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Article
Publication date: 4 August 2021

Subhadip Roy, Subhalaxmi Mohapatra and Dina Banerjee

This study aims to explore the process of women entrepreneurship in India from a social perspective using the concept of entrepreneurship as emancipation.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore the process of women entrepreneurship in India from a social perspective using the concept of entrepreneurship as emancipation.

Design/methodology/approach

An interpretive approach is applied to address the study objectives, and based on an inductive method, the non-economic antecedents that led women to start entrepreneurship ventures are explored using 33 in-depth interviews. The study explores beyond the motivations and investigates the social process through which a women entrepreneur passes through after taking the decision to start a business venture.

Findings

Major findings indicate entrepreneurship as a change process where changes in both the entrepreneur and her social surroundings are observed with time. More detailed analysis reveal opposing (the entrepreneur) social forces in the initiation phase but more supportive social set up in the later phases of the entrepreneurship. The results support the process of entrepreneurship as emancipation (with stages such as seeking autonomy, authoring and declaring).

Research limitations/implications

The present study supports the concept of entrepreneurship as an emancipation process, and how it unfolds as a gendered process in a society where women (in general) are still not treated as equals.

Practical implications

The study has practical implications for entrepreneurs and their stakeholder networks.

Social implications

The findings have novel social implications on how a broader social structure has an influence on the entrepreneurship journey of a woman.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study to explore the phenomenon of entrepreneurship as an emancipation for women entrepreneurs of elite families in a developing nation who have started their business from non-economic needs.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4604

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 29 June 2021

Namrata Gupta and Henry Etzkowitz

This study aims to understand the socio-cultural context of Indian women's high-tech entrepreneurial experience. Despite a small proportion of women entrepreneurs, and the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to understand the socio-cultural context of Indian women's high-tech entrepreneurial experience. Despite a small proportion of women entrepreneurs, and the traditional gender dynamics among the educated middle-classes that appears to be antithetical to female entrepreneurship; women-led high-tech start-ups are on the rise.

Design/methodology/approach

Semi-structured interviews were conducted with women founders at an academic incubator in an elite Indian Institute of Technology. The study was based on the post-structural feminist approach that women entrepreneurs are embedded in their socio-cultural and institutional context. During data collection, the Coronavirus lockdown provided a natural experiment, highlighting entrepreneurial response to unforeseen obstacles.

Findings

It finds that the context is significant in constructing opportunity, and in navigating challenges of gender and entrepreneurship. Further, in the process of construction of an entrepreneurial identity, women innovators not only reproduce, but also modify their context. Also, the experiences with academic incubator indicate positive results both for gender dynamics and enhancing an emergent entrepreneurial culture.

Practical implications

The study highlights that women's high-tech entrepreneurship has considerable potential for enhancing women's status in society through the support of academic incubator. This has certain implications for policy.

Originality/value

It provides an insight in to the hitherto neglected issue of women's high-tech entrepreneurship in India, and argues that a study of “social embeddedness” not only highlights constraints for women entrepreneurs unique to that context, but also the potential of women's entrepreneurship in advancing women's agency and gender equality.

Details

International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-6266

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Article
Publication date: 14 July 2021

Jasmine Banu and Rupashree Baral

This paper aims to explore the entrepreneurial journey of select women entrepreneurs from South India to provide qualitative insights into the factors influencing their…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the entrepreneurial journey of select women entrepreneurs from South India to provide qualitative insights into the factors influencing their career choice (to become and continue as an entrepreneur) and to identify the drivers of their growth and well-being.

Design/methodology/approach

Semi-structured interviews were conducted to gather data from 35 women entrepreneurs in the micro, small and medium enterprises sectors of Tamil Nadu, India. Data were content analyzed using NVivo 12.

Findings

Qualitative content analysis identified three broad themes and several sub-themes to suggest a conceptual framework reflecting the possible relationships among them. Women entrepreneurs’ career choice, the growth of their ventures and their well-being were found to be significantly driven by a blend of personal attributes, strong family support and institutional support.

Practical implications

The findings will help the government to provide appropriate institutional support with customized initiatives and incentives to encourage women-owned tiny and small businesses to grow faster. Appropriate personality development programs and skills training will aid their growth.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the entrepreneurship literature by providing real-life insights from women entrepreneurs from an emerging economy context, especially from Tamil Nadu, which has the highest number of women entrepreneurs in India.

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 13 July 2021

Babak Ziyae, Hossein Sadeghi, Mina Shahamat Nejad and Mehdi Tajpour

Today, urban entrepreneurship is considered one of the vital strategies that directed cities toward self-control by reducing the unemployment rate and its arising…

Abstract

Purpose

Today, urban entrepreneurship is considered one of the vital strategies that directed cities toward self-control by reducing the unemployment rate and its arising problems, creating sustainable revenue and preparing the ground for citizens’ independence. This paper aims to present an integrated foresight framework and establish the boundary conditions for urban entrepreneurship of women breadwinners. The study explains how particular women solve workplace-specific poverty and foster urban wealth by developing startups, new businesses or ventures.

Design/methodology/approach

The current research uses a qualitative method and uses the grounded theory approach. Data were collected by selecting 24 outstanding women entrepreneurs using snowball sampling and semi-structured interviews in Tehran Metropolitan.

Findings

The results of the study reveal that the main aspects of the model of urban entrepreneurship consist of causal factors, intervening factors and contextual conditions. By shaping the policies and organizing educational plans, training courses and empowering of women, as well as the establishment of supportive units for the development, identification of the opportunities, developing protective rules, the factors as mentioned above lead to cultural, social and economic development, tendency toward entrepreneurship and development of entrepreneurship among women.

Originality/value

This study undertakes a first of its kind cross-disciplinary conceptual analysis at the level of how women breadwinners foster urban wealth using developing new businesses, startups or ventures. Despite the importance of urban entrepreneurship, theories for understanding the nexus of urban contexts remain underdeveloped. Therefore, there is still a theoretical gap and lack of research; hence, the current study tries to shed light on the topic and fill this gap in the body of knowledge.

Details

foresight, vol. 23 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6689

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 19 May 2021

María Eulalia Chávez Rivera, María del Mar Fuentes Fuentes and Jenny María Ruiz-Jiménez

The purpose of this article is to determine the factors in the context of entrepreneurship that are evident in Ecuador, a country that has the highest rate of female…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to determine the factors in the context of entrepreneurship that are evident in Ecuador, a country that has the highest rate of female entrepreneurship worldwide with 34% according to the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) (2019).

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative study was carried out with 39 cases, applying in-depth personal interviews and focus groups to selected cases in the main cities of Ecuador.

Findings

The results suggest that “mumpreneurship”, copreneurship and sustainable thinking arise in response to the environment. Deepening then in the perspective of the 5M proposes by Brush et al. (2009) that give us a framework of the macroenvironment of women entrepreneurship and offers a holistic understanding of women's entrepreneurship, adding a sixth “M” which is “Environmental Thinking” or the environmental thinking that is present in the current context.

Originality/value

This article is one of the first to analyse the context of female entrepreneurship in Ecuador and determine the context factors that influence the identification of opportunities and the exploitation of entrepreneurial opportunities. It also presents the expectations and challenges of the women who shape the authors’ case studies and give voice to Ecuadorian women. Consequently, this research will support the configuration of policies that supports each of the stages of women's entrepreneurial processes.

Propósito

Este artículo pretende determinar los factores del contexto del emprendimiento que se evidencian en el Ecuador, país que ostenta la tasa más alta de emprendimiento femenino a nivel mundial con un 34% de acuerdo al GEM (2019).

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

Se realizó un estudio cualitativo con 39 casos, aplicando entrevistas personales a profundidad y grupos focales a casos seleccionados en las principales ciudades del Ecuador.

Resultados

Los resultados sugieren que el “mumpreneurship”, el copreneurship y el pensamiento sostenible surgen como respuesta al entorno. Profundizando entonces en la perspectiva de las 5Ms propuesta por Brush et al. (2009) que ofrece una comprensión holística del emprendimiento de mujeres, añadiendo una sexta “M” que es el “Medioambiental Thinking” o el pensamiento ambiental que está presente en el contexto estudiado.

Originalidad/valor

Este artículo es uno de los primeros en analizar el contexto del emprendimiento femenino en Ecuador y determinar los factores del contexto que influyen en la identificación y en la explotación de oportunidades emprendedoras. Además presenta las expectativas y retos de las mujeres que configuran nuestros casos de estudio y dan voz a las mujeres ecuatorianas. En consecuencia nuestra investigación servirá de apoyo para la configuración de políticas que apoyen cada una de las etapas del proceso emprendedor de las mujeres.

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Abstract

Details

Gender and Tourism
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-322-3

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Article
Publication date: 17 March 2021

Ritika Mahajan and Kaushik Ranjan Bandyopadhyay

The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, it discusses the role of entrepreneurship, in general, and women entrepreneurship, in particular, in advancing the cause of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, it discusses the role of entrepreneurship, in general, and women entrepreneurship, in particular, in advancing the cause of sustainable development. Future research directions that emerge from the body of knowledge that the paper relied upon have been identified. Second, it presents unique cases of eight women-led enterprises in energy sector spread across three continents, namely, Asia, Africa and the USA; identifies the constraints and opportunities, analyses the business models and their impact on the quality of life pointers to demonstrate the role of women-led enterprises in sustainable development.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper combines a schematic review of literature at the interface of entrepreneurship and sustainable development coupled with select relevant case studies addressing the interface. The real-life case studies, which are consciously chosen and compiled from secondary data sources, complement and testify the insights drawn from the schematic literature review. The framework for analyzing the case studies is designed around multidimensional drivers and factors that steer the women-led enterprises.

Findings

The paper identified the need to look at entrepreneurship through the gendered lens not only for studying entrepreneurship as a discipline, in general, but also to gauge whether the inclusion of women as entrepreneurs is actually advancing the cause of sustainable development. Besides analyzing real-life case studies of accomplished women entrepreneurs to gauge their motivations and mindsets, the process of identification of pain points, identifying differentiating and innovative features, or studying the impact on society, economy and environment, the paper eventually created a schematic framework of key enablers, constraints and strategic response of women entrepreneurs.

Originality/value

Given the dearth of adequate theoretical and empirical contributions on the study of effectuation, mindsets and drivers of how women entrepreneurship steers the process of sustainable development, the paper is an endeavour in that direction.

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

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Article
Publication date: 28 May 2021

Alistair Anderson and Funmi Ojediran

The purpose of this paper is to review the literature on women’s entrepreneurship in emerging economies. This is a thematic review to identify patterns and trends to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review the literature on women’s entrepreneurship in emerging economies. This is a thematic review to identify patterns and trends to better understand this literature. From the analysis, this study offers ideas for useful and theoretically informed research. In addition, this paper proposes the concept of restricted agency that helps to explain the practice.

Design/methodology/approach

This study identifies the nature, what is interesting, what it sees as important and considers what is neglected in this literature. The analysis sought important issues, interesting directions and the potential for useful future work. Thematic analysis is ideal for messy and unstructured material such as the literature used in this study as the data set. The process is qualitative, iterative and inductive but ontologically appropriate for the socially produced knowledge of the literature.

Findings

This paper finds the literature tends towards descriptive papers. Few papers make substantial contributions to theory. Many papers reported the barriers women to encounter, reporting general and typical processes of responding to obstacles and the implications for practice. Interestingly this study perceives overcoming and sometimes using, the cultural and physical restraints of gendered entrepreneurship. This paper proposes the concept of restricted agency explaining the gendering of entrepreneurs and explains what they can do. Moreover, the concept helps explain why and what. Most promising theoretically, is how the application of this agency is slowly and contextually differently changing the rules of the game.

Research limitations/implications

This study covers a large and extensive literature, so might have missed themes.

Originality/value

This paper starts with the notion of the “otherness” of women’s entrepreneurship. The literature is good at explaining both how and why women’s entrepreneurship is different and in effect, marginalised. This study conceptualises this gendering process as a restricted agency. Moreover, the concept helps explain why and what. Most promising theoretically, is how the application of this agency is slowly and contextually differently changing the rules of the game. It may be the mechanism for emancipation.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4604

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 16 June 2021

Shqipe Gërguri-Rashiti and Sareh Rotabi

This chapter defines the role of women entrepreneurship in developing countries in general with more emphasis on Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries. It also…

Abstract

This chapter defines the role of women entrepreneurship in developing countries in general with more emphasis on Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries. It also introduces trends and challenges faced by women entrepreneurs, incentives to start their own businesses, the support mechanism provided for them, the common conditions for women entrepreneurship, and profile of women entrepreneurs in the GCC and Kuwait. The chapter also covers the impacts of Covid-19 crisis on entrepreneurship (small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs)) along with the country policy responses to mitigate these impacts and ends with sharing useful recommendations on what needs to be taken into consideration in the future for the development of women entrepreneurship in general and more specifically within GCC countries and Kuwait.

Details

The Emerald Handbook of Women and Entrepreneurship in Developing Economies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-327-7

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 16 June 2021

Hiroko Kawamorita, Yashar Salamzadeh, Ali Kahramanoğlu, Kürşat Demiryürek, Nur İlkay Abacı and Noriyuki Takahashi

This chapter addresses the impact of gendered social capital in developing countries to understand the barriers and opportunities to women's entrepreneurship with social…

Abstract

This chapter addresses the impact of gendered social capital in developing countries to understand the barriers and opportunities to women's entrepreneurship with social capital development and also to examine factors influencing the development of social capital for women and how the identified factors benefit the creation of their entrepreneurial activities. This study follows a systemic literature review to achieve the purpose of the research by examining the selected articles in both English and Turkish, followed by factor comparison between developing, developed countries, and world datasets obtained from Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) database. The finding shows that social capital strongly impacts the entrepreneurial activities among women entrepreneurs in developing countries, especially in Turkey. Although the academic and practical studies on this field were started about two decades ago in Turkey, it has faced a radical increase in last 5 years and many practitioners and scholars working on these concepts. The clusters in English and Turkish resources are almost the same; however, the density and number of key terms are much lower in Turkish literature which shows a gap for Turkish researchers to publish more in this field to examine variables for better view about women entrepreneurship and social capital related to it.

Details

The Emerald Handbook of Women and Entrepreneurship in Developing Economies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-327-7

Keywords

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