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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1989

Alan J. Dubinsky and Thomas N. Ingram

Given the limited empirical work investigating personalcharacteristics of industrial sales people as related to their rewardvalences and the limitation of measuring…

Abstract

Given the limited empirical work investigating personal characteristics of industrial sales people as related to their reward valences and the limitation of measuring valences at a single level, previous research is extended by examining the relationships between industrial sales people′s personal characteristics and their valences for multiple levels of various rewards. A conceptual framework is presented, previous studies reviewed, hypotheses offered, the methodology explained, and the results and implications of the study discussed.

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Management Decision, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 24 July 2020

Elika Kordrostami, Yuping Liu-Thompkins and Vahid Rahmani

Valence and volume of online reviews are generally considered to influence sales positively. However, existing findings regarding the relative influence of these two…

Abstract

Purpose

Valence and volume of online reviews are generally considered to influence sales positively. However, existing findings regarding the relative influence of these two components have been inconclusive. This paper aims to explain some of these inconsistencies by examining the moderating role of regulatory focus (both as a chronic disposition and as a situational focus induced by the product category) in the relationship between online review volume/valence and consumers purchase decisions.

Design/methodology/approach

Two studies were conducted. Study 1 used a 2 (Volume: high/ low) * 3 (Valence: high/medium/low) within-subject experimental design. Study 2 analyzed real-world data from Amazon.com. Logistic and panel regression analyses were used to test the research hypotheses.

Findings

The studies confirmed the hypothesized effect of regulatory focus on online review valence and volume effects. Specifically, Study 1 showed that online review valence was more impactful for consumers with a promotion focus than for consumers with a prevention focus. The opposite was true for online review volume effects, where consumers with a prevention focus were influenced more by volume in their decision-making compared to consumers with a promotion focus. Study 2 showed that the pattern of results we found in Study 1 also applied to situational regulatory focus induced by the product category. The effect of review volume on sales rank was stronger for prevention-oriented products, whereas the effect of valence was stronger for promotion-oriented products.

Research limitations/implications

In Study 1, one product category was involved in the study (Digital camera). Involving more different product categories will add reliability to the results of current research. Also, it can offer external validity to current research results. In Study 2, there was no exact measurement for sales, as Amazon.com does not share that kind of information. Instead, Sales Rank was used as a proxy variable. Future research could look into the websites that offer access to the exact sales information.

Practical implications

The current research findings suggest the need for companies to adapt their consumer review management strategy to the regulatory orientation of their target market and products. When a promotion-focused mindset is targeted, strategies for increasing the favorability of product reviews should be used, in contrast, tactics for increasing the quantity of reviews may be more suitable when a prevention-focused mindset is involved.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors' knowledge, this research is the first to investigate the interaction between regulatory focus of consumers and products and online review components.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 55 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2006

Michael K. Brady, Clay M. Voorhees, J. Joseph Cronin and Brian L. Bourdeau

The purpose of this paper is to advance a new conceptualization of the service encounter that highlights the role of outcome valence as a key antecedent of customer satisfaction.

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3167

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to advance a new conceptualization of the service encounter that highlights the role of outcome valence as a key antecedent of customer satisfaction.

Design/methodology/approach

This study develops and tests a conceptual model using structural equation modeling. Specifically, it adopts recent procedures for assessing direct, mediated, and moderated effects.

Findings

The findings demonstrate that valence has a stronger effect on satisfaction than both functional and service environment quality, that satisfaction fully mediates the effects of valence on behavioral intentions, and that consumer involvement moderates the valence‐satisfaction relationship.

Research limitations/implications

This research draws attention to the fact that valence is an important research topic and researchers should focus attention on how valence might influence customer evaluations of services. Specifically, it is important to replicate these findings across industries, develop models that consider additional moderating influences, and conduct experiments to investigate the relative effects of valence across different service environment and functional quality conditions.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that managers must be aware that valence directly influences customer satisfaction levels and that they can and should account for its effect. Specifically, in some service industries, rewarding employees based on customer satisfaction ratings without controlling for the effects of valence is misguided. Ultimately, failure to account for valence can lead to managerial decisions that may not be in the best interest of the firm.

Originality/value

This paper provides a new look at service encounters and suggests that valence is a critical antecedent of customer satisfaction and, in some instances, outcome valence is a more dominant predictor of satisfaction than service environment and functional quality.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 20 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 11 July 2016

Li Yan, Matthew Tingchi Liu, Xiaoyun Chen and Guicheng Shi

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of pre-existing mood valence, mood arousal and ad-evoked arousal on response to television and print advertising…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of pre-existing mood valence, mood arousal and ad-evoked arousal on response to television and print advertising. It combined the arousal-as-information and arousal regulation approaches into a single arousal congruence theory. It sought an extended application of arousal congruence theory in the persuasion domain with several novel findings.

Design/methodology/approach

Four experiments were conducted to test the hypotheses. Analysis of variance, multivariate analysis of variance and pairwise comparison were used for data analysis.

Findings

Consumer judgment is a joint function of mood valence, mood arousal and ad-evoked arousal. Positive mood does not always generate more positive evaluations and vice versa. Ad-evoked arousal can more strongly influence consumers’ judgments when they are in a negative rather than a positive mood. Furthermore, consumers in a positive mood rate a target more favorably when the ad-evoked arousal level is congruent with their current arousal state, while those in a negative mood rate a target more favorably when the ad-evoked arousal level is incongruent with their current state of arousal. Arousal polarization intensifies such congruence (and incongruence) effects.

Practical implications

The findings reveal a mood-lifting opportunity based on ad-evoked arousal. This has implications for the design of advertisements, promotional materials, marketing campaigns and retailing environments.

Originality/value

This paper’s findings highlight unexpected effects of stimulus-evoked arousal in persuasion when consumers are exposed to multiple emotional cues from the environment. The paper demonstrates the utility of an integrated model, explaining the relative importance of valence and arousal in influencing consumer judgments. It has been the first to examine arousal congruence, arousal polarization and arousal regulation mechanisms jointly.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 50 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 9 November 2012

Joonhyuk Yang, Wonjoon Kim, Naveen Amblee and Jaeseung Jeong

Previous literature on WOM has consistent findings on the positive and significant effect of WOM volume on product sales, but the literature on WOM valence has been mixed…

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4061

Abstract

Purpose

Previous literature on WOM has consistent findings on the positive and significant effect of WOM volume on product sales, but the literature on WOM valence has been mixed. In this study, the authors aim to explain the reason for the mixed effect of WOM valence on product sales by considering heterogeneous characteristics of products, especially in the movie market, by segmenting products into mainstream and non‐mainstream movies.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses empirical data from the motion picture industry, such as box office revenue, WOM volume and valence, and other variables of movie characteristics. The hypothesis is tested using OLS and panel data analysis in econometric methods.

Findings

The authors find a significant effect of WOM valence on box office revenue only in the case of non‐mainstream movies, which have relatively smaller marketing budgets than mainstream movies. The findings suggest that as marketing communication channels become more diverse, with larger marketing budgets, the effect of online WOM valence on product sales can be diluted. In addition, it is found that the effect of WOM volume on box office revenue is greater for mainstream movies, suggesting that consumers build higher credibility on products with larger sales or WOM volume, especially for experience goods with uncertain quality.

Practical implications

The findings explain the weak relationship between WOM valence and product sales, which has been controversial in the WOM literature, and broaden the understanding of the effect of WOM on product sales.

Originality/value

The relationship between WOM valence and sales and, consequently, the revenue of a good has not been clearly understood, considering the heterogeneous characteristics of consumers in previous literature. In this study, it is found that WOM volume and valence have different effects on product sales, corresponding to differences in product category. The findings suggest a reason for the weak relationship between WOM valence and product sales, which has been controversial in the WOM literature.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 46 no. 11/12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2018

Loic Pengtao Li, Biljana Juric and Roderick J. Brodie

Valence is one of the key dimensions underlying actor engagement, yet there is limited research to provide a comprehensive understanding of the concept. The purpose of…

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1182

Abstract

Purpose

Valence is one of the key dimensions underlying actor engagement, yet there is limited research to provide a comprehensive understanding of the concept. The purpose of this paper is to conceptualise engagement valence in actor networks and develop an agenda for future research.

Design/methodology/approach

The exploration of the psychological foundations of the concept of valence and a systematic literature review from a multiple database search contribute to four sets of propositions defining the domain of the concept of actor engagement valence.

Findings

The propositions posit that valence resides in the engaging actor’s past, current and future psychological dispositions, which can shift between positive, negative and ambivalence. Actor engagement valence is triggered by the engagement objects and value propositions of other actors in the network. The antecedents of actor engagement valence comprise individual factors such as cognitive evaluations and hedonic feelings, as well as network-related factors such as social norms and shared beliefs, and the network structure. The net balance of actor engagement valence determines the actor’s engagement behaviours, and this relationship is moderated by individual and network factors.

Originality/value

This is the first study to conceptualise actor engagement valence, which contributes to the refinement of the actor engagement concept. This research defines the conceptual domain, deepens the understanding and provides an agenda for future research into the valence of engagement among actors in networks. The study recognises the institutional influences on actor engagement valence, and contributes to an understanding of the nature of actors’ psychological dispositions and how their valence determines the actors’ behavioural engagement manifestations.

Details

Journal of Service Management, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-5818

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Article
Publication date: 6 November 2019

Jian Mou, Jason Cohen, Yongxiang Dou and Bo Zhang

The purpose of this paper is to develop and test a model of the uncertainties and benefits influencing the repurchase intentions of buyers in cross-border e-commerce (CBEC).

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2402

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop and test a model of the uncertainties and benefits influencing the repurchase intentions of buyers in cross-border e-commerce (CBEC).

Design/methodology/approach

The authors draw on the valence framework to hypothesize effects of positive valences (utilitarian benefits) along with negative valences (pre- and post-contractual uncertainties) on buyers’ repeat purchase intentions. Data were collected using an online survey from 378 international B2C buyers on a CBEC platform in China.

Findings

Results explain 51.4 percent of the variance and reveal that overall value, as determined by monetary saving, convenience and product offerings as positive valences, exerts the strongest effect on repeat purchase intention. However, negative valences remain significant, and are particularly salient for female shoppers.

Research limitations/implications

The authors extend the valence theory into the study of repeat purchase behavior and contribute to much needed literature on why consumers return to repurchase from a CBEC platform.

Practical implications

Repeat purchase and loyalty of online consumers is essential for success of e-commerce providers. The results help online providers competing in international markets understand how buyers form repurchase intentions based on their evaluations of both value and uncertainty.

Originality/value

Buyer behavior in CBEC has received relatively less attention than domestic e-commerce. This paper is among the first to examine how both positive and negative valences combine to effect repurchase intention of international buyers in CBEC.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

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Article
Publication date: 9 April 2018

Javier Perez-Aranda, María Manuela Guerreiro and Júlio da Costa Mendes

The advent of electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) communities and review sites has strongly affected the tourism industry, changing the way hotels and accommodations build…

Abstract

Purpose

The advent of electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) communities and review sites has strongly affected the tourism industry, changing the way hotels and accommodations build credibility and a good image. Few studies have tested, among eWOM communities, the predictors and factors that directly affect positive eWOM reviews. Using a directory of Spanish hotels in TripAdvisor, the purpose of this paper is to critically discuss and examine the predictors of positive eWOM, from the hoteliers’ perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

After the literature review on eWOM, hypotheses regarding predictors of positive eWOM were developed. Correlation and regression analyses were conducted to empirically validate the relation between hotel and personal characteristics and positive eWOM among a population of 335 hotels.

Findings

Results suggest that commitment and competence are factors affecting positive eWOM. The study found that hoteliers do not perceive hotel characteristics (category, size, and type of ownership) or the use of the review site as predictors of positive valence. Instead, they perceive commitment and competence as the main predictors.

Research limitations/implications

The identification of the predictors of positive valence is important to get better eWOM valence. It would allow hotels to improve some factors that affect positive eWOM. In this way, the hotel resources and efforts would be better targeted.

Practical implications

The identification of the predictors of positive valence is important to get better eWOM valence. It would enable hotels to improve some factors and characteristics that affect positive eWOM. In this way, the hotel resources and efforts would be better targeted.

Originality/value

This paper investigates the factors affecting positive reviews on hotels, from the hoteliers’ perception. The study will help researchers to understand positive eWOM formation. Moreover, this study will provide marketers with information on how to improve efforts to obtain positive reviews.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. 42 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

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Article
Publication date: 9 January 2017

Yit Sean Chong and Pervaiz K. Ahmed

Via an experimental approach, this study therefore seeks to examine the effects of outcome valence upon service perception in the higher education setting where academic…

Abstract

Purpose

Via an experimental approach, this study therefore seeks to examine the effects of outcome valence upon service perception in the higher education setting where academic services form the core service element. To further extend this inquiry, the purpose of this paper is to explore the carryover effect of these emotional states to a subsequent unrelated service encounter which is classified as a peripheral service element which is hedonic in nature.

Design/methodology/approach

By using a simulated laboratory experimental procedure involving 300 participants, the authors examined the extent to which a student’s feeling toward an online test result has a bearing upon the teaching evaluation and a subsequent service experience in a branded retail context.

Findings

The results gathered from this study highlight the variability of the carryover effect of outcome valence from a work-related service context that serves as incidental emotions to a subsequent unrelated service encounter which is hedonic in nature. From the results gathered, variations were observed in relation to the dynamics of outcome valence in affecting core service evaluation where teaching quality was assessed, and in the peripheral service context in the form of retail experience at a branded cafè. From the basis of these findings, the psychological role of retail stores operating in a valence-oriented industry such as the higher education is discussed in this study.

Practical implications

Essentially, this study contributes to the academic literature and managerial practices by extending the knowledge in the dynamics of valence and its impact upon service perceptions.

Originality/value

This study adopts a simulated experimental design to assess the transference effect of valence in specific service encounters. This methodological approach offers greater reliability compared to existing studies which undertake a retrospective approach via questionnaire survey to examine outcome valence in service experiences. The results from this study provide important managerial implications by assessing the impact of valence upon customer satisfaction ratings which are commonly used for performance appraisal of service staff members. Additionally, the outcome of this study potentially assist managers to account for incidental emotions which may have an impact upon customer’s service experience.

Details

Journal of Service Theory and Practice, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2055-6225

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Article
Publication date: 8 October 2019

Hongfei Liu, Chanaka Jayawardhena, Victoria-Sophie Osburg and Mujahid Mohiuddin Babu

The influence of electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) information, such as online reviews, on consumers’ decision making is well documented, but it is unclear if online reviews…

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1503

Abstract

Purpose

The influence of electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) information, such as online reviews, on consumers’ decision making is well documented, but it is unclear if online reviews still matter in post-purchase evaluation and behaviours. The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent to which online reviews (aggregate rating (AR) and individual reviews (IR)) influence consumers’ evaluation and post-purchase behaviour by considering the valence congruence of online reviews and consumption experience (CE).

Design/methodology/approach

Following social comparison theory and relevant literature, the authors conduct an online experiment (pre-test: n=180; main study: n=347). The authors rely on a 2 (CE valence) ×2 (AR valence) ×2 (IR valence) between-subjects design.

Findings

Congruence/incongruence between the valences of CE, AR and IR affects consumers’ post-purchase evaluation at the emotional, brand and media levels and review-writing behaviour. In comparison to aggregated rating, IR are more important in the post-purchase stage. Similarly, consumers have a higher eWOM-writing intention when there is congruence between the valences of CE, AR and IR.

Practical implications

The authors demonstrate the importance of service providers continually monitoring their business profiles on review sites to ensure consistency of review information, as these influence consumers’ post-purchase evaluation and behaviours. For this reason, the authors illustrate the utility of why media owners of review sites should support the monitoring process to facilitate the engagement of both businesses and customers.

Originality/value

The authors break new ground by empirically testing the impact of online review information post-purchase seen through the theoretical lens of social comparison. The approach is novel in breaking down and testing the dimensions of post-purchase evaluation and behavioural intentions in understanding the social comparison elicited by online reviews in the post-purchase phase.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

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1 – 10 of over 4000