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Article
Publication date: 11 November 2022

Sunita Dewitt, Vahid Jafari-Sadeghi, Arun Sukumar, Roopa Aruvanahalli Nagaraju, Razieh Sadraei and Fujia Li

Given the recent emergence of China as a dominant economy and internal changes that have led to the encouragement of entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial initiatives, this…

Abstract

Purpose

Given the recent emergence of China as a dominant economy and internal changes that have led to the encouragement of entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial initiatives, this paper explores whether family dynamics and relationships still play an important role in women's decision to become entrepreneurs. It aims to understand whether there has been a shift in family dynamics and decision-making that supports female entrepreneurship.

Design/methodology/approach

Given that the purpose of the study is to understand the role of relationships and family dynamics in their career choice, this study has taken a qualitative approach and carried out interviews with fifteen Chinese female entrepreneurs to understand the role of relationships and family dynamics in their career choice.

Findings

The results note that though there are changes in family dynamics that encourage female entrepreneurship, women still find it difficult to choose entrepreneurship as a career and there are unfair expectations that are placed on them. The expectations create undue stress which directly affects their ability to carry out their professional duties. The research suggests that to foster the development of female entrepreneurship, government agencies and local government bodies should provide further access to family support services that can facilitate women's empowerment and foster entrepreneurial thinking without feeling guilty about family commitments or unfair expectations.

Originality/value

Recent studies on women's entrepreneurship have focused on various facets. The role of family dynamics and relationships has long been studied in the context of female entrepreneurship. In emerging economies like China, family dynamics and relationships determine whether women can choose entrepreneurship as a career choice or not. However, there is very limited research on the topic, in the geographical context of China. Hence, this paper is among pioneer research addressing family dynamics in the female entrepreneurship debate in China.

Details

Journal of Family Business Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-6238

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 September 2022

Haroon Muzaffar

This study aims to explore how the COVID-induced exogenous shock changed the prevalent occupational gender stereotypes in entrepreneurship in urban Turkey and presented an…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore how the COVID-induced exogenous shock changed the prevalent occupational gender stereotypes in entrepreneurship in urban Turkey and presented an opportunity to some Turkish women to start their own business. Furthermore, this study investigated how women entrepreneurs social networks helped them to clear the gendered hurdles that hindered their entrepreneurial endeavors in the times of COVID-19.

Design/methodology/approach

Highly personal topics like gender stereotypes are complex and nebulous, as is entrepreneurship as lived experience. Moreover, the COVID-induced crisis complicates the context further, which is why the addressal of questions about gendered stereotypes in the process of entrepreneurship, and the role of social networks in that process, warrants a qualitative research approach. Consequently, this study relied on in-depth semistructured interviews for investigating the studys research questions.

Findings

The findings suggest that research participants used the COVID-induced crisis conditions as an opportunity to beat the existing occupational gender stereotyping in entrepreneurship in the context of urban Turkey that opened a window of opportunity for the women participants to enter into entrepreneurship. In addition, social networks significantly helped the women entrepreneurs to acquire resources, and provided the leverage needed to clear the gendered hurdles that hindered the womens entrepreneurial endeavors.

Originality/value

To the best of the author’s knowledge, this study is among the first that generates insights into occupational gender stereotyping in entrepreneurship within the context of a developing country in the times of COVID-19 crisis. Hence, this study can help to understand the broader implications of the crisis like COVID-19 for gender-related beliefs and attitudes toward women entrepreneurship within the context of developing countries.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 16 June 2021

Shqipe Gërguri-Rashiti and Sareh Rotabi

This chapter defines the role of women entrepreneurship in developing countries in general with more emphasis on Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries. It also…

Abstract

This chapter defines the role of women entrepreneurship in developing countries in general with more emphasis on Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries. It also introduces trends and challenges faced by women entrepreneurs, incentives to start their own businesses, the support mechanism provided for them, the common conditions for women entrepreneurship, and profile of women entrepreneurs in the GCC and Kuwait. The chapter also covers the impacts of Covid-19 crisis on entrepreneurship (small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs)) along with the country policy responses to mitigate these impacts and ends with sharing useful recommendations on what needs to be taken into consideration in the future for the development of women entrepreneurship in general and more specifically within GCC countries and Kuwait.

Details

The Emerald Handbook of Women and Entrepreneurship in Developing Economies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-327-7

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 16 June 2021

Hiroko Kawamorita, Yashar Salamzadeh, Ali Kahramanoğlu, Kürşat Demiryürek, Nur İlkay Abacı and Noriyuki Takahashi

This chapter addresses the impact of gendered social capital in developing countries to understand the barriers and opportunities to women's entrepreneurship with social…

Abstract

This chapter addresses the impact of gendered social capital in developing countries to understand the barriers and opportunities to women's entrepreneurship with social capital development and also to examine factors influencing the development of social capital for women and how the identified factors benefit the creation of their entrepreneurial activities. This study follows a systemic literature review to achieve the purpose of the research by examining the selected articles in both English and Turkish, followed by factor comparison between developing, developed countries, and world datasets obtained from Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) database. The finding shows that social capital strongly impacts the entrepreneurial activities among women entrepreneurs in developing countries, especially in Turkey. Although the academic and practical studies on this field were started about two decades ago in Turkey, it has faced a radical increase in last 5 years and many practitioners and scholars working on these concepts. The clusters in English and Turkish resources are almost the same; however, the density and number of key terms are much lower in Turkish literature which shows a gap for Turkish researchers to publish more in this field to examine variables for better view about women entrepreneurship and social capital related to it.

Details

The Emerald Handbook of Women and Entrepreneurship in Developing Economies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-327-7

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 June 2022

Mehmet Bağış, Liridon Kryeziu, Mehmet Nurullah Kurutkan and Veland Ramadani

This article examines the dominant research topics that guide the literature on women's entrepreneurship in family businesses.

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Abstract

Purpose

This article examines the dominant research topics that guide the literature on women's entrepreneurship in family businesses.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors used performance and scientific network mapping analyses from bibliometric techniques. Performance analysis was used to identify the most influential journals, authors, countries, co-citation, multidimensional scaling (MDS), hierarchical cluster (HCA) and document analysis to identify dominant research themes.

Findings

The research results show that studies on women's entrepreneurship in family businesses are gathered in three clusters. The studies in the first cluster focused on family succession and women's roles. The themes of the succession process, gender bias, leadership and entrepreneurship in the second cluster are intense. Finally, in the third cluster, the themes of women leaders and identity construction dominate.

Research limitations/implications

First, new conceptualizations of female entrepreneurship from family businesses emerge over time (example: “fementerpreneur”); accepting and using these words takes time. For this reason, the authors may have missed the newly emerged concepts in the field of family businesses in the search strategy. Second, although MDS results are widely used in bibliometric research, other forms of MDS analysis may reveal different groups and clusters. Finally, bibliometric analysis is based more on retrospective and dominant themes in the most cited articles, with a heavy emphasis on the most cited papers. Hence, new articles and contributions can be equally important.

Originality/value

Previous studies have not examined the subject of women's entrepreneurship in family businesses. By addressing this issue and setting the agenda for future research, the authors contribute to the literature on women's entrepreneurship in family businesses.

Details

Journal of Family Business Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-6238

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 June 2022

Carla Costa and Dina Alexandra Marques Miragaia

Gender equity in entrepreneurship has been a global issue in several areas, and the sports context is no exception. Therefore, the present study aims to carry out a…

Abstract

Purpose

Gender equity in entrepreneurship has been a global issue in several areas, and the sports context is no exception. Therefore, the present study aims to carry out a systematic review of the literature to analyze how female entrepreneurship in the context of sports organizations has been studied in the scientific community.

Design/methodology/approach

The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses protocol was used to ensure the structure and quality of the study. Articles were obtained through a search in the Web of Science and Scopus databases, by using a set of inclusion/exclusion criteria (e.g. research equation, studies published only in English and classified as an article or review). A Microsoft Excel database was developed, from which tables and graphs were generated to help interpret the results.

Findings

The search resulted in 19 articles, grouped into four clusters: education and entrepreneurship, sports and entrepreneurial skills development, barriers to entrepreneurship and social entrepreneurship. The results indicate that despite all the efforts that have been made thus far, several barriers to female entrepreneurship remain. However, physical activity and sports have been found to aid the development of skills and abilities that may be fundamental to entrepreneurial initiatives. Formation in the context of higher education has also been identified as a fundamental tool for stimulating female entrepreneurship.

Practical implications

This study can have a positive impact on employment opportunities for women in the sport industry.

Originality/value

Besides providing ideas for future research, the results could support the development of policies to address gender equity issues and encourage women to take initiatives in sports entrepreneurship.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal , vol. 37 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 January 2022

Mohammad Reza Fallah and Maryam Soori

The concentration of women entrepreneurs on influential events such as the development of green entrepreneurship, which lead to the coordination and dynamic balance…

Abstract

Purpose

The concentration of women entrepreneurs on influential events such as the development of green entrepreneurship, which lead to the coordination and dynamic balance between economic and environmental goals, can create a bright future for businesses with sustainable and environmentally friendly architecture. The main purpose of this study is to provide a framework for the successful entry of women entrepreneurs into green entrepreneurship.

Design/methodology/approach

The present qualitative applied descriptive-analytical study was conducted on a population of women entrepreneurs working in green businesses. This population was obtained by the non-probability chain sampling method and an exploratory interview with the saturation of 12 individuals. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the findings.

Findings

The results revealed that creating shared value, inclusive social acceptance, multifaceted interactions and green dynamic bedding are effective in the entry of women entrepreneurs into green entrepreneurship in the form of “competitive empowerment” and “multiplied green synergy”. Thus, managers and planners should consider some factors, including shared value, social acceptance, inclusive acceptance, building green culture, knowledge flows, multiple participation, networking dimension, green marketing, competitiveness, creating platforms, green technologies and risk management.

Originality/value

This research tries to present a framework for the entry of women entrepreneurs into green entrepreneurship area.

Details

Journal of Science and Technology Policy Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4620

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 April 2022

Lalit Sharma

The study examines the emancipatory potential of entrepreneurship for women in STEM who have experienced a mid-career break. As studies on this subject are rather scarce…

Abstract

Purpose

The study examines the emancipatory potential of entrepreneurship for women in STEM who have experienced a mid-career break. As studies on this subject are rather scarce, it also makes an important contribution to the literature by providing key insights into the entrepreneurial journeys of women in STEM who have experienced a career break and have started their own enterprises. The findings could be used by governments to intervene in the identified areas of difficulty and to facilitate the entrepreneurial endeavours of women in order to bring this community back into the workforce.

Design/methodology/approach

The study maps the entrepreneurial journeys of 23 women with a STEM background who turned into entrepreneurs after experiencing a career break. Qualitative data was collected through personal interviews with women entrepreneurs and was then analysed to interpret the results.

Findings

While the study confirms the emancipatory potential of entrepreneurship among well-educated middle-class women with a STEM background who face constraints related to career advancement and work–life balance, it also provides insights on various aspects related to their entrepreneurial development. This includes aspects such as their motivation to start a business, major barriers they face in developing their businesses and the strategies they use to handle those barriers. Suggestions for policy development are also proposed.

Originality/value

In addition to studying the entrepreneurial aspect of a rather underexamined segment of women in STEM who have experienced a career break, the study also examines the scope of the emancipatory potential of entrepreneurship for this segment of women. To the best of our understanding, no such study on STEM women has been carried out in developing nations in spite of the fact that this segment of women forms an important techno-economic resource which remains largely underutilised in developing economies.

Article
Publication date: 8 March 2022

Ana Laguía, Dominika Wach, Cristina Garcia-Ael and Juan A. Moriano

Entrepreneurship, which traditionally has been a male occupation, still attracts fewer women than men. Challenging gender stereotypes within entrepreneurship is one avenue…

Abstract

Purpose

Entrepreneurship, which traditionally has been a male occupation, still attracts fewer women than men. Challenging gender stereotypes within entrepreneurship is one avenue to increase women's entrepreneurial intention and promote women entrepreneurship. This study adapts the “think manager – think male” leadership perspective to the entrepreneurship context and explores gender stereotype's implications for both entrepreneurial intention and motivation to become an entrepreneur.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 902 Spanish non-entrepreneurs, both male and female, were randomly asked about the representation of successful entrepreneurs (no-gender-mention), successful men entrepreneurs or successful women entrepreneurs (reduced stereotype threat condition vs no-gender-mention or men entrepreneurs' conditions). Then, female participants' entrepreneurial intention, its antecedents (i.e. attitudes toward entrepreneurship, subjective norms and entrepreneurial self-efficacy) and necessity vs opportunity motivation were measured and compared to their male counterparts' scores in those three conditions.

Findings

Female participants reported higher entrepreneurial intention, self-efficacy and opportunity motivation when assigned to the successful women entrepreneurs' condition. Younger participants – compared to older ones – also exhibited higher entrepreneurial intention and opportunity motivation, more positive attitudes toward entrepreneurship and higher scores in subjective norms. Furthermore, findings suggest a woman entrepreneur seems to be less accessible (or more counter-stereotypical) to male participants than to female participants and, thus, the “think entrepreneur – think male” bias is more noticeable in male participants. Therefore, reducing negative stereotype threat for women in entrepreneurship may increase women's entrepreneurial career aspirations. This is of utmost importance to optimize training courses and mentoring programs to strengthen women's self-efficacy in their entrepreneurial skills and capabilities.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the literature about gender, entrepreneurial intention and motivation by adapting a leadership paradigm (“think manager – think male”) to entrepreneurship (“think entrepreneur – think male”). These findings shed new light on the antecedents of entrepreneurial intention and motivation and have implications for policy measures. Acknowledging that exposure to successful women entrepreneurs as role models potentially facilitates entrepreneurship among women, governments should provide tailor-made incentives and support for women entrepreneurs in the form of awareness raising, networking and in the mass media.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 28 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

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