The purpose of this paper is to understand motivation of young consumers to use artificial intelligence (AI) tools such as chatbots, voice assistants and augmented reality in shopping by generating Vroom’s expectancy theory of motivation using grounded theory approach.
Grounded theory approach has been used to develop the Vroom’s expectancy theory. Initially data were collected through participant interviews using theoretical sampling. These data were analyzed and coded using the three step process, i.e. open coding, axial coding and selective coding. The categories created during coding were integrated to generate Vroom’s expectancy theory of motivation.
The findings indicate that Vroom’s expectancy theory of motivation can be used to explain motivation of young consumers to use AI tools as an aid in taking shopping decisions. The motivation may be intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation or force choice motivation. Expectancy represents the ease of using the tools, instrumentality represents competence of tools in performing desired tasks while valence represents satisfaction, rewarding experience and trust in using of tools.
The findings of the study are based on grounded theory approach which is an inductive approach. Alternate research methodologies, both inductive and deductive, need to be employed to strengthen the external validity and generalize the results. The study is limited to shopping motives of young consumers in India. A comparison with other consumer motivational studies has not been done. Hence no claim is made regarding the advantage of Vroom’s theory over other motivational theories.
The study has strong implications for retailers in developing countries which are seen as an emerging market for retail and have introduced AI tools in recent years. The Vroom’s expectancy theory will help retailers to understand consumer motivation in using AI tools or shopping.
Vroom’s expectancy theory to understand consumer motivation to use AI tools in shopping was generated using the grounded theory approach.
Chopra, K. (2019), "Indian shopper motivation to use artificial intelligence: Generating Vroom’s expectancy theory of motivation using grounded theory approach", International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, Vol. 47 No. 3, pp. 331-347. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJRDM-11-2018-0251Download as .RIS
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