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Article
Publication date: 2 May 2017

Katherina Kuschel, María-Teresa Lepeley, Fernanda Espinosa and Sebastián Gutiérrez

Women in entrepreneurship can have a significant impact on economic and social development globally and particularly in developing countries. But the challenges…

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1296

Abstract

Purpose

Women in entrepreneurship can have a significant impact on economic and social development globally and particularly in developing countries. But the challenges entrepreneurial women face are unique and multiple, pressing the need for research and policies to maximize impact. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the challenges women start-up founders face to secure funding in the technology industry. The tech industry was selected because it is a non-traditional industry for women with high potential for role models to bridge an existing gap in information on women start-up founders to secure capital financing to attain business sustainability. It covers venture capital investors’ role, Latin American cultural reasons, and gender.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is based on an inductive, qualitative approach and in-depth interviews with 20 women entrepreneurs and start-up founders from Latin American countries who received support from the Chilean Government sponsored accelerator “Start-Up Chile.”

Findings

The analysis uncovered ten aspects that impact entrepreneurial women founders’ access to capital in three categories: capital needs, networks, and individual characteristics.

Originality/value

This study identifies factors that affect women entrepreneurs in raising capital and in facing the following challenges: first, working in a non-traditional field for women as it is the technology industry, and second assuming a leadership role as start-up founders. The results offer recommendation with potential to drive public policies in Latin America, which may be scalable to other developing and also to developed countries where market systems prevail. The findings show that women entrepreneurs, but also men, seeking start-up financing and alternatives are a viable source of employment and economic sustainability to mitigate the effects of increasing levels of unemployment worldwide.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

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Article
Publication date: 29 June 2021

Namrata Gupta and Henry Etzkowitz

This study aims to understand the socio-cultural context of Indian women's high-tech entrepreneurial experience. Despite a small proportion of women entrepreneurs, and the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to understand the socio-cultural context of Indian women's high-tech entrepreneurial experience. Despite a small proportion of women entrepreneurs, and the traditional gender dynamics among the educated middle-classes that appears to be antithetical to female entrepreneurship; women-led high-tech start-ups are on the rise.

Design/methodology/approach

Semi-structured interviews were conducted with women founders at an academic incubator in an elite Indian Institute of Technology. The study was based on the post-structural feminist approach that women entrepreneurs are embedded in their socio-cultural and institutional context. During data collection, the Coronavirus lockdown provided a natural experiment, highlighting entrepreneurial response to unforeseen obstacles.

Findings

It finds that the context is significant in constructing opportunity, and in navigating challenges of gender and entrepreneurship. Further, in the process of construction of an entrepreneurial identity, women innovators not only reproduce, but also modify their context. Also, the experiences with academic incubator indicate positive results both for gender dynamics and enhancing an emergent entrepreneurial culture.

Practical implications

The study highlights that women's high-tech entrepreneurship has considerable potential for enhancing women's status in society through the support of academic incubator. This has certain implications for policy.

Originality/value

It provides an insight in to the hitherto neglected issue of women's high-tech entrepreneurship in India, and argues that a study of “social embeddedness” not only highlights constraints for women entrepreneurs unique to that context, but also the potential of women's entrepreneurship in advancing women's agency and gender equality.

Details

International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-6266

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Article
Publication date: 16 August 2021

Sancheeta Pugalia and Dilek Cetindamar

Technology sector is the pivotal element for innovation and economic development of any country. Hence, the present article explores past researches looking into…

Abstract

Purpose

Technology sector is the pivotal element for innovation and economic development of any country. Hence, the present article explores past researches looking into challenges faced by immigrant women entrepreneurs in technology sector and their corresponding response strategies.

Design/methodology/approach

This study employs a systematic literature review (SLR) technique to collate all the relevant literature looking into the challenges and strategies from immigrant women entrepreneur's perspective and provide a comprehensive picture. Overall, 49 research articles are included in this SLR.

Findings

Findings indicate that immigrant status further escalates the human, financial and network disadvantages faced by women who want to start a technology-based venture.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the literature by categorizing the barriers and strategies on a 3 × 2 matrix reflecting the origins of the barrier or strategy (taking place at the individual, firm or institutional level) versus the type of the barrier or strategy (arising from being an immigrant woman and being a woman in the technology sector). After underlining the dearth of studies in the literature about the complex phenomenon of immigrant WEs in the technology sector, the paper points out several neglected themes for future research.

Details

International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-6266

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Article
Publication date: 7 April 2021

Jabir Ali, Sana Shabir and Ateeque Shaikh

This paper aims at identifying the antecedents of entrepreneurial intentions among females in India using the theory of planned behaviour.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims at identifying the antecedents of entrepreneurial intentions among females in India using the theory of planned behaviour.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is based on the Adult Population Survey (APS) of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM), which has covered 1,683 female respondents from India. The data has been analysed using simple techniques such as chi-square statistics and logistics regression. The antecedents of entrepreneurial intentions have been identified using the theory of planned behaviour.

Findings

About 20% of the adult females have reported intention for starting an entrepreneurial venture in the country. A significant relationship emerged between the demographics of females with and without intention towards entrepreneurship. The results showed that there is a positive and significant effect of attitudes towards the behaviour, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control to the entrepreneurial intentions among females.

Practical implications

This paper provides insights on factors affecting entrepreneurial intention among females and helps in developing a policy framework for promoting new ventures among female entrepreneurs. This also explores the possibility of future research on entrepreneurial intention in the Indian context.

Originality/value

Considering the current focus of the government in India for promoting new ventures, this piece of research can be valuable for different stakeholders in adopting a gender-based approach in implementing inclusive entrepreneurial initiatives.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 48 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 2 May 2017

Amanda Bullough, Fiona Moore and Tugba Kalafatoglu

The purpose of this paper is to address the paradox that represents a shortage of women in management and senior leadership positions around the world, while research has…

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3572

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to address the paradox that represents a shortage of women in management and senior leadership positions around the world, while research has consistently shown that having women in positions of influence leads to noteworthy organizational benefits, as guest editors for this special issue, the authors provide an overview of four key streams of cross-cultural research on gender – women in international management, anthropology and gender, women’s leadership, and women’s entrepreneurship – which have been fairly well-developed but remain underexplored.

Design/methodology/approach

Each author led the review of the scholarly literature stream that aligned most with personal research areas of expertise, while particularly focusing each literature review on the status of each body of work in relation to the topic of women and gender in international business and management.

Findings

The authors encourage future work on the role of women and gender (including gay, lesbian, and transgender) in cross-cultural management, and the influence of cross-cultural matters on gender. In addition to new research on obstacles and biases faced by women in management, the authors hope to see more scholarship on the benefits that women bring to their organizations.

Practical implications

New research could aim to provide specific evidence-based recommendations for: how organizations and individuals can work to develop more gender diversity in management and senior positions around the world, and encourage more women to start and grow bigger businesses.

Social implications

Scholars can lead progress on important gender issues and contribute to quality information that guides politicians, organizational leaders, new entrants to the workforce.

Originality/value

This is the first paper to cover these topics and review the body of work on cross-cultural research on women in international business and management. The authors hope it serves as a useful launch pad for scholars conducting new research in this domain.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

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Article
Publication date: 4 October 2019

Bat Batjargal, Justin W. Webb, Anne Tsui, Jean-Luc Arregle, Michael A. Hitt and Toyah Miller

The purpose of this paper is to disentangle individual-level gender differences and norm-based gender roles and stereotypes to provide a finer-grained understanding of why…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to disentangle individual-level gender differences and norm-based gender roles and stereotypes to provide a finer-grained understanding of why female and male entrepreneurs experience different growth returns from their social networks across different national cultures.

Design/methodology/approach

This research uses a survey of 637 (278 female and 359 male) entrepreneurs across four nations varying on relational culture (importance of social relationships) and gender egalitarianism (importance of gender equality or neutrality in social and economic roles).

Findings

The authors find evidence that male entrepreneurs in high relational cultures benefit the most in terms of growth in revenues from larger network size while women in low relational cultures benefit the least. In cultures with low gender egalitarianism, male entrepreneurs benefit more from their larger social networks than did the female entrepreneurs.

Practical implications

The study presents implications for female entrepreneurs’ behaviors to gain more benefits from their social networks, especially in cultural contexts where relationships are important or where there is equality in gender roles. In these contexts, they may need to develop other strategies and rely less on social networks to grow their ventures.

Social implications

This research suggests that female entrepreneurs still are disadvantaged in some societies. National policy may focus on developing more opportunities and providing more support to women entrepreneurs as a valuable contributor to economic growth of the nations.

Originality/value

The authors disentangle the effects of gender differences, norm-based gender stereotypes and networks on entrepreneurial outcomes.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 26 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 2 May 2017

Lorraine Eden and Susan Forquer Gupta

The purpose of this paper is to argue that culture and context (policy and environment) are key factors affecting gender inequalities within and across countries.

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2693

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to argue that culture and context (policy and environment) are key factors affecting gender inequalities within and across countries.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper applies conceptual and descriptive statistics.

Findings

The authors found evidence of increasing gender equality in the workplace, but only for rich countries. Gender inequalities persist in the poorest countries, and the gap between rich and poor countries appears to be widening not narrowing.

Research limitations/implications

This paper demonstrates the need for a comprehensive research program on gender and international business.

Practical implications

The authors provided useful statistics that could possibly be picked up by newspapers. The paper also highlights the need for a more sustained research program on gender and development.

Social implications

This paper demonstrates that the public perception of increasing gender equality applies only in very high development (rich) countries. In fact, gender inequality rises as economic development levels decline across countries, and the gap between very high and low countries has widened over the past 15 years.

Originality/value

The empirical findings with respect to gender inequality across United Nations Development Program country categories over time are, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, novel and original. Relating the gender inequality gap to culture and context highlights the roles that social issues and the environment play in affecting gender inequality across countries and across time.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2021

Vartuhi Tonoyan and Robert Strohmeyer

Existing entrepreneurship literature has provided mixed evidence as to whether resource providers discriminate against female-led innovative start-up ventures in their…

Abstract

Purpose

Existing entrepreneurship literature has provided mixed evidence as to whether resource providers discriminate against female-led innovative start-up ventures in their resource commitment decisions either in terms of the likelihood or conditions of resource provision. While some studies revealed evidence indicative of negative discrimination against female entrepreneurs, others have provided evidence suggestive of positive discrimination. In light of these divergent findings, the purpose of this paper is to develop a more nuanced and integrative approach to studying gender biases in entrepreneurial resource provision with greater attention paid to both moderating contingency factors and mediating mechanisms.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors develop a conceptual model and empirically testable propositions describing whether, how and when entrepreneurial resource providers are likely to under-, over- and equivalue female-led innovative start-up ventures relative to equivalent male-led start-up ventures. The model applies not only to institutional or private investors as providers of financial capital to start-up ventures as discussed extensively in extant entrepreneurship literature but also to prospective employees as providers of human capital and prospective consumers as providers of money in exchange for an entrepreneurial product or service. The authors discuss the gender-typing of the entrepreneur's core product/service offering as a key contingency factor likely to moderate the proposed relation. The authors further delineate the importance of what they refer to as the “first”- and “second-order” mediating mechanisms underlying the hypothesized relation between resource provider evaluations of the male versus female founder-CEO, the attractiveness of his/her start-up venture and the (conditions of) resource provision to their start-ups.

Findings

Building on social-psychological theories of descriptive and prescriptive gender stereotypes and extant entrepreneurship literature, the authors establish that gender biases are likely to occur because of resource providers' perceptions of women entrepreneurs at the helm of male-typed start-up ventures to be less competent and agentic, as well as less warm and other-oriented than equivalent male entrepreneurs leading male-typed start-up ventures. The authors discuss the implications of such gender-biased evaluations for the application of stricter performance standards to female-led-male-typed start-up ventures and the likelihood and conditions of resource provision to their companies. The authors further discuss why and when female founder-CEOs of a female-typed (gender-neutral) start-up venture are likely to be overvalued (equivalued) compared to equivalent male founder-CEOs. The authors also develop propositions on additional contingency factors and mediators of the gendered evaluations of founder-CEOs and their start-up ventures, including resource providers' “second-order” gender beliefs, the high-cost versus low-cost resource commitment, individual differences in gender stereotyping and the perceived entrepreneurial commitment of the founder-CEO. The authors conclude by suggesting some practical implications for how to mitigate gender biases and discrimination by prospective resource providers.

Originality/value

Discussing the implications of descriptive and prescriptive gender stereotypes on evaluative decisions of entrepreneurial resources providers, this study advances not only the women's entrepreneurship literature but also the more-established scholarship on the role of gender stereotypes for women's advancement opportunities in the corporate world that has traditionally viewed entrepreneurship as the solution for women fleeing the gender-stereotype-based discrimination in the corporate setting to advance their careers.

Details

International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-6266

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1998

Kathryn Watson, Sandra Hogarth‐Scott and Nicholas Wilson

This empirical study investigates the characteristics of a cohort of 166 small businesses which were set up during a period of recession by founders, all of whom had…

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17603

Abstract

This empirical study investigates the characteristics of a cohort of 166 small businesses which were set up during a period of recession by founders, all of whom had experienced a period of unemployment prior to start‐up. These new ventures were appraised and supported by their local Training & Enterprise Council (TEC) prior to start‐up and in their formative months. This paper analyses the appropriateness and success of support services in the light of an empirical investigation of the factors which appear to impact on survival/failure and growth prospects of surveyed businesses. Comparisons are made between those businesses which are still trading and those which have ceased trading and between businesses with high and low growth expectations. Factors which are investigated include the founders’ personal background and experience; reasons put forward for start‐up; early problems encountered in running a business; business objectives and expectations.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Article
Publication date: 14 September 2015

Ute Pascher, Melanie Roski and Brigitte Halbfas

The purpose of this paper is to promote better understanding of different women entrepreneurs and self-employed women with regard to their educational level and field of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to promote better understanding of different women entrepreneurs and self-employed women with regard to their educational level and field of study. Foremost, the aim is providing detailed knowledge about the phenomenon of women self-employed chemists in R & D sectors and throwing light not only on the single women but also on the general conditions they are working in and their opportunities to get ahead.

Design/methodology/approach

The interdisciplinary research team followed an integrated research approach and combined qualitative with quantitative methods. By focussing on motives and causes of women self-employed chemists, this paper refers to the findings of two sub-studies, an online survey on self-employed (female and male) chemists in Germany and a qualitative study on the basis of biographical interviews tracing the professional biographies of women self-employed chemists. Moreover, the findings are analysed based on other sub-studies, like the analysis of the (start-up) conditions within the chemical industry and a discourse analysis of a well-known chemical periodical.

Findings

It was found that the differences between female and male chemists turning self-employed or starting a business are less pronounced than the differences between male and female founders, in general. Research demonstrates that women chemists do have high qualifications and if they become entrepreneurs, the main cause for that is escaping their organisational employment. Being entrepreneurially active, women chemists might work more satisfactorily, at least they are able to surround the glass ceiling.

Originality/value

This paper seeks to fill the gap of limited in-depth information on knowledge about female entrepreneurs and self-employed women with an academic background in chemistry. Focussing on one single field of study and profession of female entrepreneurs is, in that way, unique, as the research has looked on professionals who are not predestined for entry in entrepreneurship.

Details

International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-6266

Keywords

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