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Article
Publication date: 11 October 2021

Uttam Chakraborty and Santosh Kumar Biswal

To attain gender equality, a part of sustainable development goals (SDGs) worldwide, there has been a considerable concentration on women entrepreneurship which ultimately…

Abstract

Purpose

To attain gender equality, a part of sustainable development goals (SDGs) worldwide, there has been a considerable concentration on women entrepreneurship which ultimately fosters women empowerment. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to focus on the dimensions of women’s psychological empowerment, and by improving these dimensions, it will ultimately strengthen empowerment of women entrepreneurs which will help to attain the SDGs results such as gender parity, reducing poverty and social disequilibrium.

Design/methodology/approach

Social cognitive theory, Vroom's expectancy theory and cultural modernization theory are followed to identify the dimensions of psychological empowerment. The present study conducted netnography in the platform of Twitter to understand the dimensions of psychological empowerment among women entrepreneurs.

Findings

The data analysis identifies four psychological women empowerment dimensions, namely, goal internationalization, perceived control, perceived competency and self-esteem.

Originality/value

This study attempts to identify the psychological empowerment dimensions in the context of women entrepreneurs. The study integrates three theories to understand the psychological empowerment of women entrepreneurs.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

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Article
Publication date: 5 October 2021

Mukesh Pal, Hemant Gupta and Yogesh C. Joshi

Women empowerment becomes an important policy discussion in development economics and modernization theory. The empowerment of women can lead to an increase in the quality…

Abstract

Purpose

Women empowerment becomes an important policy discussion in development economics and modernization theory. The empowerment of women can lead to an increase in the quality viz-a-viz the capacity of human resources accessible for economic development. The purpose of this study is to evidence the impact of social and economic dimensions on women empowerment through financial inclusion in rural India.

Design/methodology/approach

To reveal the research objective, the study has utilized a primary survey of women respondents from the Gujarat state of India by a simple random sampling method and applied a logistic regression approach to identify the relationship between the need of a bank account (determinant of financial inclusion) as a dependent variable and social and economic dimensions of women empowerment such as earning status, participation in financial decision-making, recipient of social welfare schemes and perception towards the safety of saving as independent variables.

Findings

The results of this study show that earning status, participation in financial decision-making at household level and recipient of social welfare schemes by women have a significant impact on women empowerment through financial inclusion; however, safety of their savings is observed as an insignificant variable, yet the odd value is very high (2.437) in the present study.

Originality/value

The present study is the first of its kind to examine the social and economic status of women and its impact on their requirement of a formal bank account for the overall empowerment of women in rural India.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

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Article
Publication date: 4 August 2021

Nisha Bharti

Women establish about half of the world's population and constitute a significant part of the workforce. Women's empowerment is considered as an entry point for women's…

Abstract

Purpose

Women establish about half of the world's population and constitute a significant part of the workforce. Women's empowerment is considered as an entry point for women's integration and inclusion into development. Economic independence is recognized as the key to women's empowerment. Economic independence provides women with autonomy in other aspects of their life. By organizing them into groups and providing financial freedom by enhancing the livelihood of women, cooperatives are playing an essential role in the empowerment of women. In the last two decades, self-help group (SHGs) has evolved as an informal form of cooperative and has played a very important role in women empowerment.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is an attempt to explore the role of cooperatives in women empowerment. Firstly, an intensive search of literature was done to identify the role of cooperatives in bringing women empowerment in the Scopus database. This data were analysed to look at the trends in research using VOSviewer. Later, the findings of this study are supported by field observation.

Findings

The paper also develops a framework for women empowerment through cooperatives and reviews the field experiences to support the framework. The paper concludes that the theory of economic modernity holds true for women empowerment, as economic independence through cooperatives has helped women gain access to control over resources and led to women empowerment.

Research limitations/implications

The paper develops a framework and supports the findings that economic independence is a key to women empowerment, and cooperatives are playing an important role in the same. It will help practitioners in framing the policies and interventions for women empowerment. The findings of the paper will be helpful in setting directions for research in this domain.

Originality/value

The paper is an original contribution as it has reviewed literature and used VOSviewer. Along with the review, it has supported the findings from qualitative observations from the field.

Details

World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5961

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Book part
Publication date: 9 June 2020

Sudatta Banerjee, Swati Alok and Bincy George

The study finds the determinants of women empowerment measured in terms of domestic decision-making in a developing economy perspective by considering rural women in…

Abstract

The study finds the determinants of women empowerment measured in terms of domestic decision-making in a developing economy perspective by considering rural women in India. Women empowerment simply means giving opportunities to women to enable them to be socially and financially independent. Empowerment of women through investment in their education and health has a positive effect on economic growth. Almost 70% of Indian population lives in rural areas. If women in these areas are educated and empowered, they can contribute to the economic growth either directly or indirectly by improving health and education of the future generations. This study indicates that an employed woman, having her own income source, higher educational level, knowledge of legal rights, higher educational level of the mother of the woman, having property in her own name, more freedom of movement during her school days, having high self-esteem and belonging to a relatively affluent background, increases domestic making power of the women, and thus empowerment. Some possible policies are suggested for developing economies.

Details

Advanced Issues in the Economics of Emerging Markets
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-578-9

Keywords

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 21 September 2020

Eva Medina and Ainhoa Herrarte

Women’s empowerment is a multidimensional concept that encompasses different aspects such as access to education, freedom to make vital decisions, labor market access…

Abstract

Women’s empowerment is a multidimensional concept that encompasses different aspects such as access to education, freedom to make vital decisions, labor market access, wages, and political participation, among others. In this research, the authors construct a multidimensional index of women’s empowerment that takes into account individual resources and achievements and analyze its evolution across countries using data from the United Nations Development Programme and the United Nations for 17 gender indicators across 96 countries over the period 1995–2015. By means of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, the authors identify three dimensions of women’s empowerment: reproductive health, economic participation, and basic education. In addition, the authors use cluster techniques to classify countries into four groups with similar behavior patterns in the different domains of women’s empowerment: a group of countries with high levels in the domains of reproductive health and basic education but with low levels in economic participation; a group of countries with high levels in the domains of reproductive health and economic participation that should pay attention to education; a group of countries with medium levels across the three dimensions of women’s empowerment, especially in reproductive health and economic participation; and a group of countries with low levels in all the dimensions of women’s empowerment, especially in reproductive health and basic education. The comparison of these different patterns serves to highlight the aspects in which improvements have been made or, on the contrary, to highlight the obstacles that are hindering the improvement of gender equality. Finally, the results suggest that advancements in women’s empowerment improve the countries’ level of development.

Details

Advances in Women’s Empowerment: Critical Insight from Asia, Africa and Latin America
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-472-2

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Book part
Publication date: 21 September 2020

Anne-Sophie Robilliard

Despite some decline, most Sub Saharan African countries still exhibit very high levels of fertility, resulting in the lengthening of the phase of strong population…

Abstract

Despite some decline, most Sub Saharan African countries still exhibit very high levels of fertility, resulting in the lengthening of the phase of strong population growth. Using Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) data collected over a pooled sample of more than 430,000 married women living in 33 countries, the author examines the relationship between empowerment and desired fertility. The author constructs six different proxies of empowerment: two “objective” proxies (education and labor force participation), three “subjective” proxies (say in household decisions, non-acceptance of domestic violence, and no son preference), and a “relative” proxy (small spousal age difference). The author first shows that these six dimensions are related with one another and highly variable from one country to another across the region. the author then explores the relationship of these dimensions with desired fertility at the individual level. On the pooled sample, the author find that there is a strong and negative relationship between all six dimensions of empowerment and desired fertility: in other words, women who have a low degree of empowerment tend to want a higher number of children. This result still holds when taking into account country fixed-effects to account for country-level characteristics. However, when examining more closely the relationship at the country level, the author finds that there is some variation on the strength of the relationship and that its sign is reversed for some indicators in some countries. Lastly, the author finds that local context matters which suggests that empowerment policies should address both the individual and collective dimensions of empowerment.

Details

Advances in Women’s Empowerment: Critical Insight from Asia, Africa and Latin America
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-472-2

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2021

Emmanuel Mogaji, Robert Ebo Hinson, Arinze Christian Nwoba and Nguyen Phong Nguyen

Drawing on stakeholder theory, the purpose of this paper examines how Nigerian banks employ their corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives to empower women to…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on stakeholder theory, the purpose of this paper examines how Nigerian banks employ their corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives to empower women to participate in economic and commercial activities.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology of this paper is regarding a thematic analysis of Nigerian banks' annual CSR and sustainability reports.

Findings

A theoretical framework was developed which illustrates the investment foundation (Sustainable Development Goals, Women's Empowerment Principles (WEPs) and Nigerian Sustainable Banking Principles) that supports the different levels of engagement (healthcare, financial, social and career empowerment) aimed at different groups of women (women at large, women in business and women in career) in the society.

Research limitations/implications

The study findings are confined to the banks in Nigeria, focussing on how they empower women to participate in economic and commercial activities.

Practical implications

It is paramount that Nigerian banks consistently report their CSR initiatives. When designing these initiatives, it is equally important to incorporate WEPs, as they are specifically focussed on women.

Social implications

Due to their low-level institutional and financial development, it is important that Nigerian banks design their CSR initiatives to improve women empowerment. While initiatives should be targeted at women's well-being and physical health, it is important to steer women towards financial and social independence through loans, grants and mentorship.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors' knowledge, no other research study has examined how banks in an emerging market use their CSR activities to empower women to participate in financial activities.

Details

International Journal of Bank Marketing, vol. 39 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-2323

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Article
Publication date: 9 April 2020

Eliza Sharma

This paper aims to identify the dimensions of the political empowerment of Indian women and assess the factors responsible for the lacunas that hold women back in their potential.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to identify the dimensions of the political empowerment of Indian women and assess the factors responsible for the lacunas that hold women back in their potential.

Design/methodology/approach

The research was based on primary data collected through a personal interview method from a sample of 68 women managers working in five different sectors of the Indian economy, namely; IT, education, telecom, banking, and hospitality sector. Further, data on the five factors from a sample of 423 women employees from the above-mentioned sectors have been collected and analyzed using a multiple regression model with control variables (marital status and generation gap).

Findings

The major factors churned out that are needed for the political empowerment of women are namely, information or awareness, family support or family environment, legal environment, political environment, and personal ambitions or internal motivation.

Originality/value

The present study has presented new insight into the field of women and politics by providing a case study into the dimensions of political empowerment among Indian women. The pilot model developed in this study can be initiated and replicated across the land on being successful.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 40 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Article
Publication date: 27 February 2020

Oluwakemi Adeola Obayelu and Amaka Christiana Chime

The majority of poor women in Africa live in rural areas, and investigating their empowerment status and factors influencing their empowerment is therefore a tool for…

Abstract

Purpose

The majority of poor women in Africa live in rural areas, and investigating their empowerment status and factors influencing their empowerment is therefore a tool for overcoming poverty. This paper investigated the dimensions and determinants of women's empowerment in rural Nigeria.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used data from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS). Information on women's agencies, resource, income, leadership and time/workload was used to construct women empowerment index (WEI). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and logit regression model.

Findings

Most of the decisions were made by the women's spouses, while decisions on how to spend her earnings were jointly made with her spouse. A majority of the women did not justify beating nor owned businesses. A larger percentage of rural women were disempowered than men; agency had the highest relative contribution to women's disempowerment; and women in the northern zones of Nigeria were less empowered than their southern counterparts. Husband's education and her age were inversely related to women's empowerments while her education, household size and being the household head were directly related to it.

Originality/value

There is a dearth of empirical studies on multidimensional women's empowerment in rural Nigeria. This study therefore provides a clear understanding of drivers of women's empowerment in rural Nigeria, and its findings are to serve as guiding documents for policymakers in designing gender-responsive interventions programs and implementation of a genuine gender mainstreaming in rural development policy in Nigeria. Further, the findings would contribute to the growing body of knowledge, especially empirical studies, on women's empowerment in Nigeria and the developing world.

Peer review

The peer review history for this article is available at: https://publons.com/publon/10.1108/IJSE-07-2019-0455

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 47 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2020

Kanwar Hamza Shuja, Muhammad Aqeel and Kainat Raza Khan

Attaining equality between women and men and eliminating all forms of discrimination are fundamental human rights and United Nations values. Nevertheless, women globally…

Abstract

Purpose

Attaining equality between women and men and eliminating all forms of discrimination are fundamental human rights and United Nations values. Nevertheless, women globally suffer violations of their human rights throughout their lives. This necessitates investigation of the attitude that people hold towards women empowerment, which is defined as their ability to practice their rights, freedom and attain resources within a framework of gender inequality. The purpose of this study is to develop an instrument to measure attitudes regarding women’s empowerment, which can develop better understanding and future interventions to counter these negative attitudes for better social and health care, including mental and physical health.

Design/methodology/approach

The factorial structure, reliability, content validity and impact of gender on factor structure of scale were examined among university students (N = 500) in study with male (n = 180) and female (n = 320) population.

Findings

Exploratory factor analysis using direct oblimin method based on principal component analysis indicated a three-factor, 16-item scale including subscales of personal freedom; equal rights and women empowerment-related fears. Instrument exhibited decent reliability (0.80) and content validity in both male and female university students with a t = −7.64, p = 0.00, suggesting a highly significant difference between the two genders on the developed scale.

Research limitations/implications

The major limitation was that the sample was obtained from student population; therefore, it will not be entirely correct to generalize it to the whole population of Pakistan. Similarly, there are issues regarding the availability of students because of a busy schedule or not having interest to take part in the study that led to variance in the sample. Lastly, the current scale is developed based on exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and it should be further enhanced using item response theory in future. Future studies need to include samples from different populations in Pakistan to bring out a more generalized view and try to minimize the variances in sample as much as possible for better results.

Practical implications

The scale is constructed using the basic features of women empowerment at its core and is applicable in various settings to measure the attitude towards women empowerment. It will be a helpful tool to be used in various health, employment and educational settings. Moreover, this instrument can be applied for research purpose of measuring attitude as a predictor in combination with other variables such as domestic violence and harassment.

Social implications

Empowering of women is one of the main agendas of 2019 of United Nations for Asian countries where women are not given equal rights, because of which suffer socially and economically from various problems along with issues regarding physical and mental health. By identifying the attitudes of general population, their causes for their attitudes can help in betterment of the women empowerment process.

Originality/value

This paper in discussion is an original work and has been performed with the purpose of assessing attitudes of males and females regarding women empowerment as the previous measures are either not psychometric valid or are in interview or survey form. The current developed scale is an attempt to develop an instrument that can be globally used.

Details

International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare, vol. 13 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4902

Keywords

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