durability of wood substrate. The panels were coated surface finishes which are commonly used on exterior cladding, joinery and fences in Finland. Performance of the coated heat‐treated and untreated panels was monitored during five years’ outdoor exposure. Without coating the heat‐treated wood is not weather resistant. The original dark brown colour of the uncoated heat‐treated wood panels was not stable when exposed to weather, turning grey. Cracking of the heat‐treated wood without coating was at the same level as that of the untreated wood despite the lower moisture content of the heat‐treated wood. The unpigmented or low build stains and oils did not prevent cracking of the heat‐treated wood. Weather resistance of the heat‐treated wood was improved by the water‐ or solvent‐borne paints. Wood heat treated by means of this process is comparable to untreated wood as a substrate for coatings and no alterations in coating recommendations are needed when considering coating of heat‐treated wood.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 29 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 October 2004

J.A.M. Fotsing and G. Ndadja

Impermeability tests had been carried out to compare the moisture resistance of two wood finish paints available on the Cameroonian market. Two types of paints had been…

402

Abstract

Impermeability tests had been carried out to compare the moisture resistance of two wood finish paints available on the Cameroonian market. Two types of paints had been used namely, an oil‐based paint and an emulsion paint, both manufactured in Cameroon by SMALTO Company. It appeared that the oil‐based paint gave better protection to wood in wet environments, areas with strong pluviometry (where the quantity of humidity in the air is very high). The emulsion paint was found to be suitable for use for interior decorative purpose. It was suggested that a glycerophthalic lacquer could be used for wood finishing in areas subjected to the emissions of water vapour or requiring frequent washing (bathroom, kitchen, WC, etc.). In addition, the number of coating layers should be increased to enhance the moisture resistance of such paint films.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 33 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 March 2022

Maria Landqvist and Frida Lind

Taking the perspective of a start-up company, the purpose of this paper is to analyse resource renewal in heavy business networks.

Abstract

Purpose

Taking the perspective of a start-up company, the purpose of this paper is to analyse resource renewal in heavy business networks.

Design/methodology/approach

The theoretical framework is based on the Industrial Network Approach and, especially, the resource interaction framework, business network settings and studies of starting up in business networks. The basis for the paper is a case study of a start-up in the Swedish wind energy context.

Findings

Resource renewal in this case means replacing one resource, having implications for the resource interfaces in the three business network settings.

Research limitations/implications

The paper contributes to the area of studies of starting up in business networks by identifying a distinct form of resource renewal in heavy business networks enabled by development of resource interfaces in three business network settings.

Practical implications

Managers in start-ups as well as established firms need to interact to create and develop the resource interfaces that are needed to achieve resource renewal. Resource renewal not only is in the hands of start-ups but also requires interactive resource development with various collaboration partners.

Originality/value

This study takes a start-up’s perspective to resource renewal of heavy business networks and analyses heaviness based on resource interfaces in three business network settings.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 January 2022

Oluwamuyiwa Okunrounmu, Osama (Sam) Salem and George Hadjisophocleous

The fire resistance of timber structures is heavily dependent on the fire behaviour of the connections between its structural elements. The experimental study presented in…

Abstract

Purpose

The fire resistance of timber structures is heavily dependent on the fire behaviour of the connections between its structural elements. The experimental study presented in this paper aimed to investigate the fire performance of glued-laminated timber beam connections reinforced perpendicular-to-wood grain with self-tapping screws (STS).

Design/methodology/approach

Two full-size fire experiments were conducted on glulam beam-end connections loaded in flexure bending. Two connection configurations, each utilizing four steel bolts arranged in two different patterns, were reinforced perpendicular to wood grain using STS. The bolt heads and nuts and the steel plate top and bottom edges were fire protected using wood plugs and strips, respectively. Each connection configuration was loaded to 100% of the ultimate design load of the weakest unreinforced configuration. The test assemblies were exposed to elevated temperatures that followed the CAN/ULC-S101 standard fire time–temperature curve.

Findings

The experimental results show that the influence of the STS was significant as it prevented the occurrence of wood splitting and row shear-out and as a result, increased the fire resistance time of the connections. The time to failure of both connection configurations exceeded the minimum fire resistance rating specified as 45 min for combustible construction in applicable building codes.

Originality/value

The experimental data show the effectiveness of a simple fire protection system (i.e. wood plugs and strips) along with the utilization of STS on the rotational behaviour, charring rate, fire resistance time and failure mode of the proposed hybrid mass timber beam-end connection configurations.

Details

Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-2317

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 November 2021

Hüseyin Emre Ilgın, Markku Karjalainen and Sofie Pelsmakers

The paper aims to understand Finnish architects' attitudes towards the use of timber as a structural material in multi-storey (over two--storeys high) residential construction.

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to understand Finnish architects' attitudes towards the use of timber as a structural material in multi-storey (over two--storeys high) residential construction.

Design/methodology/approach

The study was conducted through a literature survey mainly including international peer-reviewed journals and similar research projects. Furthermore, the literature survey informed the generation of the web-based survey questionnaire design to gather information on architects' perceptions, attitudes and interest in the use of wood in multi-storey (over two-storeys high) residential buildings.

Findings

The paper's findings are as follows: (1) respondents perceived the most important advantages of wood as a lightweight, local and ecological material; (2) wood construction (compared to concrete) included perceived concerns about it being more costly and needing more complex engineering and (3) respondents had a favourable overall attitude towards the use of wood particularly in low-rise residential construction, whilst their perception of tall housing, including timber ones, was mostly negative.

Originality/value

No studies have evaluated the use of wood in tall residential buildings and architects' perceptions in Finland.

Details

International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-4708

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 37000