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Book part
Publication date: 6 September 2019

Lakshmi Balachandra and Prabha Dublish

Globally, the number of women entrepreneurs lags behind the number of men. Understanding how women entrepreneurs can be developed and fostered remains an open avenue of…

Abstract

Globally, the number of women entrepreneurs lags behind the number of men. Understanding how women entrepreneurs can be developed and fostered remains an open avenue of inquiry. One particular area of consideration is the role of other women in supporting and sustaining women’s entrepreneurship. Using social identity theory for our framing, we utilize in-person interviews with various women entrepreneurs across a range of global settings (urban Hong Kong, Singapore, United Kingdom, and rural India) to focus on understanding the roles of other women as they relate to entrepreneurship. Across settings, we found that women entrepreneurs identified four key roles that other women played in developing their ventures. Furthermore, certain roles, such as having a female role model, were critical in rural settings over urban settings. We thus consider the implications of having other women for women’s entrepreneurship broadly.

Details

Go-to-Market Strategies for Women Entrepreneurs
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-289-4

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Article
Publication date: 26 June 2020

Wei Deng, Qiaozhuan Liang, Jie Li and Wei Wang

This bibliometric review aims to display visually the intellectual communities (i.e. the cooperation networks among various countries, institutions, journals and…

Abstract

Purpose

This bibliometric review aims to display visually the intellectual communities (i.e. the cooperation networks among various countries, institutions, journals and individuals), the intellectual structure (i.e. the status quo and development trajectory of the intellectual base) and emerging hot topics of the female entrepreneurship research in 1975-2018. Based on the comprehensive review of the state-of-the-science, this paper aims to identify significant research gaps in extant studies and develop potential future research agendas that may catalyse new streams of female entrepreneurship research.

Design/methodology/approach

Bibliometric analysis via science mapping provides in-depth analyzes, highlights the intellectual structure and identifies hot topics. Using CiteSpace, co-citation networks of contributing countries, institutions, cited journals and authors are mapped first. Second, co-citation network analysis helps to identify the key “nodes” in the intellectual structure. The landscape view identifies main clusters from an overall perspective, while a timeline view delineates the characteristics and evolution of focal clusters. Major clusters are interpreted in detail with the help of foam tree graph processed by Carrot. Finally, the co-occurrence network analysis is conducted by using VOSviewer to examine hot topics and research frontiers

Findings

The findings show that the publications of female entrepreneurship increase exponentially. The major driving force of female entrepreneurship research is from the USA and England. In terms of intellectual structure, key concepts behind different clusters represent the major milestones in relation to individual determinants of female entrepreneurship, the impact of cultural and contextual factors on female entrepreneurship and female entrepreneurship in non-OECD countries, as well as the impact of family, social and institutional factors on the survival and exit of male and female enterprises. Hot topics include financing sources, the embeddedness nature, the impact and environmental factors of female entrepreneurship.

Practical implications

This study presents important practical implications. The findings suggest that intellectual communities of the female entrepreneurship field are relatively loose. Close contact and cooperation among different countries, institutions and researchers are lacking. To promote the evolution of the field, researchers who belong to different institutions in different countries may need to strengthen contact and cooperation. Additionally, papers in journals from the business and management discipline are most cited in this field, preventing new knowledge from other disciplines flowing into the female entrepreneurship field. Accordingly, female entrepreneurship research journals may need to expand their focus and combine knowledge from various domains.

Originality/value

This bibliometric review provides a more comprehensive, systematic and objective review of the female entrepreneurship field. Previous qualitative reviews are typically based on personal judgement, while a few quantitative reviews only describe statistical data. This study is based on thousands of citation data rather than a small number of papers pre-selected by the researcher, thus, is more data-grounded and less biased than prior reviews. It expands previous reviews by transparently visualizing the underlying structure and evolution of the field. Moreover, it highlights significant gaps in extant studies and develops future research agendas to catalyse new streams of research.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal , vol. 36 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2016

Narendranathan Maniyalath and Roshni Narendran

Past research has identified a negative association between national income and female entrepreneurship rates. Data from Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) 2012 are…

Abstract

Purpose

Past research has identified a negative association between national income and female entrepreneurship rates. Data from Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) 2012 are analyzed to determine whether the Human Development Index (HDI) predicts female entrepreneurship rates. The purpose of this paper is to indicate how other socioeconomic variables that measure human development interact with national income to predict female entrepreneurship rates.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were drawn from the 2012 GEM data set, which provides information on female entrepreneurship rates in 61 countries. To test relevant hypotheses, dependent and socio-demographic variables were sourced from international databases to perform quantitative cross-country regression analyses.

Findings

National income significantly predicted female entrepreneurship rates in the univariate analysis. However, this relationship became non-significant when development indices were added to the model. In contrast, the HDI, the Gender Inequality Index, and national religious composition were robust, significant predictors.

Practical implications

This study presents evidence that human and gender development indices, and national religious composition, are better predictors of female entrepreneurship rates than national income. Thus, studies on female entrepreneurship rates should account and adjust for human development and gender equality indices. As religiosity continues to be pervasive within multiple nations, policymakers should consider this when developing interventions geared toward promoting female entrepreneurship.

Originality/value

This paper identifies factors other than economic determinism to explain variance in female entrepreneurship rates and demonstrates that human development and gender inequality indices are better predictors of female entrepreneurship rates.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 22 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Article
Publication date: 13 April 2015

Rabia Naguib and Dima Jamali

This paper aims to propose a multi-level integrative research framework anchored in an institutional theory that can successfully capture the multitude of factors…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to propose a multi-level integrative research framework anchored in an institutional theory that can successfully capture the multitude of factors affecting the expression of female entrepreneurship in context. Although female entrepreneurship is known to contribute to economic growth and vitality, and to enhance the diversity of employment in any economic system, there is very little research pertaining to female entrepreneurship in the Middle East. The authors use this framework to provide insights into multi-level factors enabling and constraining the experience of female entrepreneurship in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and advance knowledge of female entrepreneurship in a particular Middle Eastern context as well as cross-nationally.

Design/methodology/approach

Analytical framework and qualitative research methodology consisting of focus group meetings and interviews with 15 female entrepreneurs and five male partners in the UAE.

Findings

Our findings aptly highlight the salience of a complex set of entangled factors lying at multiple levels of analysis in shaping female entrepreneurship in the UAE. Our findings also accentuate the importance of the institutional and social contexts in shaping the situational opportunities and constraints that affect female entrepreneurship and its complex expressions in a particular society. Although our findings document a positive tide of change in favor of female entrepreneurship, they also reveal the persistence of various traces of stereotypes and patriarchy that continue to constrain the free expressions of female entrepreneurship in the UAE.

Research limitations/implications

This study contributes empirically by conveying the lived experiences of a sample of women entrepreneurs in the UAE, but the results cannot be generalized given the limited size of the sample investigated. Conceptually, the analytical framework proposed in this paper represents a simplified heuristic tool rather than an explanatory model of the complex dynamics and interplays between different levels of analysis and institutional pressures when examining female entrepreneurship.

Originality/value

The value added of this research is to present original insights into female entrepreneurship from a vibrant Middle Eastern context, namely, the UAE, a country that has attracted and witnessed increasing attention in recent years in the context of globalization. In view of the Western-centric nature of academic publication on the topic, there is a real need for fresh theoretical and empirical insights stemming from an Arab-Middle Eastern context to advance knowledge and scholarship in this area.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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Article
Publication date: 17 August 2017

Salime Mehtap, Massimiliano M. Pellegrini, Andrea Caputo and Dianne H.B. Welsh

Female entrepreneurship is a growing segment in the context of developing countries and has the potential to become a driving force for economic development. However…

Abstract

Purpose

Female entrepreneurship is a growing segment in the context of developing countries and has the potential to become a driving force for economic development. However, research suggests that females are less inclined toward entrepreneurship when compared to their male counterparts. This fact is related to a complex mix of causes such as the belief that entrepreneurship is a male domain, certain conditions within the economic and social environment and a general lack of confidence with regards to succeeding in such activities. Barriers to female entrepreneurship are prevalent in the patriarchal Arab world. The purpose of this paper is to measure the perceptions of female Jordanian business students with regards to the socio-cultural barriers to entrepreneurship. It also looks at the conduciveness of the education they are receiving in terms of new venture creation.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of 254 female business students from two universities in Jordan was asked to evaluate various factors within the entrepreneurial ecosystem, including the business education they are currently receiving. A factor analysis has been performed to show which relevant elements may prevent young women from engaging with entrepreneurial activities. A comparison of perceptions about the educational system has also been presented to understand how a supportive educational environment may affect the previous analysis.

Findings

The results indicated that a strong supportive education system to some extent may reduce the perception of potential barriers for entrepreneurship but the overall impact can be limited. Conversely, an educational system lacking a supportive environment and concrete initiatives can deeply affect and worsen the fears of engaging in entrepreneurship amongst female students.

Originality/value

The role of women in the Arab world is quite marked and the reluctance of women to take a more decisive engagement in entrepreneurship may be reinforced by conservative, societal traditions. A supportive education system has the potential to act as a catalyst to encourage active female participation in the entrepreneurial domain, thus helping to spur economic development in the region.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 23 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Article
Publication date: 12 September 2016

Carlos Costa, Zelia Breda, Fiona Eva Bakas, Marilia Durão and Isabel Pinho

This paper aims to investigate the ways in which gender influences entrepreneurial motivations and barriers in the Brazilian tourism sector. As an economic process…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the ways in which gender influences entrepreneurial motivations and barriers in the Brazilian tourism sector. As an economic process, tourism entrepreneurship is widely spread in Brazil, with tourism development programs promoting it as a strategy to empower women, however limited research exists on how gender roles influence entrepreneurial ideals. This nationwide study aims to provide a contemporary insight into how tourism entrepreneurs in Brazil are situated within current entrepreneurship theorizing by questioning the complexity caused as gender roles influence entrepreneurial conceptualizations of what constitute motivations and barriers.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses online questionnaires aimed, for the first time, at a large variety of tourism sub-sectors in Brazil. Having nation-wide scope, the questionnaires produce knowledge on what motivates and what constrains Brazilian tourism entrepreneurs through a gender lens. Quantitative analysis using SPSS statistical software tests the statistical significance of results and is complemented by the integration of feminist economic theories into the analytical framework.

Findings

The current study’s findings highlight the invisibility of gender’s workings, as the majority of participants did not conceive gender as playing a role in their entrepreneurial experience. Entrepreneurial motivations and barriers show a departure from past literature, such as the fact that similar numbers of male and female tourism entrepreneurs perceive networking as a significant entrepreneurial barrier. This and other interesting findings prompt for alternative conceptualizations of discourses surrounding women’s involvement in tourism entrepreneurship.

Originality/value

This study consists of an original contribution to knowledge on tourism entrepreneurship in Brazil as this is the first time an empirical study has been made on a nation-wide scale regarding the role of gender in Brazilian tourism entrepreneurs’ motivations and constraints.

Details

International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-6266

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Article
Publication date: 20 December 2018

Sanita Rugina

This paper aims to review female entrepreneurship in a (post) transition context, analysing its almost three-decade development in Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia. Little…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to review female entrepreneurship in a (post) transition context, analysing its almost three-decade development in Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia. Little research has focussed to date on female entrepreneurship in the Baltic countries. Using an institutional perspective, this paper aims to explain the unique interplay of formal and informal contexts that have shaped the development of female entrepreneurship in (post-) transition contexts.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is based on an institutional reading and analysis of secondary data: statistical data, international reports and previous studies on female entrepreneurs.

Findings

There are more than 130,000 female entrepreneurs in the Baltic countries who share many common features and challenges. While the formal entrepreneurship environment is considered to be very developed in the Baltic countries, women are under-represented among the population of entrepreneurs, and there is gender-based sectoral segregation of female entrepreneurs in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. This indicates a need to recognise the diversity of patterns in entrepreneurial development, reflecting different inheritances from the Soviet past and the inertial character of some informal institutions, not to mention the differences in the pace of change during the transition period following the Soviet era.

Practical implications

This research can be used for academics, professionals, researchers and policymakers working in the fields of small business and entrepreneurship. Its data can furthermore be used to develop evidence-based policy and actions that would foster the participation of women in entrepreneurship in Baltic countries.

Originality/value

So far, little research has focussed on female entrepreneurship in the Baltic countries. The paper attempts to investigate that Baltic countries with their history of emphasis on gender equality on one hand and the award-winning business and entrepreneurship system on the other hand demonstrate relatively low levels of women’s entrepreneurship. This paper aims to contribute to the field of entrepreneurship, illustrating how entrepreneurship is linked to its social context.

Details

International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-6266

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Article
Publication date: 7 April 2021

Jabir Ali, Sana Shabir and Ateeque Shaikh

This paper aims at identifying the antecedents of entrepreneurial intentions among females in India using the theory of planned behaviour.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims at identifying the antecedents of entrepreneurial intentions among females in India using the theory of planned behaviour.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is based on the Adult Population Survey (APS) of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM), which has covered 1,683 female respondents from India. The data has been analysed using simple techniques such as chi-square statistics and logistics regression. The antecedents of entrepreneurial intentions have been identified using the theory of planned behaviour.

Findings

About 20% of the adult females have reported intention for starting an entrepreneurial venture in the country. A significant relationship emerged between the demographics of females with and without intention towards entrepreneurship. The results showed that there is a positive and significant effect of attitudes towards the behaviour, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control to the entrepreneurial intentions among females.

Practical implications

This paper provides insights on factors affecting entrepreneurial intention among females and helps in developing a policy framework for promoting new ventures among female entrepreneurs. This also explores the possibility of future research on entrepreneurial intention in the Indian context.

Originality/value

Considering the current focus of the government in India for promoting new ventures, this piece of research can be valuable for different stakeholders in adopting a gender-based approach in implementing inclusive entrepreneurial initiatives.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 48 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 8 July 2020

Yaokuang Li, Juan Wu, Daru Zhang and Li Ling

This paper aims to examine the contextual embeddedness of female entrepreneurship through a focus on gendered institutions. Specifically, it draws upon Scott’s (1995…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the contextual embeddedness of female entrepreneurship through a focus on gendered institutions. Specifically, it draws upon Scott’s (1995) institutional categories and explores how the three dimensions of gendered institutions combine to explain both a high level of female Total Early-stage Entrepreneurship Activity (TEA) rates and female/male TEA ratios.

Design/methodology/approach

Collecting data from the Global Entrepreneurship Research Association, the World Economic Forum and the World Bank for 63 countries, this study uses the fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) method to explore causal complexity between the regulative, normative and cognitive dimensions of gendered institutions (conditions) and the female TEA rates and the female/male TEA ratios (outcomes).

Findings

First, this study confirms the complex interactions occurring among institutional components. Second, the results highlight the key role that gender equality in entrepreneurial cognitions plays in achieving high female entrepreneurship. Third, configurations for the high female TEA rates and the female/male TEA ratios share a high similarity.

Practical implications

The study provides policymakers with a holistic viewpoint and alternate solutions with the aim of promoting female entrepreneurship in their respective countries.

Originality/value

The study highlights gendered institutions beyond general institutions, enriching the literature on the gender and institutional determinants of female entrepreneurship. Furthermore, the application of the fsQCA method in the study helps to enhance the understanding of how institutional components complexly interact to shape female entrepreneurship.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal , vol. 36 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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Article
Publication date: 7 February 2019

Anne Rienke van Ewijk and Sophia Belghiti-Mahut

This paper aims to explore how gender differences in entrepreneurial intentions (EI) change when entrepreneurship education (EE) is added to the force field of…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore how gender differences in entrepreneurial intentions (EI) change when entrepreneurship education (EE) is added to the force field of macro-social stimulants and inhibitors of female EI in the particular context of the United Arab Emirates (UAE).

Design/methodology/approach

The study is based on a pre-post survey with entrepreneurship students and students with a similar profile enrolled in other courses (N = 246) at three universities. The three main hypotheses are evaluated through independent-samples t-tests and a hierarchical multiple regression analysis.

Findings

The findings indicate a negative effect of gender stereotypes on female students’ EI in the UAE, regardless of the course type. Furthermore, entrepreneurship courses appear to be more successful than other courses in raising the EI of students in general and female students in particular. Finally, adding EE to the equation of macro-social inhibitors and stimulants of female EI in the UAE seems to tip the balance in favor of the influence of economic affluence, rapid modernization and proactive governmental policies to stimulate the entrepreneurial spirit among female residents. That is, at the end of the entrepreneurship courses, there was no significant gender difference in EI anymore and female students are significantly more likely to experience a positive change in EI than male students.

Research limitations/implications

The literature review identifies the need for future studies to evaluate the impact of variability in sampling and methods among previous studies on gender effects in EE. Building on the findings, future studies could identify which aspects of EE are pivotal for customizing female students’ specific local interests and needs. The study is limited in the sense that the data set did not enable tests of moderators at the course level (which mostly requires more qualitative data) and individual level. In addition, the sample is not representative for all female residents in the UAE at large.

Practical implications

This study might stimulate (UAE) policymakers to increase the scope and quality of EE. In turn, university administrators are recommended to find ways to compensate the self-selection effect (overcome likely opt-out by female students) when entrepreneurship courses are elective.

Originality/value

This exploration was inspired by the strong emphasis that Julie Weeks put on the gendered impact of macro-level factors in business enabling environments (Weeks, 2011). The empirical analysis builds on a conceptual framework that integrates Krueger’s model of EI, theory on gender stereotypes in entrepreneurship and previous literature on the role of EE (reinforcing or mitigating stereotypes). The study is executed in the relatively unexplored context of the UAE, which offers strong macro-social inhibitors for ánd stimulants of female entrepreneurship.

Details

International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-6266

Keywords

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