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Article
Publication date: 28 June 2013

H.B. Lu, W.M. Huang and Y.T. Yao

The purpose of this paper is to examine the underlying mechanism and physico‐chemical requirements of chemo‐responsive shape change/memory polymers and to explore the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the underlying mechanism and physico‐chemical requirements of chemo‐responsive shape change/memory polymers and to explore the future trend of development and potential applications.

Design/methodology/approach

Working mechanism in chemo‐responsive shape change/memory polymers is firstly identified. And then the physico‐chemical requirements for the representative polymers are characterized.

Findings

The different working mechanisms, fundamentals, physico‐chemical requirements and theoretical origins have been discussed. Current research and development on the fabrication strategies of chemo‐responsive shape change/memory polymers have been summarised. The future trend and potential applications have been explored and estimated.

Research limitations/implications

This review examines physico‐chemical requirements and theoretical origins necessary to achieve chemo‐responsiveness, and then discusses recent developments and future trends.

Practical implications

Shape change/memory polymers can be used in the broad field of bio‐ and/or medicine.

Originality/value

Breakthroughs and rapid development of chemo‐responsive shape change/memory polymers will significantly improve the research and development of smart materials, structures and systems.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 42 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 17 August 2015

Stacey M Baxter, Jasmina Ilicic, Alicia Kulczynski and Tina Lowrey

The purpose of this paper is to investigate children’s perception of a product’s physical attribute (size) when presented with brand elements (brand name and brand logo…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate children’s perception of a product’s physical attribute (size) when presented with brand elements (brand name and brand logo) manipulated using sound and shape symbolism principles (brand name sounds and brand logo shape), across children of different developmental ages.

Design/methodology/approach

The relationship between sounds and shapes was examined in a pilot study. A 2 × 2 experiment was then undertaken to examine the effect of brand name characteristics (front vowel sound versus back vowel sound) and brand logo design (angular versus curved) on children’s (from 5 to 12 years) product-related judgments.

Findings

Older children use non-semantic brand stimuli as a means to infer physical product attributes. Specifically, only older children are able to perceive a product to be smaller (larger) when the product is paired with a brand name containing a front (back) vowel sound or an angular (curved) brand logo (single symbolic cue). We illustrate that brand logo-related shape symbolism effects are weaker and appear later in age when compared with brand name-related sound symbolism effects. Further, younger children are able to infer product attribute meaning when exposed to two symbolic cues (that is, brand name and brand logo).

Practical implications

When selecting an inventive brand element, consideration should be given to the relationship between the vowel sounds contained in a brand’s name and product attributes, and also the shape of the brand’s logo and product attributes.

Originality/value

This is the first experiment undertaken to examine the combination of brand name- and brand logo-related symbolism effects in the context of children. We demonstrate that age-based bounds may be overcome through the provision of multiple symbolic cues.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 24 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 5 June 2017

J.N. Chakraborty, Priyanka Kumari Dhaka, Akshit Vikram Sethi and Md Arif

Shape memory polymers (SMPs) respond with a change in their shape against a specific stimulus by memorizing their original shape and are reformed after deformation most…

Abstract

Purpose

Shape memory polymers (SMPs) respond with a change in their shape against a specific stimulus by memorizing their original shape and are reformed after deformation most often by changing the temperature of the surrounding without additional mechanical efforts. In the coming years, these polymers indeed will be in limelight to manufacture textile materials which will retain their shape even after prolonged use under disturbed conditions. This study aims at defining shape memory materials and polymers as well as their technological characteristics and also highlights application in various fields of textiles.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology used to explain these SMPs have been carried out starting with the discussion on their properties, their physical nature, types, viz., shape memory alloys (SMAs), shape memory ceramics, shape memory hybrid, magnetic shape memory alloy, shape memory composites, shape memory gels and SMP along with properties of each type. Other related details of these polymers, such as their advantages, structure and mechanism, shape memory functionality, thermally responsive SMPs and applications, have been detailed.

Findings

It has been observed that the SMPs are very important in the fields of wet and melt-spun fibers to offer novel and functional properties, cotton and wool fabric finishing, to produce SMP films, foams and laminated textiles, water vapor permeable and breathable SMP films, etc.

Originality/value

The field of SMPs is new, and very limited information is available to enable their smooth production and handling.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

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Article
Publication date: 17 July 2020

Jorge Villacres, David Nobes and Cagri Ayranci

The purpose of this paper is to study the shape memory properties of SMP samples produced through a MEAM process. Fused deposition modeling or, as it will be referred to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the shape memory properties of SMP samples produced through a MEAM process. Fused deposition modeling or, as it will be referred to in this paper, material extrusion additive manufacturing (MEAM) is a technique in which polymeric materials are extruded though a nozzle creating parts via accumulation and joining of different layers. These layers are fused together to build three-dimensional objects. Shape memory polymers (SMP) are stimulus responsive materials, which have the ability to recover their pre-programmed form after being exposed to a large strain. To induce its shape memory recovery movement, an external stimulus such as heat needs to be applied.

Design/methodology/approach

This project investigates and characterizes the influence of print orientation and infill percentage on shape recovery properties. The analyzed shape recovery properties are shape recovery force, shape recovery speed and time elapsed before activation. To determine whether the analyzed factors produce a significant variation on shape recovery properties, t-tests were performed with a 95% confidence factor between each analyzed level.

Findings

Results proved that print angle and infill percentage do have a significant impact on recovery properties of the manufactured specimens.

Originality/value

The manufacturing of SMP objects through a MEAM process has a vast potential for different applications; however, the shape recovery properties of these objects need to be analyzed before any practical use can be developed. These have not been studied as a function of print parameters, which is the focus of this study.

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2015

Kyu-soo Chung, Dong Soo Ryu, B. Christine Green and Hyun Min Kang

This study measures the effect of each of the five senses on arousal, satisfaction and intention to revisit a live racing event. Spectators' arousal was significantly…

Abstract

This study measures the effect of each of the five senses on arousal, satisfaction and intention to revisit a live racing event. Spectators' arousal was significantly influenced by sights, sounds and smells. Spectators' sense of smell, taste, and touch directly impacted satisfaction. Interestingly, olfactory stimuli had an effect on both arousal and satisfaction. Spectators' arousal had a significant indirect effect on their revisit intention. The study proposes that motorsports marketers make use of olfactory stimuli to provide racing spectators with memorable experiences.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 16 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 2 January 2020

John Carrell, Garrett Gruss and Elizabeth Gomez

This paper aims to provide a review of four-dimensional (4D) printing using fused-deposition modeling (FDM). 4D printing is an emerging innovation in (three-dimensional…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to provide a review of four-dimensional (4D) printing using fused-deposition modeling (FDM). 4D printing is an emerging innovation in (three-dimensional) 3D printing that encompasses active materials in the printing process to create not only a 3D object but also a 3D object that can perform an active function. FDM is the most accessible form of 3D printing. By providing a review of 4D printing with FDM, this paper has the potential in educating the many FDM 3D printers in an additional capability with 4D printing.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a review paper. The approach was to search for and review peer-reviewed papers and works concerning 4D printing using FDM. With this discussion of the shape memory effect, shape memory polymers and FDM were also made.

Findings

4D printing has become a burgeoning area in addivitive manufacturing research with many papers being produced within the past 3-5 years. This is especially true for 4D printing using FDM. The key findings from this review show the materials and material composites used for 4D printing with FDM and the limitations with 4D printing with FDM.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations to this paper are with the availability of papers for review. 4D printing is an emerging area of additive manufacturing research. While FDM is a predominant method of 3D printing, it is not a predominant method for 4D printing. This is because of the limitations of FDM, which can only print with thermoplastics. With the popularity of FDM and the emergence of 4D printing, however, this review paper will provide key resources for reference for users that may be interested in 4D printing and have access to a FDM printer.

Practical implications

Practically, FDM is the most popular method for 3D printing. Review of 4D printing using FDM will provide a necessary resource for FDM 3D printing users and researchers with a potential avenue for design, printing, training and actuation of active parts and mechanisms.

Social implications

Continuing with the popularity of FDM among 3D printing methods, a review paper like this can provide an initial and simple step into 4D printing for researchers. From continued research, the potential to engage general audiences becomes more likely, especially a general audience that has FDM printers. An increase in 4D printing could potentially lead to more designs and applications of 4D printed devices in impactful fields, such as biomedical, aerospace and sustainable engineering. Overall, the change and inclusion of technology from 4D printing could have a potential social impact that encourages the design and manufacture of such devices and the treatment of said devices to the public.

Originality/value

There are other 4D printing review papers available, but this paper is the only one that focuses specifically on FDM. Other review papers provide brief commentary on the different processes of 4D printing including FDM. With the specialization of 4D printing using FDM, a more in-depth commentary results in this paper. This will provide many FDM 3D printing users with additional knowledge that can spur more creative research in 4D printing. Further, this paper can provide the impetus for the practical use of 4D printing in more general and educational settings.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 26 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2009

P Standen, F Rees and D Brown

People with intellectual disabilities have difficulty making decisions and this may hinder their independence and inclusion in society. Interactive computer software may…

Abstract

People with intellectual disabilities have difficulty making decisions and this may hinder their independence and inclusion in society. Interactive computer software may give them the opportunity to practice the underlying components of this skill. This study analysed whether repeated sessions playing a computer game involving aspects of decision making, such as collecting relevant information and controlling impulsivity, would improve performance in two non‐computer based tests of decision making. Twelve adults with intellectual disabilities were randomly assigned to either an intervention group or control group. They were all exposed to 10 twice‐weekly sessions, playing either the intervention game or the control game, which involved simple reaction time only. After repeated sessions, the intervention group showed a significant improvement in game score, with researcher assistance significantly decreasing. At follow up, the intervention group showed a significant decrease from baseline in the number of guesses made before guessing correctly on both of the decision‐making tests. The decrease observed in the control group failed to reach significance.

Details

Journal of Assistive Technologies, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-9450

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 12 August 2020

Cristina Carrozza and Rosa Angela Fabio

Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) show reduced attention to social stimuli. The reasons for these impairments are still being debated by researchers. The aim of…

Abstract

Purpose

Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) show reduced attention to social stimuli. The reasons for these impairments are still being debated by researchers. The aim of this study is to analyse if reduced attention towards social stimuli is determined by initial underlying difficulties in the control of visual attention. Among the variables that could produce these difficulties, the authors considered geometric complexity and typology of geometric figures.

Design/methodology/approach

To test this hypothesis, in this paper, an eye-tracker paradigm was used for assessing visual exploration and recognition memory towards geometric figures (curved vs rectilinear) with two levels of geometric complexity (low and high) in 17 children with ASD matched with 17 children with typical development (TD).

Findings

The results showed that the ASD group seemed indifferent to both the geometric complexity and the typology of figures (curved and rectilinear), whereas the TD group showed higher performances with highly complex and curved geometric figures than with low complex and rectilinear geometric figures.

Research limitations/implications

Because of the chosen research approach, the research results may lack generalizability. Therefore, researchers are encouraged to test the proposed hypotheses further.

Practical implications

This paper includes implications upon the presence of an unspecified visual attention deficit that is present from the early stages of the processing of stimuli.

Social implications

The understanding of this deficit from the early stages of the processing of stimuli can help educators to intervene at an early stage when disturbances in social relationships are starting.

Originality/value

This study contributes to understanding the presence of dysfunctional perceptual antecedents that could determine general difficulties in paying attention to social stimuli in ASD subjects.

Details

Advances in Autism, vol. 6 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3868

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Article
Publication date: 31 August 2020

Xiaohong Mo, Enle Sun and Xian Yang

The purpose of this paper is to study online clothing consumers' behaviour and their visual attention mechanism to provide objective and quantitative evidences for the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study online clothing consumers' behaviour and their visual attention mechanism to provide objective and quantitative evidences for the display and sales of online clothing.

Design/methodology/approach

Firstly, this paper conducted a Focus Group Methodology and questionnaire survey to obtain concern factors of online clothing. Secondly, the online clothing's bottom-up visual stimulation and consumer's top-down expectations were analysed, and proposed the hypotheses about significant stimulus of clothing and consumer's emotional experience. Thirdly, the online clothing consumer's visual attention rules and related qualitative results were discussed, and proposed visual attention law for online clothing. Finally, took the company's 84th quarter clothing design practices as research projects, all the hypotheses were demonstrated through eye movement physiology experiments, online clothing trial release and node sales data.

Findings

Online clothing has unique visual display ways compared with other online products such as online advertising, brands and food packaging. Clothing patterns of unfamiliar (fresh) font shapes are more attractive than the patterns of familiar fonts. The cause of the bottom-up visual attention bias is the contrast between clothing features, not the absolute stimulus intensity of the features themselves. Clothing factors can change their emotional experience from no difference to significant difference under the influence of other clothing factors.

Originality/value

Put forward hypotheses of online clothing consumer behaviour and its visual attention mechanism, provided objective and quantitative evidences through eye tracker.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article
Publication date: 2 January 2018

Hongsheng Luo, Xingdong Zhou, Yuncheng Xu, Huaquan Wang, Yongtao Yao, Guobin Yi and Zhifeng Hao

This paper aims to exploit shape-memory polymers as self-healable materials. The underlying mechanism involved the thermal transitions as well as the enrichment of the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to exploit shape-memory polymers as self-healable materials. The underlying mechanism involved the thermal transitions as well as the enrichment of the healing reagents and the closure of the crack surfaces due to shape recovery. The multi-stimuli-triggered shape memory composite was capable of self-healing under not only direct thermal but also electrical stimulations.

Design/methodology/approach

The shape memory epoxy polymer composites comprising the AgNWs and poly (ε-caprolactone) were fabricated by dry transfer process. The morphologies of the composites were investigated by the optical microscope and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The electrical conduction and the Joule heating effect were measured. Furthermore, the healing efficiency under the different stimuli was calculated, whose dependence on the compositions was also discussed.

Findings

The AgNWs network maintained most of the pathways for the electrons transportation after the dry transfer process, leading to a superior conduction and flexibility. Consequently, the composites could trigger the healing within several minutes, as applied with relatively low voltages. It was found that the composites having more the AgNWs content had better electrically triggered performance, while 50 per cent poly (ε-caprolactone) content endowed the materials with max healing efficiency under thermal or electrical stimuli.

Research limitations/implications

The findings may greatly benefit the application of the intelligent polymers in the fields of the multifunctional flexible electronics.

Originality/value

Most studies have by far emphasized on the direct thermal triggered cases. Herein, a novel, flexible and conductive shape memory-based composite, which was capable of self-healing under the thermal or electrical stimulations, has been proposed.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 47 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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