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Open Access
Article
Publication date: 6 December 2018

Aziza Sultana Rosy Sarkar and Md Nurul Islam

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the trend of life expectancy in Bangladesh and find the effect of eliminating the causes of diseases on life expectancy statistics.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the trend of life expectancy in Bangladesh and find the effect of eliminating the causes of diseases on life expectancy statistics.

Design/methodology/approach

Data consisted of 1,530 deaths in 2000, 1,582 deaths in 2004 and 1,514 deaths in 2008 that were collected from the Health and Demographic Surveillance System of International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh. Trends in life expectancy after eliminating the cause of diseases were examined by a Single Decrement Life table.

Findings

The expectation of life for both male and female presented differing patterns. Results showed that life expectancies were greatly reduced in the presence of all groups of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in the community, whilst life expectancies were significantly improved if all NCDs within all disease groups were completely eliminated. The life expectancies in the presence of NCDs showed lowest expected years among all the present diseases groups and the life expectancies eliminating NCDs showed highest expected years among all the eliminating diseases groups. The results indicated that 10.99 years of life would be added to life expectancy at birth for the male population and 8.82 years for the female population in 2008 if NCDs were eliminated.

Originality/value

The findings of this study provide useful information which could contribute to a more effective allocation of targeted funding for developing public health programs. Lowering mortality by eliminating major groups of diseases results in higher life expectancy ratings. Specifically, the relative impacts of eliminating cardiovascular diseases and respiratory diseases, as compared with eliminating neoplasms.

Details

Journal of Health Research, vol. 32 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2586-940X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2015

Christos Kouimtsidis, Daniel Stahl, Robert West and Colin Drummond

The purpose of this paper is to test the discriminative validity of the Substance Use Beliefs Questionnaire (SUBQ) with alcohol dependent users, by assessing if the new…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to test the discriminative validity of the Substance Use Beliefs Questionnaire (SUBQ) with alcohol dependent users, by assessing if the new tool can successfully differentiate between two extreme groups.

Design/methodology/approach

The criterion used to select the two extreme groups was participation or not in treatment for alcohol dependence. Score of the Severity of Alcohol Dependence Questionnaire (SADQ) was used as a secondary confirmation criterion of extreme difference.

Findings

In all, 98 staff and 94 people in treatment for alcohol dependence were recruited. The treatment group scored 30.83 higher than the control on SADQ, 10.76 on positive and 28.98 on negative expectancies. Negative expectancies score had correctly classified 88.5 per cent and positive expectancies score only 66 per cent of the original grouped cases. The area under the Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curve for negative expectancies was 0.94 (very good) with a cut-off point of 43.5 with 89 per cent sensitivity and 92 per cent specificity. The area under the ROC curve for positive expectancies was 0.73 (fair). Due to the shape it was difficult to identify a cut-off point.

Research limitations/implications

The results support the discriminative validity of the negative expectancies sub scale of the SUBQ between two extreme groups. With only the use of negative expectancies score participants could be classified correctly to those of the control and those of the treatment group.

Originality/value

SUBQ is the first tool to measure outcome expectancies across substances, facilitating relevant research with poly substance users. Future research needs to explore the discriminative validity of the tool with the other three substance groups (smokers, stimulant and opioids users), involved in the development and validation of the SUBQ.

Details

Drugs and Alcohol Today, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1745-9265

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 July 2022

Alhassan Bunyaminu, Ibrahim Mohammed, Ibrahim Nandom Yakubu, Bashiru Shani and Abdul-Lateef Abukari

This study investigates the impact of total health expenditure on life expectancy in a panel of 43 African countries from 2000 to 2018.

Abstract

Purpose

This study investigates the impact of total health expenditure on life expectancy in a panel of 43 African countries from 2000 to 2018.

Design/methodology/approach

The dynamic panel generalized method of moments (GMM) estimation method developed by Arellano and Bond (1991) is used in this study. This approach generates estimates that are heteroskedasticity and autocorrelation consistent, as well as controls for unobserved time-invariant country-specific effects and eliminates any endogeneity in the panel model.

Findings

The results reveal that health expenditure on its own has a positive significant influence on life expectancy. However, health expenditure via the moderating effect of government effectiveness reduces life expectancy. The authors also observe that school enrollment and the level of economic activity significantly drive life expectancy.

Research limitations/implications

The study is limited to 43 out of 54 African countries, and it covers a period of 18 years: 2000 to 2018.

Practical implications

The authors argue that larger health expenditure will aid in improving the life expectancy rate in Africa. However, in practice, this would be difficult given the needs of other priority sectors.

Social implications

Since most developing countries' health expenditures are small, a policy option is that healthcare services should be subsidized such that the poorest people can also access them.

Originality/value

The study differs from the previous attempts, and with this, the authors contribute significantly to the literature. First, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, the authors are unaware of any study considering the role of government effectiveness as a moderating factor in investigating the effect of health expenditure on life expectancy in the African context. Thus, the authors fill a yawning gap in the literature. Second, the authors employ a recent dataset with larger sample size. Finally, to address the problem of endogeneity and simultaneity bias, the authors use the system GMM technique.

Details

International Journal of Health Governance, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-4631

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 25 March 2019

Allan Wigfield and Jessica R. Gladstone

We discuss the development of achievement motivation from the perspective of Eccles and colleagues’ expectancy-value theory (EVT), focusing on the importance of children…

Abstract

We discuss the development of achievement motivation from the perspective of Eccles and colleagues’ expectancy-value theory (EVT), focusing on the importance of children developing positive expectancies for success and valuing of achievement to help them cope with change and uncertainty. Although research has shown that, overall, children’s expectancies and values decline, recent studies show many different trajectories in the overall pattern. Children’s expectancies and values predict their school performance and choices of which activities to pursue in and out of school, with these relations getting stronger as children get older. When children’s expectancies and values stay more positive, they can better cope with change and uncertainty, such as the increasing difficulty of many school subjects, or broader changes such as immigrating to a new country. Parents can buffer children’s experiences of change and uncertainty by encouraging them to engage in different activities and by providing them opportunities to do so. Parents’ positive beliefs about their children’s abilities and discussing with them the importance of school can moderate the observed decline in children’s ability beliefs and values. For immigrant and minority children, parents’ emphasis on the importance of school and encouragement of the development of a positive sense of their racial/ethnic identity are critical buffers. Positive teacher–child relations also are a strong buffer, although research indicates that immigrant and minority children often have less positive relations with their teachers. We close with a discussion on recent EVT-based intervention research that shows how children’s beliefs and values for different school subjects can be fostered.

Details

Motivation in Education at a Time of Global Change
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78754-613-4

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 26 September 2005

David J. Holman, Peter Totterdell and Steven G. Rogelberg

A daily diary study was used to examine the relationships between goal distance, goal velocity, affect, expectancies, and effort from the perspective of Carver and…

Abstract

A daily diary study was used to examine the relationships between goal distance, goal velocity, affect, expectancies, and effort from the perspective of Carver and Scheier's (1998) control theory of self-regulation. Fifteen social workers completed a diary at the end of each working day for four weeks. Multi-level analysis found little support for the precice predictions of Carver and Scheier's theory, but did support the idea that discrepancy reduction plays a role in regulating behavior. Expectancies had a strong association with effort, and affect moderated this relationship. The interaction indicated that high expectancies suppress the signalling effects of affect, preventing the individual from being consumed by immediate reactions to situational events and enabling effort to be sustained.

Details

The Effect of Affect in Organizational Settings
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-234-4

Book part
Publication date: 10 December 2015

Dekar Urumsah

The concept and practice of e-services has become essential in business transactions. Yet there are still many organizations that have not developed e-services optimally…

Abstract

The concept and practice of e-services has become essential in business transactions. Yet there are still many organizations that have not developed e-services optimally. This is especially relevant in the context of Indonesian Airline companies. Therefore, many airline customers in Indonesia are still in doubt about it, or even do not use it. To fill this gap, this study attempts to develop a model for e-services adoption and empirically examines the factors influencing the airlines customers in Indonesia in using e-services offered by the Indonesian airline companies. Taking six Indonesian airline companies as a case example, the study investigated the antecedents of e-services usage of Indonesian airlines. This study further examined the impacts of motivation on customers in using e-services in the Indonesian context. Another important aim of this study was to investigate how ages, experiences and geographical areas moderate effects of e-services usage.

The study adopts a positivist research paradigm with a two-phase sequential mixed method design involving qualitative and quantitative approaches. An initial research model was first developed based on an extensive literature review, by combining acceptance and use of information technology theories, expectancy theory and the inter-organizational system motivation models. A qualitative field study via semi-structured interviews was then conducted to explore the present state among 15 respondents. The results of the interviews were analysed using content analysis yielding the final model of e-services usage. Eighteen antecedent factors hypotheses and three moderating factors hypotheses and 52-item questionnaire were developed. A focus group discussion of five respondents and a pilot study of 59 respondents resulted in final version of the questionnaire.

In the second phase, the main survey was conducted nationally to collect the research data among Indonesian airline customers who had already used Indonesian airline e-services. A total of 819 valid questionnaires were obtained. The data was then analysed using a partial least square (PLS) based structural equation modelling (SEM) technique to produce the contributions of links in the e-services model (22% of all the variances in e-services usage, 37.8% in intention to use, 46.6% in motivation, 39.2% in outcome expectancy, and 37.7% in effort expectancy). Meanwhile, path coefficients and t-values demonstrated various different influences of antecedent factors towards e-services usage. Additionally, a multi-group analysis based on PLS is employed with mixed results. In the final findings, 14 hypotheses were supported and 7 hypotheses were not supported.

The major findings of this study have confirmed that motivation has the strongest contribution in e-services usage. In addition, motivation affects e-services usage both directly and indirectly through intention-to-use. This study provides contributions to the existing knowledge of e-services models, and practical applications of IT usage. Most importantly, an understanding of antecedents of e-services adoption will provide guidelines for stakeholders in developing better e-services and strategies in order to promote and encourage more customers to use e-services. Finally, the accomplishment of this study can be expanded through possible adaptations in other industries and other geographical contexts.

Details

E-services Adoption: Processes by Firms in Developing Nations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-709-7

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 12 July 2010

Allan Wigfield and Jenna Cambria

Expectancy-value theory is prominent in different areas in psychology, and a number of educational and developmental psychologists who study the development of achievement…

Abstract

Expectancy-value theory is prominent in different areas in psychology, and a number of educational and developmental psychologists who study the development of achievement motivation have utilized this theory in their work (see Schunk, Pintrich, & Meece, 2006; Weiner, 1992; Wigfield & Eccles, 1992; Wigfield, Tonks, & Klauda, 2009 for overviews). In this chapter, we discuss current expectancy-value theoretical models of achievement motivation and review research based on these models. Much of this research has focused on the development of children's expectancies and values, and how expectancies and values relate to performance, choice of different activities, and emotions. We discuss the major findings from each of these areas of research. We also provide suggestions for future research based in this theory for the next decade. We focus our review and suggestions for future research primarily on elementary and secondary school students, but include some relevant work done with college students.

Details

The Decade Ahead: Theoretical Perspectives on Motivation and Achievement
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-111-5

Article
Publication date: 31 March 2022

Malik Muneer Abu Afifa, Hien Vo Van and Trang Le Hoang Van

The purpose of this study is to use an extended Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) model to investigate the intention to use blockchain from the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to use an extended Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) model to investigate the intention to use blockchain from the accountant's point of view. The proposed model is expected to provide the necessary incentives for accountants to adopt blockchain. The authors build external constructs based on discussions of blockchain properties for accounting such as accounting information quality, job relevance and trust. In addition, the study also considers computer self-efficacy and compatibility as factors related to practitioners’ blockchain acceptance.

Design/methodology/approach

By using the developed online-questionnaire, the data is collected from the responses of 317 accountants working in listed enterprises in Vietnam. The main analyzes are performed by Smart partial least squares structural equation modeling technique to present both direct and indirect effects on the intention to use blockchain.

Findings

Experimental results provide many interesting and valuable things. First, performance and effort expectancy have a positive influence on intention to use blockchain, while social influence has a lower influence. Second, trust has a direct and positive effect on effort and performance expectancy, as well as intention to use blockchain. Quite surprisingly, accounting information quality has a positive effect on performance expectancy, while job relevance has a negative effect. Fourth, computer self-efficacy and compatibility have a positive effect on effort expectancy. It is more interesting that the intention to use blockchain has nothing to do with compatibility. The results of this study also show that performance and effort expectancy play a mediating role in the indirect effects of trust, computer self-efficacy and compatibility on intention to use blockchain.

Research limitations/implications

The study shows that accountants in Vietnam have a high intention to use blockchain. This implies that the Vietnamese Government and the professional association should design training programs or open training sessions on blockchain. Accountants can clearly understand the importance of blockchain in their work as well as the positive effect of blockchain on performance. They are consulted on how to use blockchain. They also perceive that using blockchain is not too difficult, and the acceptance of this technology will be higher. Additionally, universities should put triple-entry accounting into their teaching, so accounting students can improve their skills and knowledge relevant to blockchain to meet their career needs in the future.

Originality/value

The study proposes an extended UTAUT model with external constructs built on blockchain's effects on accounting. The model makes more sense in promoting the use of blockchain in accounting.

Details

Journal of Financial Reporting and Accounting, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1985-2517

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 April 2022

Ainsworth Anthony Bailey, Carolyn M. Bonifield, Alejandro Arias and Juliana Villegas

Service providers have a vested interest in enhancing adoption of technologies that improve the customer service experience. Buoyed by this idea, this paper aims to…

Abstract

Purpose

Service providers have a vested interest in enhancing adoption of technologies that improve the customer service experience. Buoyed by this idea, this paper aims to explore Latin American consumers’ mobile payment (MP) adoption, conceptualized as bank-sponsored mobile wallets that facilitate payment at the point-of-purchase. This paper applies a revised unified theory of acceptance and use of technology 2 (UTAUT2) model as theoretical framework for this exploration.

Design/methodology/approach

To test the conceptual model of MP adoption in Latin America put forward in this paper, the authors used Colombia as a sample site and conducted two studies among a sample of consumers in this country. Completed questionnaires from 186 participants (Study 1) and 398 participants (Study 2) were used in data analyses, which were conducted using Mplus 8.4 and PROCESS.

Findings

In Study 1, performance expectancy, social influence, bank trust, confidence in MP system and consumer innovativeness all impact consumers’ MP use intention; and use intention impacts MP behavior. In Study 2, involving a wider sample, performance expectancy, effort expectancy, facilitating conditions, perceived quality of the MP system, bank trust, consumer innovativeness, consumer optimism and consumer insecurity all affect MP use intention; and use intention significantly impacts MP behavior. Across both studies, follow-up analysis showed that effort expectancy influences performance expectancy for MP and indirectly influences MP use intention through its impact on performance expectancy. Bank trust also indirectly affects MP use intention through its effects on system confidence. In Study 2, age did not affect MP use intention or MP use; however, education affected MP use.

Research limitations/implications

The theoretical underpinning for the conceptual model was the UTAUT2, and the results across the two studies support previous research in which this revised model has been useful in explaining technology adoption. Core elements of the UTAUT2 such as performance expectancy, effort expectancy, facilitating conditions and social influence had different impact on MP adoption in Latin America, depending on the sample. Technology readiness index motivators and inhibitors also aid understanding of MP adoption.

Practical implications

The research provides insights on the variables that members of the MP ecosystem in Latin America (e.g. banks and other service providers, card issuers) need to address in getting Latin American consumers to use MP.

Originality/value

This research extends the exploration of MP to a region of the world that has not been the focus of prior studies on the adoption of this technology and responds to calls by some researchers to increase research in this region. The conceptual models in the two studies also incorporate trust in the banks that are part of the MP ecosystem in Latin America and consumer overall confidence in this MP ecosystem. The results show that both these factors are influential in Latin American consumers’ adoption of MP. System confidence also mediates the relationship between bank trust and MP use intention.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 March 2022

Stanley Emife Nwani and Japhet Osazefua Imhanzenobe

This study evaluates the impact of carbon emission on life expectancy in Nigeria. The study also investigates the mediating role of agricultural output and foreign direct…

Abstract

Purpose

This study evaluates the impact of carbon emission on life expectancy in Nigeria. The study also investigates the mediating role of agricultural output and foreign direct investment as suggested by the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) and the pollution haven hypothesis (PHH), respectively.

Design/methodology/approach

The hypotheses and theories were tested using structural equation modeling (SEM). Primary data were collected using cross-sectional survey design. Questionnaires were distributed and responses were used to measure the latent variables of the study. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to evaluate the measurement models, while path analysis was used to estimate the coefficients of the structural equations.

Findings

Carbon emission was found to have a negative and significant impact on life expectancy. This impact constituted both direct and indirect effects that were mediated by both foreign direct investment and agricultural output. Carbon emission and agricultural output were found to play significant roles that lead to a further negative- and significant-mediated relationship of carbon emission with life expectancy.

Originality/value

Unlike many previous studies on air pollution, this study investigates carbon emission in particular as well as the mediating role of agricultural output and foreign direct investment in the carbon emission and life expectancy relationship. The use of SEM also fills a methodological gap as it computes coefficients of mediation and controls for measurement bias and multicollinearity.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 33 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

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