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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2010

Lilai Xu

Business incubation is an important strategy to foster entrepreneurship and innovation; it has gained enormous popularity in China since the mid‐1990s. The purpose of this…

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Abstract

Purpose

Business incubation is an important strategy to foster entrepreneurship and innovation; it has gained enormous popularity in China since the mid‐1990s. The purpose of this paper is to provide insights into the perceived value of business incubators from the perspective of start‐up ventures and draw implications for future incubation programmes in China.

Design/methodology/approach

The research was based on a sample of 61 incubator tenants from well‐established business incubators in Shanghai. A questionnaire including Likert‐type scales was developed to collect feedback/comments on incubator services as well as the perceived benefits of the incubation programme.

Findings

True to their names, business incubators in China have added practical value to start‐up ventures by providing wide‐ranging services and tangible/intangible benefits via the incubation programme. However, compared to their counterparts in North America and Europe, the Chinese incubators are still deficient in some important aspects; for example, counselling and mentoring services. To achieve better incubation outcomes, it is crucial that the incubator managers be competent, qualified and highly skilled.

Originality/value

Most of the previous studies on the effectiveness of business incubation in China were undertaken using a case‐based approach or focusing on the contributions of the business incubator to local economic development. The findings in such studies cannot be generalized. This paper provides empirical evidence to confirm the previous findings.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 33 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

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Book part
Publication date: 8 November 2010

Paul Ingram, Jiao Luo and Joseph P. Eshun

It is now widely accepted that the institutional interventions of states are a foundational influence on the dynamics of organizational forms. But why do states act? In…

Abstract

It is now widely accepted that the institutional interventions of states are a foundational influence on the dynamics of organizational forms. But why do states act? In this chapter, we apply the behavioral theory of the firm to develop an explanation of state actions based on the fact that they are boundedly rational rivals. The instrument of state competition we examine is the founding of business incubators, a primary tool in the entrepreneurial strategy of economic development. We predict that business incubators are more likely to be founded in a state when (1) the state falls behind comparable states in the indicators of economic development; (2) the state falls behind its own historical trajectories of economic development; (3) the state has slack resources in the form of budget surpluses; (4) comparable and rival states adopt incubators as a development strategy. Our analysis of incubator foundings in New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania throughout 1980–2004 supports all of these propositions.

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Institutions and Entrepreneurship
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-240-2

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Article
Publication date: 20 May 2020

Noha Ahmed Hassan

This paper aims to analyze the link between universities and business incubators (BIs) and to determine how students, scientific researchers and entrepreneurs can benefit…

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8692

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to analyze the link between universities and business incubators (BIs) and to determine how students, scientific researchers and entrepreneurs can benefit from this linkage. It creates an environment in which everyone can help the other to put their new ideas, special skills and abilities into new businesses. In other words, the traditional universities’ role has changed and entrepreneurial universities are now needed to redirect new knowledge for economic development through BIs.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper adopts an analytical descriptive methodology approach to describe the basic features of the data by using the descriptive research design. This research is based on examining a model provided by the author concerning boosting the entrepreneurial aspects and outcomes through university business incubators (UBIs) based on wide theoretical and empirical case studies. Also, the functional structural approach is used to investigate the relationship between two variables as UBIs are considered a new unit that has functions and structures to create an added value to universities and the society as a whole.

Findings

The educational system should create a favorable environment that enables young people to develop their mindset from employees to employers, and to prepare them to improve skills and knowledge to create jobs. UBI is the recent aspect of the BI evolution where the research outcomes are linked with the industry and development. This relationship between these entities will provide success to its stakeholders.

Social implications

Many incubators around the world are supported by universities. Others are making initiatives to link up with universities and higher education institutions to get the revenues and returns from its academic nature. Lately, university incubators became a type of incubator evolution and more supportive for entrepreneurs than other types of incubators.

Originality/value

The contribution of this study is to explain how UBIs succeeded to tie the results of scientific research with economy and development through entrepreneurial activities to accelerate and realize entrepreneurship strategies.

Details

Review of Economics and Political Science, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2356-9980

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Article
Publication date: 16 April 2020

Christina Öberg, Markus Klinton and Helen Stockhult

Incubators, as providers of advice and resources, suggest fostering the development of early-idea firms. Literature and practice seem to suggest an ever-increasing amount…

Abstract

Purpose

Incubators, as providers of advice and resources, suggest fostering the development of early-idea firms. Literature and practice seem to suggest an ever-increasing amount of incubator support. The creation of business relationships is at the heart of any business development, and this paper addresses whether a laissez-faire incubator fosters the creation of business relationships. The purpose of this paper is to explore the creation of business relationships among incubated firms during and after their time in the incubator along with the roles that these relationships play for the incubated firms.

Design/methodology/approach

Empirically, the paper is based on retrospective interviews with representatives of all incubated firms in a university incubator. A total of fifteen interviews were conducted with representatives of the incubated firms, the incubator and its owners, complemented by secondary data sources.

Findings

The paper points out three antecedents for business relationship creation: the lack of experience and connections; convenience; and trust based on the interactions with others in the incubator. These antecedents are connected to the roles of transforming businesses and of adaptation in the dyadic relationships. The laissez-faire incubator helped through the learning-by-doing among the incubated firms, which made them focus on business relationship creation from early on.

Originality/value

Most incubator research portrays the unilateral transfer of knowledge from the incubator to the incubated firm, with the latter being a service taker rather than a co-producer. The paper adds knowledge about business relationships among firms in incubators and the roles that these business relationships could play for the firms. The focus on an incubator providing limited support is of high practical relevance, given the trend of incubators facilitating more and more services.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 35 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article
Publication date: 21 September 2020

Donard Games, Rayna Kartika, Dessy Kurnia Sari and Afif Assariy

This study aims to investigate the effectiveness of the business incubator and its impact on commercialization strategies based on incubatees’ aspirations in three business

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the effectiveness of the business incubator and its impact on commercialization strategies based on incubatees’ aspirations in three business incubators in Indonesia.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative approach was used, which involved conducting semi-structured in-depth interviews on 14 startup owners who are tenants in 3 incubators in Indonesia. The data obtained were analyzed using a thematic analysis assisted with NVivo 12.

Findings

Business incubator effectiveness was found to be heavily dependent on incubatees’ satisfaction in their interactions with the incubators. Moreover, some patterns were formed from thematic analysis and used to produce three propositions.

Research limitations/implications

The study was conducted qualitatively using only 14 interviewees or incubatees from 3 business incubators in Indonesia. Moreover, a thematic analysis offers flexibility from basic to organizing and global themes, but, in this case, there may be a lack of deeper understanding, for example, in psychological viewpoints.

Practical implications

Business incubators in this study need to reevaluate their incubation process based on their incubatees’ aspirations. These have to be considered from the beginning of the process, particularly the innovation aspect. Meanwhile, policy implications were also discussed

Social implications

Policymakers have realized the importance of business incubators in enhancing Indonesia’s innovation and competitiveness, and this has made them encourage the establishment of some new business incubators. It is, however, important to note that most of the existing ones are simply “rubber stamp” and to improve their operations and performances, some recommendations were made.

Originality/value

Despite the potential importance of incubation in enhancing technopreneurship and increasing a nation’s competitiveness, little research has been conducted on incubators in Indonesia’s ability to fulfill such high expectations. This specifically means there is no information on the present and past perceptions of tenants or startups on the incubators’ performances.

Details

Journal of Science and Technology Policy Management, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4620

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Article
Publication date: 19 October 2015

Chiara Cantù

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the drivers of new incubatorsbusiness model. Several researchers have agreed that incubation is related to the early phase of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the drivers of new incubatorsbusiness model. Several researchers have agreed that incubation is related to the early phase of a venture’s life and identified the incubators as organizations that support start-ups. But only recently has a new generation of incubators emerged.

Design/methodology/approach

Using an Italian incubator case study, the research results are mainly ascribable to the ability of the incubator to facilitate not only internal networking, but also external networking.

Findings

As described in the findings, the business model of the service incubator is founded on value-added services among networking within incubatees as well as between start-ups and external actors. The service incubator becomes a knowledge intermediary that allows new ventures to identify innovation parties and transform them into innovation partners.

Originality/value

The paper investigates the new business model of incubator founded on external networking orientation. Even if some researches analyzed incubators and cooperation within incubatees, less attention has been focussed on external networking and collaboration among incubators, incubatees, and several stakeholders. Based on such collaboration, incubatees can undertake new entrepreneurial measures, explore new markets, and innovate constantly.

Details

IMP Journal, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-1403

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Article
Publication date: 15 February 2016

Christian Kjær Monsson and Søren Berg Jørgensen

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate empirically that differences in characteristics of entrepreneurs result in benefits from different elements of a regional…

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2055

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate empirically that differences in characteristics of entrepreneurs result in benefits from different elements of a regional incubator programme.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use mixed methods consisting of in-depth interviews and a survey of 100 incubatees in order to study entrepreneurs within a specific incubator programme called the Growth Factories located in Region Zealand, Denmark.

Findings

The authors find that there are significant differences in the perceived benefit of various business incubator elements for incubatees depending on their entrepreneurial characteristics.

Research limitations/implications

Future studies are particularly important in order to learn which elements provide the different kinds of entrepreneurs with a critical factor in determining their success or failure.

Practical/implications

The conclusions have importance for regional government and development managers aiming at designing new business incubators. The authors suggest that in order to enhance the effect of incubator programmes they must be tailor-made to the individual entrepreneur.

Originality/value

Previous studies have either tended to treat incubator programmes as a uniform entity, where all entrepreneurs receive the same service, or they have treated all entrepreneurs as a uniform group, even though it is well known that entrepreneurs vary considerably in their characteristics. This paper overcomes the gap.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Article
Publication date: 9 July 2018

Nadzeya Kuryan, Mohammad Saud Khan and Veronika Gustafsson

This paper aims to analyze born globals and business incubators from an empirical standpoint. Particularly, the role of business incubators in the emergence and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to analyze born globals and business incubators from an empirical standpoint. Particularly, the role of business incubators in the emergence and development of born global firms is focused, thereby outlining the significance of incubator influence on rapid internationalization.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on extant literature on born globals, business incubators and their interrelationship that nurtures internationalization, a theoretical model is developed and empirically tested to analyze potential born globals residing in business incubators.

Findings

Due to services provided, such as infrastructure, business support and networking, business incubators create a favorable environment for rapid internationalization of their tenants. However, the initiative to go international comes from the incubatees, and the motivating role of business incubators in this process is fairly insignificant.

Originality/value

The incubator-incubation phenomenon is notably under-researched, with most of the literature focusing on “incubator topics.” This relationship is extremely important to understand to choose appropriate political measures and orchestrate effective management of business incubators.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 26 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

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Article
Publication date: 14 September 2010

Thomas Gstraunthaler

New business ideas, especially those which address markets that do not yet exist, face huge difficulties in securing vital resources. Hence, governments support the…

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1888

Abstract

Purpose

New business ideas, especially those which address markets that do not yet exist, face huge difficulties in securing vital resources. Hence, governments support the creation of a protected environment, business incubators, in which these early ventures can develop. Business incubators perform two different processes: servicing the companies they host and fulfilling their main stakeholders' demands. Hence, this paper is critical of whether business incubators in Lithuania have been installed due to real economic demand to help all the promising startups to develop or if they serve primarily political goals. Business incubators are exposed to pressure from shareholders, both public and private, and adopt certain strategies to deal with their expectations. The paper aims to explore how the management of business incubators understand their own position, tasks and challenges and how they see their business incubators performing now and in the future.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper adds viewpoints from the sociology‐based institutional theory, adopting a more critical view on how institutions emerge, how they are influenced by their environment and how they shape the environment in which they operate. In‐depth interviews were conducted with the management of the business incubators. The paper included all seven business incubators of Lithuania: five business incubators in Vilnius and two business incubators in Kaunas.

Findings

The studied Lithuanian business incubators have a strong focus on property, together with the offering of training and consulting, although at a very superficial level. There are strong arguments in favor of a mimicking process and institutional behavior. What made these property developments so attractive was the available public money, particularly from the European Union. As long as the money keeps flowing, there is a strong incentive to grow. The managers say that their public shareholders provide only weak support after the business incubator was set up. Their private investors, on the other hand, are interested in high rents. In addition, teams operating the business incubators are small, most consisting of not more than three people; a much lower number than the European average of 12.

Originality/value

The empirical results offer interesting insights into the self‐understanding of the management of Lithuanian business incubators, their setup and the environment in which they operate.

Details

Baltic Journal of Management, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5265

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Article
Publication date: 15 May 2017

Roberta Apa, Roberto Grandinetti and Silvia Rita Sedita

The purpose of this paper is to provide insights on the relational dimension of a networked business incubator (NBI), by investigating the intermediary role of incubator

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1699

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide insights on the relational dimension of a networked business incubator (NBI), by investigating the intermediary role of incubator management in fostering social and business ties linking tenants among each other, with the incubator management and external actors.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper offers a literature review on the NBIs and advances a comprehensive analytical framework of the networked incubation model. This framework is empirically illustrated through a case study research on a leading Italian private NBI, namely, H-Farm. The collection of primary data was conducted by means of face-to-face in-depth interviews and a survey. Data were processed through social network analysis (SNA) tools.

Findings

The results highlight the co-presence and interaction of social and business ties, which build up a vital environment nurturing an entrepreneurial ecosystem. Community-based relationships and the intermediation of incubator management are crucial for supporting tenants in product and business development activities.

Research limitations/implications

These results pave the way to further research, oriented to the conceptualization of a NBI as a (small) cluster. Moreover, the application of the SNA tools adopted invites further research on networked incubators, applying the same methodology in new directions.

Originality/value

This paper adds to previous literature on NBIs by providing evidence of the intermediary role of incubator management in promoting and facilitating social and business relationships occurring among tenants, between tenants and the incubator management, as well as with external advisors, clients and suppliers.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

Keywords

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