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Article
Publication date: 6 December 2018

Aziza Sultana Rosy Sarkar and Md Nurul Islam

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the trend of life expectancy in Bangladesh and find the effect of eliminating the causes of diseases on life expectancy statistics.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the trend of life expectancy in Bangladesh and find the effect of eliminating the causes of diseases on life expectancy statistics.

Design/methodology/approach

Data consisted of 1,530 deaths in 2000, 1,582 deaths in 2004 and 1,514 deaths in 2008 that were collected from the Health and Demographic Surveillance System of International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh. Trends in life expectancy after eliminating the cause of diseases were examined by a Single Decrement Life table.

Findings

The expectation of life for both male and female presented differing patterns. Results showed that life expectancies were greatly reduced in the presence of all groups of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in the community, whilst life expectancies were significantly improved if all NCDs within all disease groups were completely eliminated. The life expectancies in the presence of NCDs showed lowest expected years among all the present diseases groups and the life expectancies eliminating NCDs showed highest expected years among all the eliminating diseases groups. The results indicated that 10.99 years of life would be added to life expectancy at birth for the male population and 8.82 years for the female population in 2008 if NCDs were eliminated.

Originality/value

The findings of this study provide useful information which could contribute to a more effective allocation of targeted funding for developing public health programs. Lowering mortality by eliminating major groups of diseases results in higher life expectancy ratings. Specifically, the relative impacts of eliminating cardiovascular diseases and respiratory diseases, as compared with eliminating neoplasms.

Details

Journal of Health Research, vol. 32 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2586-940X

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2015

Christos Kouimtsidis, Daniel Stahl, Robert West and Colin Drummond

The purpose of this paper is to test the discriminative validity of the Substance Use Beliefs Questionnaire (SUBQ) with alcohol dependent users, by assessing if the new…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to test the discriminative validity of the Substance Use Beliefs Questionnaire (SUBQ) with alcohol dependent users, by assessing if the new tool can successfully differentiate between two extreme groups.

Design/methodology/approach

The criterion used to select the two extreme groups was participation or not in treatment for alcohol dependence. Score of the Severity of Alcohol Dependence Questionnaire (SADQ) was used as a secondary confirmation criterion of extreme difference.

Findings

In all, 98 staff and 94 people in treatment for alcohol dependence were recruited. The treatment group scored 30.83 higher than the control on SADQ, 10.76 on positive and 28.98 on negative expectancies. Negative expectancies score had correctly classified 88.5 per cent and positive expectancies score only 66 per cent of the original grouped cases. The area under the Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curve for negative expectancies was 0.94 (very good) with a cut-off point of 43.5 with 89 per cent sensitivity and 92 per cent specificity. The area under the ROC curve for positive expectancies was 0.73 (fair). Due to the shape it was difficult to identify a cut-off point.

Research limitations/implications

The results support the discriminative validity of the negative expectancies sub scale of the SUBQ between two extreme groups. With only the use of negative expectancies score participants could be classified correctly to those of the control and those of the treatment group.

Originality/value

SUBQ is the first tool to measure outcome expectancies across substances, facilitating relevant research with poly substance users. Future research needs to explore the discriminative validity of the tool with the other three substance groups (smokers, stimulant and opioids users), involved in the development and validation of the SUBQ.

Details

Drugs and Alcohol Today, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1745-9265

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Content available
Book part
Publication date: 25 March 2019

Allan Wigfield and Jessica R. Gladstone

We discuss the development of achievement motivation from the perspective of Eccles and colleagues’ expectancy-value theory (EVT), focusing on the importance of children…

Abstract

We discuss the development of achievement motivation from the perspective of Eccles and colleagues’ expectancy-value theory (EVT), focusing on the importance of children developing positive expectancies for success and valuing of achievement to help them cope with change and uncertainty. Although research has shown that, overall, children’s expectancies and values decline, recent studies show many different trajectories in the overall pattern. Children’s expectancies and values predict their school performance and choices of which activities to pursue in and out of school, with these relations getting stronger as children get older. When children’s expectancies and values stay more positive, they can better cope with change and uncertainty, such as the increasing difficulty of many school subjects, or broader changes such as immigrating to a new country. Parents can buffer children’s experiences of change and uncertainty by encouraging them to engage in different activities and by providing them opportunities to do so. Parents’ positive beliefs about their children’s abilities and discussing with them the importance of school can moderate the observed decline in children’s ability beliefs and values. For immigrant and minority children, parents’ emphasis on the importance of school and encouragement of the development of a positive sense of their racial/ethnic identity are critical buffers. Positive teacher–child relations also are a strong buffer, although research indicates that immigrant and minority children often have less positive relations with their teachers. We close with a discussion on recent EVT-based intervention research that shows how children’s beliefs and values for different school subjects can be fostered.

Details

Motivation in Education at a Time of Global Change
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78754-613-4

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Article
Publication date: 12 March 2021

Chenhui Liu, Huigang Liang, Nengmin Wang and Yajiong Xue

Employees’ information security policy (ISP) compliance exerts a significant strain on information security management. Drawing upon the compliance theory and control…

Abstract

Purpose

Employees’ information security policy (ISP) compliance exerts a significant strain on information security management. Drawing upon the compliance theory and control theory, this study attempts to examine the moderating roles of organizational commitment and gender in the relationships between reward/punishment expectancy and employees' ISP compliance.

Design/methodology/approach

Using survey data collected from 310 employees in Chinese organizations that have formally adopted information security policies, the authors applied the partial least square method to test hypotheses.

Findings

Punishment expectancy positively affects ISP compliance, but reward expectancy has no significant impact on ISP compliance. Compared with committed employees, both reward expectancy and punishment expectancy have stronger impacts on low-commitment employees' ISP compliance. As for gender differences, punishment expectancy exerts a stronger effect on females' ISP compliance than it does on males.

Originality/value

By investigating the moderating roles of organizational commitment and gender, this paper offers a deeper understanding of reward and punishment in the context of ISP compliance. The findings reveal that efforts in building organizational commitment will reduce the reliance on reward and punishment, and further controls rather than the carrot and stick should be applied to ensure male employees' ISP compliance.

Details

Information Technology & People, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

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Book part
Publication date: 26 September 2005

David J. Holman, Peter Totterdell and Steven G. Rogelberg

A daily diary study was used to examine the relationships between goal distance, goal velocity, affect, expectancies, and effort from the perspective of Carver and…

Abstract

A daily diary study was used to examine the relationships between goal distance, goal velocity, affect, expectancies, and effort from the perspective of Carver and Scheier's (1998) control theory of self-regulation. Fifteen social workers completed a diary at the end of each working day for four weeks. Multi-level analysis found little support for the precice predictions of Carver and Scheier's theory, but did support the idea that discrepancy reduction plays a role in regulating behavior. Expectancies had a strong association with effort, and affect moderated this relationship. The interaction indicated that high expectancies suppress the signalling effects of affect, preventing the individual from being consumed by immediate reactions to situational events and enabling effort to be sustained.

Details

The Effect of Affect in Organizational Settings
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-234-4

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Book part
Publication date: 10 December 2015

Dekar Urumsah

The concept and practice of e-services has become essential in business transactions. Yet there are still many organizations that have not developed e-services optimally…

Abstract

The concept and practice of e-services has become essential in business transactions. Yet there are still many organizations that have not developed e-services optimally. This is especially relevant in the context of Indonesian Airline companies. Therefore, many airline customers in Indonesia are still in doubt about it, or even do not use it. To fill this gap, this study attempts to develop a model for e-services adoption and empirically examines the factors influencing the airlines customers in Indonesia in using e-services offered by the Indonesian airline companies. Taking six Indonesian airline companies as a case example, the study investigated the antecedents of e-services usage of Indonesian airlines. This study further examined the impacts of motivation on customers in using e-services in the Indonesian context. Another important aim of this study was to investigate how ages, experiences and geographical areas moderate effects of e-services usage.

The study adopts a positivist research paradigm with a two-phase sequential mixed method design involving qualitative and quantitative approaches. An initial research model was first developed based on an extensive literature review, by combining acceptance and use of information technology theories, expectancy theory and the inter-organizational system motivation models. A qualitative field study via semi-structured interviews was then conducted to explore the present state among 15 respondents. The results of the interviews were analysed using content analysis yielding the final model of e-services usage. Eighteen antecedent factors hypotheses and three moderating factors hypotheses and 52-item questionnaire were developed. A focus group discussion of five respondents and a pilot study of 59 respondents resulted in final version of the questionnaire.

In the second phase, the main survey was conducted nationally to collect the research data among Indonesian airline customers who had already used Indonesian airline e-services. A total of 819 valid questionnaires were obtained. The data was then analysed using a partial least square (PLS) based structural equation modelling (SEM) technique to produce the contributions of links in the e-services model (22% of all the variances in e-services usage, 37.8% in intention to use, 46.6% in motivation, 39.2% in outcome expectancy, and 37.7% in effort expectancy). Meanwhile, path coefficients and t-values demonstrated various different influences of antecedent factors towards e-services usage. Additionally, a multi-group analysis based on PLS is employed with mixed results. In the final findings, 14 hypotheses were supported and 7 hypotheses were not supported.

The major findings of this study have confirmed that motivation has the strongest contribution in e-services usage. In addition, motivation affects e-services usage both directly and indirectly through intention-to-use. This study provides contributions to the existing knowledge of e-services models, and practical applications of IT usage. Most importantly, an understanding of antecedents of e-services adoption will provide guidelines for stakeholders in developing better e-services and strategies in order to promote and encourage more customers to use e-services. Finally, the accomplishment of this study can be expanded through possible adaptations in other industries and other geographical contexts.

Details

E-services Adoption: Processes by Firms in Developing Nations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-709-7

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Book part
Publication date: 12 July 2010

Allan Wigfield and Jenna Cambria

Expectancy-value theory is prominent in different areas in psychology, and a number of educational and developmental psychologists who study the development of achievement…

Abstract

Expectancy-value theory is prominent in different areas in psychology, and a number of educational and developmental psychologists who study the development of achievement motivation have utilized this theory in their work (see Schunk, Pintrich, & Meece, 2006; Weiner, 1992; Wigfield & Eccles, 1992; Wigfield, Tonks, & Klauda, 2009 for overviews). In this chapter, we discuss current expectancy-value theoretical models of achievement motivation and review research based on these models. Much of this research has focused on the development of children's expectancies and values, and how expectancies and values relate to performance, choice of different activities, and emotions. We discuss the major findings from each of these areas of research. We also provide suggestions for future research based in this theory for the next decade. We focus our review and suggestions for future research primarily on elementary and secondary school students, but include some relevant work done with college students.

Details

The Decade Ahead: Theoretical Perspectives on Motivation and Achievement
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-111-5

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Article
Publication date: 28 December 2020

Ting Yang, Ivan Ka Wai Lai, Zhao-Bin Fan and Qing-Min Mo

The purpose of this paper is to identify the factors that explain the acceptance of self-service ordering systems (SOSs) for restaurants and to explore the effects of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the factors that explain the acceptance of self-service ordering systems (SOSs) for restaurants and to explore the effects of “self-service system service quality” (SSQ) and “interpersonal service quality” (ISQ) on the acceptance factors extended from the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology model.

Design/methodology/approach

This study targets customers who have recently used SOSs to order foods in middle-class restaurants. In total, 402 valid survey samples were obtained. Partial least squares (PLS) analysis was used to examine the factors of user acceptance of using SOSs.

Findings

The results of the PLS-SEM analysis indicate that SSQ has a significant effect on accuracy expectancy, speed expectancy and effort expectancy; ISQ has a significant effect on accuracy expectancy, speed expectancy, effort expectancy and facilitating conditions; and accuracy expectancy, speed expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence, facilitating conditions and budget expectancy significantly influence user acceptance of SOSs. Furthermore, user experiences moderate the effect of speed expectancy and effort expectancy on user acceptance.

Originality/value

This study introduces three technology acceptance factors (accuracy, speed and budget) for researchers to consider in the future. It also extends the knowledge about the human service factor when middle-class restaurants adopt self-service technologies (SSTs). Recommendations are provided for system developers to improve the system quality of SSTs and service staff to rethink their roles in adopting SSTs in the service industry.

研究目的

本文研究目的有:(1)确认解释客人接受餐厅自助订餐系统(SOSs)的决定因素(2)探索自助系统服务质量(SSQ)和人机服务质量(ISQ)对于UTAUT模型科技接受因素的作用。

研究设计/方法/途径

本论文的目标受众为近期使用过SOSs在中等餐厅点餐过的客人。样本为402份有效问卷数据。本论文使用PLS分析检测用户接受SOSs的各项因素。

研究结果

PLS-SEM分析结果表明, SSQ对准确预期、速度预期、努力预期, 有显著作用; ISQ对于准确预期、速度预期、努力预期、以及辅助条件, 有显著作用; 准确预期、速度预期、努力预期、社会影响、辅助条件、以及预算预期对于SOSs用户接受有显著作用。此外, 用户体验调节速度预期和努力预期对于用户接受的作用。

研究原创性/价值

本论文新增了三种科技接受因子(准确度、速度、和预算), 为未来的科研创造土壤。本论文还扩展了我们对于人员服务因子在中等餐厅采用SSTs的认知。本论文建议系统开发者应该提高SST系统质量, 以及建议服务人员重新审视在服务产业采用SST中自己的位置。

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Article
Publication date: 23 June 2020

Gen-Yih Liao, Tzu-Ling Huang, T.C.E. Cheng and Ching-I Teng

Relational cohesion theory posits that relational cohesion helps build relationships among communication partners, implying that users would expect a growth in relations…

Abstract

Purpose

Relational cohesion theory posits that relational cohesion helps build relationships among communication partners, implying that users would expect a growth in relations or making more friends in the future. However, little is known about expectancy of a better future state of relations, i.e. expectancy of relational growth, and its impact on users' continued engagement in online communication. Our study extends relational cohesion theory to explain how expectancy of relational growth impacts online gamer loyalty.

Design/methodology/approach

We test the framework using structural equation modeling to analyze a large sample of 1,429 responses from online gamers.

Findings

We find that expectancy of relational growth is positively related to norm compliance and relational cohesion, which are further related to network convergence and interdependence, fostering online gamer loyalty.

Originality/value

The findings contribute to relational cohesion theory by identifying novel sources of relational cohesion, i.e. expectancy of relational growth and norm compliance. Hence, game providers should create gamers' expectancy of growth in online relationships. Such expectancy could motivate continued gaming communication, even when gamers are not satisfied with the current state of online relationships. Moreover, we propose the new concept of expectancy of relational growth, which should have a strong impact on online communication in various areas.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 30 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

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Article
Publication date: 13 January 2020

Luisa Helena Pinto, Carlos Cabral-Cardoso and William B. Werther Jr.

Under the framework of the achievement goal and expectancy-value theories, this study aims to examine which motivational goals lead people to self-initiate an…

Abstract

Purpose

Under the framework of the achievement goal and expectancy-value theories, this study aims to examine which motivational goals lead people to self-initiate an international assignment and predict subjective assignment achievements.

Design/methodology/approach

Data was collected from a convenience sample of 141 self-initiated expatriates (SIEs) from multiple locations. The first set of analyses tested the hypothesis that demographics and expectancies of competence in living and working abroad discriminate the individuals who initiate an international assignment for learning goals from the ones who value performance goals. The second set of analyses tested the hypothesis that individual expectancies and goals predict specific subjective assignment achievements and overall success.

Findings

The results show that SIEs who had greater confidence in their ability to live and work abroad were also more likely to move to pursuit performance goals. They also reported greater host adjustment and superior professional accomplishments, but not higher family achievements or success.

Originality/value

In contrast to the dominant descriptive approach to the study of SIEs, this study underpins the adequacy and potential of a motivational approach in predicting SIEs’ behaviors and outcomes. The theoretical and managerial implications for international business and cross-cultural management are further discussed.

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