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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2020

Subrata Chakrabarty

The purpose of this paper is to explain how human resource (HR) managers of incubators can be more effective by applying Relationship focused theory, wherein the HR…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explain how human resource (HR) managers of incubators can be more effective by applying Relationship focused theory, wherein the HR managers consider the forms of relationships among entrepreneurs. For helping create successful startups, HR managers of incubators can analyze and govern the practice of entrepreneurial action using a relationship-focused (rather than an individual-focused) approach.

Design/methodology/approach

A fourfold typology of relationships is used to explain the utility of relationships for practicing entrepreneurial work in an incubator. HR managers of incubators should consider the forms of relationships among the entrepreneurs that they oversee within incubators.

Findings

Social and task antecedents determine the ideal relationship between budding entrepreneurs, and incubator climate restrains the link between relationships and entrepreneurial outcomes.

Originality/value

Relationship-focused theory is used to explain the manner in which entrepreneurial action can be organized among budding entrepreneurs within incubators. The focus stays on the ‘relationship’ between budding entrepreneurs housed within incubators.

Details

Strategic HR Review, vol. 19 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1475-4398

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2014

Hanadi Mubarak AL-Mubaraki and Michael Busler

The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, discuss and analyse the successful adoption of incubators worldwide; and second, the lessons learned from successful incubators

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1239

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, discuss and analyse the successful adoption of incubators worldwide; and second, the lessons learned from successful incubators towards the twenty-first century.

Design/methodology/approach

The research methodologies adopted in this study are a mixed-methods approach: quantitative (survey) and qualitative (five international case studies).

Findings

Incubators contribute to the international economy and play a vital role not only in the economic recovery but also in smart growth and economic development. These findings will assist incubator managers, policy makers and government parties in successful implementation of incubator policies.

Research limitations/implications

This research focuses on specific lessons. More in-depth research may find additional positive traits.

Practical implications

This research will be of benefit to countries establishing business incubators in order to avoid mistakes and increase the likelihood of success.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the current literate on the best practices worldwide. Furthermore, it presents future perspectives for academicians and practitioners.

Details

World Journal of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5945

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2010

Lilai Xu

Business incubation is an important strategy to foster entrepreneurship and innovation; it has gained enormous popularity in China since the mid‐1990s. The purpose of this…

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1812

Abstract

Purpose

Business incubation is an important strategy to foster entrepreneurship and innovation; it has gained enormous popularity in China since the mid‐1990s. The purpose of this paper is to provide insights into the perceived value of business incubators from the perspective of start‐up ventures and draw implications for future incubation programmes in China.

Design/methodology/approach

The research was based on a sample of 61 incubator tenants from well‐established business incubators in Shanghai. A questionnaire including Likert‐type scales was developed to collect feedback/comments on incubator services as well as the perceived benefits of the incubation programme.

Findings

True to their names, business incubators in China have added practical value to start‐up ventures by providing wide‐ranging services and tangible/intangible benefits via the incubation programme. However, compared to their counterparts in North America and Europe, the Chinese incubators are still deficient in some important aspects; for example, counselling and mentoring services. To achieve better incubation outcomes, it is crucial that the incubator managers be competent, qualified and highly skilled.

Originality/value

Most of the previous studies on the effectiveness of business incubation in China were undertaken using a case‐based approach or focusing on the contributions of the business incubator to local economic development. The findings in such studies cannot be generalized. This paper provides empirical evidence to confirm the previous findings.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 33 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

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Article
Publication date: 5 July 2021

Charlene L. Nicholls-Nixon and Dave Valliere

Although business incubators are widely used support mechanisms for innovative entrepreneurship, the literature still lacks theoretically based explanations of how the…

Abstract

Purpose

Although business incubators are widely used support mechanisms for innovative entrepreneurship, the literature still lacks theoretically based explanations of how the incubation process creates value for stakeholders. This study aims to address this gap by developing a conceptual model, and related research propositions, that explains how the entrepreneurial logic in use by an incubator influences the incubation process (selection criteria and service offering) and performance.

Design/methodology/approach

Integrating the effectuation and entrepreneurial opportunities literature, which shares common conceptualizations about how the predictability of the future affects entrepreneurial action, the authors posit two archetypes of entrepreneurial logic that are associated with different incubation processes (causal or effectual) and two archetypes of opportunity attributes (discovery- or creation-based) that affect the incubation process needed to support their development.

Findings

Juxtaposing these archetypes, the proposed cross-level conceptual model specifies four levels of fit (ideal, surplus, deficit and mismatch) between the incubation process and the opportunity attributes of individual ventures, which directly influence venture performance (high, moderate and low). In turn, an incubator's performance is largely shaped by the overall performance of ventures in its portfolio.

Originality/value

This paper responds to the call for theory-building that links the antecedents and outcomes of the incubation process across levels of analysis. In addition to developing a conceptual model and research agenda at the intersection of entrepreneurship and business incubation, the proposed model also has implications for incubator directors deciding how to allocate limited resources, and for public/private sector administrators interested in leveraging investment in business incubators.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 27 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Article
Publication date: 16 June 2021

Rahul Singh Rathore and Rajat Agrawal

The paper aims to review existing performance indicators in technology business incubators (TBIs) and propose some new indicators with a focus on incubation activities in…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to review existing performance indicators in technology business incubators (TBIs) and propose some new indicators with a focus on incubation activities in higher educational institutes (HEIs) of India.

Design/methodology/approach

Performance indicators of various types of incubators were identified from research papers followed by interview, consultation and suggestion from experts of the subject. Nature of interrelationship between the identified indicators has been established with the help of Interpretive Structural Modelling methodology and Matrice d’impacts croisés multiplication appliquée á un classment analysis.

Findings

Number of ideas came for screening and number of ideas converted to start-ups, survival rate of incubatees is the indicators which have the highest driving power followed by time taken in screening an idea and number of failed or rejected ideas returned back into incubation. Few indicators (driving indicators) are affecting performance of other indicators as well.

Research limitations/implications

Some performance indicators are proposed which can be used for measuring performance of technology incubators in India. The actual implications will be known when these findings are used to assess performance of some technology incubator. This also is the limitation of the study that some cases can be included to validate the findings of this research.

Practical implications

A total of 15 performance indicators for measuring performance of TBIs in Indian HEIs have been proposed. The proposed indicators will help incubator management to prioritize the efforts and resource allocation.

Social implications

TBIs are looked upon as mechanism for promoting entrepreneurial culture in Indian HEIs. Their success is well linked to growth of society. This research will help technology incubators to identify the most important factors in incubation process. Performance improvement will directly affect society in whole. Culture of IEE (Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Employment ) can be achieved through technology incubators

Originality/value

Identification of new indicators for performance measurement of incubators in Indian HEIs is the novelty of this research. This has a lot of value due to multilevel hierarchy model.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

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Book part
Publication date: 15 June 2015

Fumi Kitagawa and Susan Robertson

This chapter examines the processes of entrepreneurial network and capital formation at a university-based incubator. Incubators could help overcome start-up firms to gain…

Abstract

This chapter examines the processes of entrepreneurial network and capital formation at a university-based incubator. Incubators could help overcome start-up firms to gain access to entrepreneurial networks and credibility with external stakeholders, by supporting the entrepreneurial processes including the acquisition of variety of capitals and resources. However, the actual evidence on the effectiveness of incubators as a policy tool for business support has been rather contested. This chapter makes a contribution to the entrepreneurship literature by addressing the underlying processes of incubation as a key factor critical to achieve accelerated firm growth at the university-based technology incubator. Drawing on interviews and survey of start-up firms at a university-based incubator, co-evolution of business models with capital mobilisation and re-combination of resources is illustrated. The chapter concludes by arguing that more detailed processes and trajectories of ‘soft starter’ business model would contribute to the understanding and development of policy support for entrepreneurial processes.

Details

New Technology-Based Firms in the New Millennium
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-032-6

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Abstract

Details

The Take-off of Israeli High-Tech Entrepreneurship During the 1990s
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-08045-099-5

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Book part
Publication date: 8 November 2010

Paul Ingram, Jiao Luo and Joseph P. Eshun

It is now widely accepted that the institutional interventions of states are a foundational influence on the dynamics of organizational forms. But why do states act? In…

Abstract

It is now widely accepted that the institutional interventions of states are a foundational influence on the dynamics of organizational forms. But why do states act? In this chapter, we apply the behavioral theory of the firm to develop an explanation of state actions based on the fact that they are boundedly rational rivals. The instrument of state competition we examine is the founding of business incubators, a primary tool in the entrepreneurial strategy of economic development. We predict that business incubators are more likely to be founded in a state when (1) the state falls behind comparable states in the indicators of economic development; (2) the state falls behind its own historical trajectories of economic development; (3) the state has slack resources in the form of budget surpluses; (4) comparable and rival states adopt incubators as a development strategy. Our analysis of incubator foundings in New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania throughout 1980–2004 supports all of these propositions.

Details

Institutions and Entrepreneurship
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-240-2

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Book part
Publication date: 18 February 2013

Ali Ahmad and Sarah Ingle

This chapter places previous incubator-incubation literature within a relevant geographic and policy context, and extracts the reasons for the wide-scale adoption of the…

Abstract

This chapter places previous incubator-incubation literature within a relevant geographic and policy context, and extracts the reasons for the wide-scale adoption of the incubator model as a new venture creation mechanism. Arguments developed highlight that in the flurry of political lobbying during the 1990s–2000s leading to the rapid expansion of incubators-incubation across the European Union (EU), policy makers, practitioners and researchers alike failed to focus on what is key to understanding incubatorstrue impact — internal incubation processes. A review of incubator development and impact at the level of two EU member states, Germany and Italy, is presented. This allows for a clearer context-bound sense of the state-of-art in incubator-incubation research to emerge. In turn it becomes possible to clearly highlight the direction of further research in the area where there is a stalemate between two opposing camps — one which has produced evidence to suggest that incubators make a significant difference in reducing start-up risk, and the other, which believes incubators do not give tax payers value-for-money. Structured in this way, this chapter is able to draw attention to the essential ‘missing ingredient’ in previous research which is key to understanding the impact incubators can have. This ingredient is the dynamics of the internal process of incubation.

Details

New Technology-Based Firms in the New Millennium
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-315-5

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 17 August 2016

Victor P. Seidel, Kelley A. Packalen and Siobhan O’Mahony

Scholars have studied how entrepreneurs acquire resources but have not examined how resources may be bundled with constraints, which can threaten entrepreneurial autonomy…

Abstract

Scholars have studied how entrepreneurs acquire resources but have not examined how resources may be bundled with constraints, which can threaten entrepreneurial autonomy. Organizational sponsors, such as incubators and accelerators, provide entrepreneurs with resources, but how do entrepreneurs sustain autonomy while seeking resources and support? We studied five entrepreneurial firms in a business incubator over a six-month period. While benefitting from incubator resources, entrepreneurs also experienced unexpected constraints, including mentor role conflict, gatekeeper control, and affiliation dissonance. By showing how entrepreneurs unbundled the incubator’s resources from constraints, we explain how entrepreneurs manage the tension between acquiring resources and preserving autonomy.

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