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Article
Publication date: 12 April 2019

Komal Chopra

The purpose of this paper is to understand motivation of young consumers to use artificial intelligence (AI) tools such as chatbots, voice assistants and augmented reality…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand motivation of young consumers to use artificial intelligence (AI) tools such as chatbots, voice assistants and augmented reality in shopping by generating Vroom’s expectancy theory of motivation using grounded theory approach.

Design/methodology/approach

Grounded theory approach has been used to develop the Vroom’s expectancy theory. Initially data were collected through participant interviews using theoretical sampling. These data were analyzed and coded using the three step process, i.e. open coding, axial coding and selective coding. The categories created during coding were integrated to generate Vroom’s expectancy theory of motivation.

Findings

The findings indicate that Vroom’s expectancy theory of motivation can be used to explain motivation of young consumers to use AI tools as an aid in taking shopping decisions. The motivation may be intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation or force choice motivation. Expectancy represents the ease of using the tools, instrumentality represents competence of tools in performing desired tasks while valence represents satisfaction, rewarding experience and trust in using of tools.

Research limitations/implications

The findings of the study are based on grounded theory approach which is an inductive approach. Alternate research methodologies, both inductive and deductive, need to be employed to strengthen the external validity and generalize the results. The study is limited to shopping motives of young consumers in India. A comparison with other consumer motivational studies has not been done. Hence no claim is made regarding the advantage of Vroom’s theory over other motivational theories.

Practical implications

The study has strong implications for retailers in developing countries which are seen as an emerging market for retail and have introduced AI tools in recent years. The Vroom’s expectancy theory will help retailers to understand consumer motivation in using AI tools or shopping.

Originality/value

Vroom’s expectancy theory to understand consumer motivation to use AI tools in shopping was generated using the grounded theory approach.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 47 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 20 December 2018

Komal Chopra

The purpose of study is to understand the motivation of academic library users by developing Vroom’s expectancy theory in the context of academic libraries using the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of study is to understand the motivation of academic library users by developing Vroom’s expectancy theory in the context of academic libraries using the grounded theory approach.

Design/methodology/approach

The grounded theory approach has been used for data collection, analysis and development of theory. The data were collected through the process of theoretical sampling. Interviews of faculty and students belonging to government and private universities in India were recorded and transcribed till theoretical saturation was achieved. The interviews were analysed in three stages, i.e. open coding, axial coding and selective coding, to identify concepts of Vroom’s theory and integrate them into a theoretical model.

Findings

The components of Vroom’s theory, i.e. motivation, expectancy, instrumentality and valence were generated from data. The motivation to visit an academic library can be classified as intrinsic motivation and force choice motivation. Expectancy in the context of academic libraries is related to ease or difficulty in accessing library and its resources which relates to ease of location access, timing access, remote access, access to siblings and discipline norms for access. Instrumentality is related to infrastructure, information, service and promotion. Valence is related to pleasure and satisfaction. The concepts were integrated into a theoretical model.

Research limitations/implications

The study is limited to academic libraries under state universities and private universities in India. Hence, the study cannot be generalised across institutions enjoying autonomy by the Government of India. Users of academic libraries may be motivated by several factors other than those considered with respect to motivation, expectancy, instrumentality and valence. The findings are based on the grounded theory approach which is an inductive approach. Alternate research methodologies, both inductive and deductive, need to be used to strengthen the external validity.

Practical implications

The understanding of user motivation through Vroom’s theory will help academic libraries to increase user motivation, thereby increasing usage of library resources.

Originality/value

Vroom’s expectancy theory of motivation in the context of academic libraries was developed using the grounded theory approach.

Details

Global Knowledge, Memory and Communication, vol. 68 no. 4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0024-2535

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 16 October 2007

Seongsin Lee

The puropse of this paper is to understand the components of Vroom's expectancy theory; to create or develop a public library customer motivation model using Vroom's

Abstract

Purpose

The puropse of this paper is to understand the components of Vroom's expectancy theory; to create or develop a public library customer motivation model using Vroom's expectancy theory; to suggest appropriate public library services marketing mindset which public libraries can employ to enhance customers’ perceived expectancy and instrumentality of public library services to motivate customers to use public library services more frequently based on the proposed public library customer motivation model; and to suggest appropriate public library services marketing strategies to motivate customers to use public library services more frequently based on the proposed public library customer motivation model.

Design/methodology/approach

Research paper based on expectancy theory.

Findings

Customer‐centered mindset is the most important factor to motivate public library customers. Furthermore, the suggested marketing strategies can be also achieved through a customer‐centered marketing mindset. In conclusion, public libraries should continuously focus on the recognition of customers’ needs and deliver long‐term value to customers.

Originality/value

There were few studies that focused on library users’ motivations for using library products and services. In addition, there was a lack of developed theory in library and information science field.

Details

Library Review, vol. 56 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0024-2535

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2001

Cecil A. L. Pearson and Lynette Tang Yin Hui

This study assessed the relevance of Vroom’s expectancy motivational framework in a cross-cultural context. Differences in attitudes for task investment, preferences for…

Abstract

This study assessed the relevance of Vroom’s expectancy motivational framework in a cross-cultural context. Differences in attitudes for task investment, preferences for work related achievements, and the reward potential of outcomes was assessedwith Australians and Malaysians who were employed in similar work contexts of the beauty care industry. Reasons why the Australian employees reported significantly higher job motivation than the Malaysian respondents were identified by examining the three main components of expectancy, instrumentality and valence, of Vroom’s framework. The study findings are discussed in terms of the implications they have for the necessary organizational development with Australians and Malaysians who were employed in similar work contexts of the beauty care industry. Reasons why the Australian employees reported significantly higher job motivation than the Malaysian respondents were identified by examining the three main components of expectancy, instrumentality and valence, of Vroom's framework. The study findings are discussed in terms of the implications they have for the necessary organizational development of businesses in the competitive Asia-Pacific region.

Details

International Journal of Organization Theory & Behavior, vol. 4 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1093-4537

Content available
Article
Publication date: 1 July 2020

Jordon Swain, Kevin Kumlien and Andrew Bond

This paper aims to provide an experiential exercise for management and leadership educators to use in the course of their teaching duties.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to provide an experiential exercise for management and leadership educators to use in the course of their teaching duties.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach of this classroom teaching method uses an experiential exercise to teach Adams’ equity theory and Vroom’s expectancy theory.

Findings

This experiential exercise has proven useful in teaching two major theories of motivation and is often cited as one of the more memorable classes students experience.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is an original experiential exercise for teaching the equity and expectancy theories of motivation.

Details

Organization Management Journal, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN:

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Article
Publication date: 20 July 2012

Reijo Savolainen

The purpose of this article is to elaborate the picture of the motivators for information seeking by comparing the conceptualizations of task‐based information needs and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to elaborate the picture of the motivators for information seeking by comparing the conceptualizations of task‐based information needs and expectancy‐value theories.

Design/methodology/approach

The article is a conceptual analysis of major articles characterising task‐based information needs and expectancy‐value theories developed in psychology since the 1950s.

Findings

The conceptualizations of task‐based information needs approach the motivators for information seeking in terms of the informational requirements posed by tasks at hand. However, the ways in which such needs trigger and drive information seeking have not been specified in detail. Expectancy‐value theories provide a more elaborate picture of motivational factors by focusing on actors' beliefs about the probability of success in information seeking and the perceived value of the outcome of this activity.

Research limitations/implications

The findings are based on the comparison of two research approaches only.

Originality/value

So far, information scientists have largely ignored the psychological theories of motivation. This study demonstrates the potential of such approaches by discussing an established psychological theory. The findings indicate that such theories hold a good potential to elaborate the models of task‐based information seeking in particular.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 68 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article
Publication date: 10 January 2020

Randi L. Sims and Ravi Chinta

Using Vroom’s expectancy theory of motivation as a theoretical basis, this study aims to test the relationship between female entrepreneurial efficacy, entrepreneurial…

Abstract

Purpose

Using Vroom’s expectancy theory of motivation as a theoretical basis, this study aims to test the relationship between female entrepreneurial efficacy, entrepreneurial ambition and nascent entrepreneurial drive, accounting for the potential barriers of race and minority disadvantage.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample included 950 respondents comprising 213 Black women and 737 White women living in the state of Alabama, USA, who expressed an intention to starting their own business.

Findings

The results indicate that race and perceptions of minority disadvantage are perceived barriers in the mediated relationship between female entrepreneurial efficacy, entrepreneurial ambition and entrepreneurial drive. However, the findings suggest that, unlike race, minority disadvantage is not perceived as a significant factor in the mediated relationship between entrepreneurial confidence, entrepreneurial ambition and entrepreneurial drive.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations of this study include the lack of an experimental design and the use of cross-sectional data.

Practical implications

Results are discussed in terms of the context of the history of racial and gender discrimination within the state of Alabama, USA.

Social implications

The results show that the direct effects of minority disadvantage on entrepreneurial ambition are significantly higher for the Black women compared with the White women in our sample.

Originality/value

The results of this study show that the direct effects of minority disadvantage on entrepreneurial ambition are significantly higher for the Black women compared with the White women. For the subgroup of Black women, the greater the perception of minority disadvantage, the greater the entrepreneurial ambition reported.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal , vol. 35 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2000

Peter Tan

Research has exposed a gap in satisfaction and expectation between management, employees, suppliers, customers and society. To bridge the gap, total quality management…

Abstract

Research has exposed a gap in satisfaction and expectation between management, employees, suppliers, customers and society. To bridge the gap, total quality management experts suggested various techniques. The author suggested closing the gap between needs and expectations of employees and those of their leaders. To survive in a dynamic environment, leaders must learn to meet the needs and expectations of their employees who can, in turn, meet customers’ needs. This research aims to provide organizations with a technique known as “motivation audit.” It is an approach to uncover and learn to understand the underlying significant needs and expectations of employees. In order to direct the whole organization toward continuous product and process improvement, the leaders must be aware of the underlying factors that motivate their employees. Otherwise, tangible benefits may take a considerable time to surface in spite of the commitment of management to train essential management and staff.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 15 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2005

Gerry Segal, Dan Borgia and Jerry Schoenfeld

Since the 1950s, organizational psychology research investigating work‐related motivation has progressed from static content models to dynamic process models…

Abstract

Purpose

Since the 1950s, organizational psychology research investigating work‐related motivation has progressed from static content models to dynamic process models. Entrepreneurship research has evolved along a similar trajectory, adapting organizational psychology findings to better understand the motivation to become an entrepreneur. This paper reviews motivation research from both fields, explores some of the commonalities among current theories, and presents a new model of entrepreneurial motivation.

Design/methodology/approach

In an exploratory study, the ability of tolerance for risk, perceived feasibility, and perceived net desirability to predict intentions for self‐employment is examined in a sample of 114 undergraduate business students at Florida Gulf Coast University.

Findings

Results indicated that tolerance for risk, perceived feasibility and net desirability significantly predicted self‐employment intentions, with an adjusted R2 of 0.528.

Research limitations/implications

Because the sample consisted entirely of undergraduate business students, findings may not be generalizable to non‐student populations. This research did not examine the role of negative motivations, or “push” factors. The cross‐sectional rather than longitudinal design of the study raises the usual caveats regarding lack of causal evidence. Finally, a limitation of any survey research is the inability to ask follow‐up questions and explore in more depth the reasoning behind any finding. Future research including qualitative interviews and/or focus group sessions could therefore provide rich explanatory information that could add value to the survey data.

Practical implications

As a result of this research, educators, government officials, and others interested in stimulating entrepreneurial motivation should consider how their words and actions affect potential entrepreneurs’ perceptions of entrepreneurial feasibility and net desirability.

Originality/value

Although the model is original and unique, it is based on established theories and models. It provides a well‐supported explanation of the motivation to become an entrepreneur that will be useful to potential entrepreneurs and those who encourage and guide them.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Article
Publication date: 26 October 2012

Shih Yung Chou and John M. Pearson

Previous research has found that information technology (IT) professionals exhibit significantly lower organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB) than non‐IT…

Abstract

Purpose

Previous research has found that information technology (IT) professionals exhibit significantly lower organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB) than non‐IT professionals. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to examine how an IT professional's job stress, trust, and commitment affect the valence of job satisfaction, which in turn influences his or her OCB.

Design/methodology/approach

A snowball sampling approach was used as it was the best available approach. The authors first sent out email invitations to IT professionals at a large mid‐western university and used their personal referrals to locate other IT professionals. After deleting unusable responses, 85 responses were obtained. The hypotheses were tested using partial least squares and multiple regression techniques.

Findings

The results confirmed the significant relationship between valence of job satisfaction and OCB and the relationship between OCB and actual job satisfaction. Additionally, commitment to organization and profession contributed significantly to valence of job satisfaction.

Research limitations/implications

With some limitations such as the use of snowball sampling, this study provides an additional support for expectancy theory in the IT setting.

Practical implications

The paper shows that exhibiting OCB results in job satisfaction in the IT setting. Moreover, it is demonstrated that IT professionals' perceptions of the valence of job satisfaction would be influenced more by financial rewards than by non‐financial rewards. Furthermore, because of the difficulty of changing profession and the ease of changing workplace, IT professionals' commitment to the profession might be higher than commitment to their organizations.

Originality/value

The paper provides a starting point for the investigation of OCB exhibited by highly skilled professionals.

1 – 10 of 188